Communicable Disease Mr. Surdy 8 East Health Objectives Describe the cause of infectious diseases. Identify the way in which diseases are spread. Identify the stages of infectious disease and the factors involved in treatment and prevention. Define sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s). Know how STD’s are spread from one person to another. Identify the signs, symptoms, and treatments of STD’s. Describe the symptoms, mode of transmission, testing. And treatment of HIV infections and AIDS. Identify behaviors that put a person at risk for contracting HIV and behaviors that can help to prevent the spread of HIV. Preventing the Spread of Communicable Diseases Disease- an illness that affects the proper functioning of the body or mind Non-Communicable Diseases- not spread through contact Causes of Non-Communicable Disease: How People Live (Lifestyle Choices) Conditions People are Born With (Heredity, Birth Defects) Environmental Hazards Communicable Diseases- diseases that can be passed from one person to another Causes of Communicable Diseases: Germs- a microbe (pathogen) that is harmful to humans. Infection- When germs grow, reproduce, and often produce poisonous waste products resulting in an infection. Preventing the Spread of Communicable Diseases Types of Germs (Pathogens): Bacteria – tiny one-celled organisms that grow virtually everywhere, can be harmless or harmful, there are 3 types: cocci, bacilli, and spirilla Preventing the Spread of Communicable Diseases Viruses- smallest and simplest forms of life, are very specialized, can only grow and reproduce in living things Rickettsias-small bacteria that are spread by the bites of insects, such as ticks and lice Preventing the Spread of Communicable Diseases Fungi- are simple life forms that are unable to make their own food, grow best in warm, dark, moist areas (ring worm, athletes foot) Protozoa- simple animal like organisms, have the ability to move through fluids in search of food (Malaria) Preventing the Spread of Diseases How are Germs Spread? Close Contact with a person who has the germ. Direct contact with a person who has the germ Contact with animals Other contacts (drink or eat foods that contain germs) Preventing the Spread of Diseases How can you prevent the Spread of Disease? Practice Good Health Habits Practice good Health Behaviors to Protect Yourself Practice Good Health Habits to Protect Others The Body’s Defense Against Germs First line of defense Tears- wash germs away from eyes, contain chemicals that can kill some germs Skin- if the skin is unbroken it acts as a barrier that germs cannot penetrate The Body’s Defense Against Germs Mucous Membranes- secrete mucous that traps germs Saliva- washes germs from your teeth and helps keep the mouth clean, contains chemicals that kill germs The Body’s Defense Against Germs GastricJuice- destroys germs that enter the stomach through food and drink The Body’s Defense Against Germs Main Line of Defense- The Immune System takes over when germs get past the 1st Line of Defense The Body’s Defense Against Germs Non specific Response Phagocytes released by nearby blood vessels, they engulf germs and destroy them Fever kills germs that cannot survive body temp higher than usual The Body’s Defense Against Germs Specific Immunity Often gives the body the ability to remember how to destroy the same germ if it invades again. The next time the body can respond quickly to kill the germ so you don’t get sick. The Body’s Defense Against Germs The Lymphatic System A secondary circulatory system of vessels and nodes that carry a fluid called lymph The Body’s Defense Against Germs Helps maintain balance of fluid in the body Lymph nodes are small lumps of lymphatic tissue located throughout the system that act as filters to keep germs from invading body tissues The Body’s Defense Against Germs Specific Immunity carried out in 2 types of lymphocytes Lymphocytes- special white blood cells that circulate in the lymph The Body’s Defense Against Germs B-cells- produce substances that fight germs, B-cells release antibodies (proteins that attach to germs or to the toxins germs produce, thus preventing the germ or toxin from harming your body) T-cells- attack germs directly and stimulate B-cells to work The Body’s Defense Against Germs You can become immune to a disease by having that disease. Anti-biotics The Body’s Defense Against Germs Immunity and Vaccines Vaccine- a preparation of dead or weakened germs that is injected into the body to cause the immune system to produce antibodies Common Communicable Diseases The Common Cold most common communicable disease, caused by viruses Influenza characterized by exhaustion, chills, headache, body ache, respiratory problems, and fever. Common Communicable Diseases Hepatitis viral disease of the liver characterized by yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Mononucleosis A viral disease that attacks the lymph nodes in the neck and throat, most common in teens and young adults.
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