DISEASES by jennyyingdi

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									Communicable
Disease

      Mr. Surdy
    8 East Health
    Objectives

   Describe the cause of infectious diseases.
   Identify the way in which diseases are spread.
   Identify the stages of infectious disease and the factors involved in treatment and
    prevention.
   Define sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s).
   Know how STD’s are spread from one person to another.
   Identify the signs, symptoms, and treatments of STD’s.
   Describe the symptoms, mode of transmission, testing. And treatment of HIV
    infections and AIDS.
   Identify behaviors that put a person at risk for contracting HIV and behaviors that
    can help to prevent the spread of HIV.
     Preventing the Spread of
     Communicable Diseases
 Disease- an illness that affects the proper
 functioning of the body or mind
 Non-Communicable Diseases- not spread
 through contact
   Causes   of Non-Communicable Disease:
      How People Live (Lifestyle
       Choices)
      Conditions People are Born With

       (Heredity, Birth Defects)
      Environmental Hazards
 Communicable Diseases- diseases that can
 be passed from one person to another
   Causes   of Communicable Diseases:
      Germs- a microbe (pathogen) that
       is harmful to humans.
      Infection- When germs grow,

       reproduce, and often produce
       poisonous waste products resulting
       in an infection.
   Preventing the Spread of
   Communicable Diseases
 Types of Germs (Pathogens):


   Bacteria – tiny one-celled organisms that
    grow virtually everywhere, can be
    harmless or harmful, there are 3 types:
    cocci, bacilli, and spirilla
Preventing the Spread of
Communicable Diseases
   Viruses-  smallest and simplest forms of
   life, are very specialized, can only grow
   and reproduce in living things

   Rickettsias-small bacteria that are
   spread by the bites of insects, such as
   ticks and lice
Preventing the Spread of
Communicable Diseases
     Fungi- are simple life forms that are unable
      to make their own food, grow best in warm,
      dark, moist areas (ring worm, athletes foot)

     Protozoa- simple animal like organisms,
      have the ability to move through fluids in
      search of food (Malaria)
Preventing the
Spread of Diseases
 How are Germs Spread?
   Close Contact with a person who has the
    germ.
   Direct contact with a person who has the
    germ
   Contact with animals
   Other contacts (drink or eat foods that
    contain germs)
Preventing the
Spread of Diseases
 How can you prevent the Spread of
 Disease?
   Practice Good Health Habits
   Practice good Health Behaviors to
    Protect Yourself Practice Good
    Health Habits to Protect Others
   The Body’s Defense Against
   Germs
 First line of defense


    Tears-  wash germs away from eyes,
     contain chemicals that can kill some
     germs
    Skin- if the skin is unbroken it acts
     as a barrier that germs cannot
     penetrate
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

   Mucous   Membranes- secrete
    mucous that traps germs
   Saliva- washes germs from your
    teeth and helps keep the mouth
    clean, contains chemicals that kill
    germs
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

   GastricJuice- destroys germs that
   enter the stomach through food
   and drink
The Body’s Defense Against
Germs
 Main Line of Defense- The Immune
 System takes over when germs get
 past the 1st Line of Defense
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

   Non   specific Response
     Phagocytes released by
      nearby blood vessels, they
      engulf germs and destroy
      them
     Fever kills germs that cannot

      survive body temp higher than
      usual
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

   Specific   Immunity
       Often gives the body the ability
        to remember how to destroy
        the same germ if it invades
        again. The next time the body
        can respond quickly to kill the
        germ so you don’t get sick.
The Body’s Defense Against
Germs
 The   Lymphatic System
     A secondary circulatory system
      of vessels and nodes that carry
      a fluid called lymph
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

     Helps maintain balance of fluid
      in the body
     Lymph nodes are small lumps

      of lymphatic tissue located
      throughout the system that act
      as filters to keep germs from
      invading body tissues
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

       Specific Immunity carried out
        in 2 types of lymphocytes
         Lymphocytes- special white
           blood cells that circulate in
           the lymph
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

       B-cells- produce substances that
        fight germs, B-cells release
        antibodies (proteins that attach
        to germs or to the toxins germs
        produce, thus preventing the
        germ or toxin from harming your
        body)
       T-cells- attack germs directly and
        stimulate B-cells to work
  The Body’s Defense Against
  Germs
 You can become immune to a disease by
  having that disease.
 Anti-biotics
The Body’s Defense Against Germs

 Immunity and Vaccines
   Vaccine- a preparation of dead or
   weakened germs that is injected
   into the body to cause the immune
   system to produce antibodies
  Common
  Communicable Diseases
 The Common Cold
     most common communicable disease, caused by
      viruses
 Influenza
     characterized by exhaustion, chills, headache,
      body ache, respiratory problems, and fever.
Common
Communicable Diseases
 Hepatitis
     viral disease of the liver characterized by
      yellowing of the skin and the whites of the
      eyes. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B
 Mononucleosis
     A viral disease that attacks the lymph nodes in
      the neck and throat, most common in teens
      and young adults.

								
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