USA Early 19th

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					 The Industrial Revolution
• The shift to factories and machines
• Samuel Slater arrives in Rhode Island
  with plans to build machines from
• Slater seeks Moses Brown to finance his
  plans for machinery
• This results in the building of many
  different types of mills in the country
 Factories = Centers of Industry
• Factory System – using power-driven
  machinery and laborers assigned to different
• Mass Production – the production of goods in
  large quantities
• The combination of these two events creates the
  Industrial Revolution – social and economic
  reorganization that took place as machines
  replaced hand tools and large-scale factory
  production developed
Interchangeable Parts
       • In 1798 Eli Whitney signed a
         contract with the U.S. to
         make 10,000 guns in 2 years
       • Whitney proposed to make
         individual parts of a gun
       • The idea of interchangeable
         parts was born
    The Lowell Experiment
• Boston merchant, Francis Cabot Lowell
  builds a mill with both spinning and
  weaving under the same roof
• This factory was built in Waltham, Mass.
• After his death, the towns name was
  changed to Lowell, Mass.
          “Lowell Girls”
• By 1836, Lowell, Mass. grew to a village
  of 10,000 people
• Mills started to hire young woman who
  were called “Lowell Girls”
• The woman lived in boardinghouses
  with rules to protect them
• Many woman enjoyed the economic
  freedom that came from working in the
    The Election of 1816
• James Monroe (Va., Republican)
  easily defeats Rufus King (N.Y.,
  Federalist) for the Presidency in 1816
• The Federalists have become so weak
  that King only won 3 states
  The Era of Good Feelings
• The Federalist party disappears
  from the political scene after the
  1816 election
• Most former Federalists begin to
  work together with the Republicans
• For a period of more than ten years
  the Republicans are the only
  political party in America
The Election of 1820

      • Political harmony was so
        widespread that no one
        ran against Monroe in
   The Famous Three
• A group of young men who will play
  a prominent role in the U.S. for the
  next 35 years
• Each came from a different section
  of the country
• Also known as “The Great
Henry Clay
     • Republican
     • From Kentucky
     • War Hawk
     • Entered Congress in
     • Impressive orator
     • Represented the West
            John C. Calhoun
•   From South Carolina
•   Entered Congress in 1811
•   Republican
•   Lawyer
•   Persuasive speaker
•   War Hawk
•   Represented the South
           Daniel Webster
•   Federalist
•   From Massachusetts
•   Entered Congress in 1813
•   Lawyer
•   Powerful speaker
•   Represented the
  The American System
• A second economic program that the
  Republicans adopted in 1816
• Henry Clay was very instrumental in
  this important government program
Three Major Foundations of
       the System
• 1. A national bank to provide a
  sound uniform currency
• 2. A protective tariff to help
  American factories grow and
• 3. A transportation system to ease
  trade between the 3 sections of the
   The   2nd   Bank of the U.S.
• In 1811 the charter for the first U.S.
  bank expired
• Between 1811 and 1816 the number
  of state banks nearly tripled
• Many of these state banks were
  poorly regulated and issued
  worthless money
• In 1816 Congress grants a charter
  for the 2nd National Bank
 The Protective Tariff of 1816
• After the War of 1812 British
  manufactures looked to drive
  Americans out of business
• Americans demanded to be protected by
  a tariff to drive out foreign competition
• In 1816 the Republicans passed a
  protective tariff
       The National Road
• Construction began in 1811 on the
  Cumberland (National) Road
• The road started in Cumberland, Md.,
  and ended in Vandalia, IL
• Congress abandoned further internal
• The National Road still exists today
        Cotton is King
• The South depends heavily on the
  production of raw cotton fiber
• Many southerners become rich from
  this business
• They also grow the following crops:
• Corn
• Sugar cane
• Tobacco
  The Problem of Cotton
• Cotton production was slow in the early
• This threatened the South’s economy
• The heart of a cotton plant is called a boll
• Raw cotton fiber had to be separated
  from the seeds by hand before it could be
• This was a very slow process when done
  by hand
          The Cotton Gin
• In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to
  speed up the production of cotton
• Slaves who worked a full day could only
  separate 2 pounds of cotton a day
• The cotton gin could separate 1000 pounds of
  cotton a day
• By 1860 the South was producing 2/3rds of the
  worlds cotton

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