HISTORY REVISION ASSIGNMENT CLASS -X CHAPTER – NATIONALISM IN INDIA Important development during and after First World War, which created a new economic political situation in the resurgence of nationalism in India As soon as the World War I started, India was declared as a participant of the war and Indian Resources were used freely, therefore, World war I created a new economic and political situation for India. INCREASED DEFENCE EXPENDITURE World War I led to increase in defence expenditure which was financed by- a) War Loans b) Increasing taxes – (i) Customs duties were raised - (ii) income tax was introduced. INCREASE IN PRICE Through the war years (1914-18), prices increased – doubled between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people. FORCED RECRUITMENT Villages were to supply soldiers, and this forced recruitment caused widespread anger Military conscription became compulsory for young men. POST – WAR PERIOD In 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food. An influenza epidemic broke out during the same time Census of 1921 stated that 12-13 million had perished as a result of famines and epidemics. Gandhi’s arrival in India and Impact Gandhi came back from S. Africa to India in 1915. A new method of mass agitation called Satyagraha introduced to the Indian people Satyagraha means emphasis on the power of truth and non-violence Role of a satyagrahi – A satyagrahi need not use force to fight his oppressor. He should not be revengeful or aggressive. He could win the battle through non-violence. He should appeal to the conscience of the oppressor and make him realise the truth Satyagraha’s organized by Gandhi After arriving in India Mahatma Gandhi organized satyagraha in Champaran (Bihar) in 1916 against the oppressive plantation system Kheda(Gujarat) in 1917 in support of the peasants who were unable to pay revenue and to relax revenue collection. In 1918 he went to Ahmedabad (Gujarat) to organize movement amongst cotton mill workers. SOURCE A, Pg. 55 Q. 1 Explain the meaning of the term ‘Satyagraha’. Ans. In Hindi ‘Satya’ means truth and ‘agraha’ means to abide. 1. Satyagraha means fighting for the sake of truth using non-violence/ahimsa. 2. It is pure soul- force. 3. It can be advocated by appealing to the conscience of oppressor. 4. If the cause is true, then no physical agitation or vengeance is required for winning the battle. Q. 2 Why does Gandhiji say that ‘passive resistance’ / satyagraha is not the weapon of the weak but of strong? Ans. Passive resistance/satyagraha is not the weapon of the weak. It is the power which is the subject of this article. 1. Satyagraha is the weapon of the strong and calls for intense activity. 2. Physical force is the weapon of the weak since it is the easiest and represents animal behaviour. 3. On the other hand moral force can only be used by strong willed people. 4. Moral force / satyagraha can change the mindset of people and can only be advocated by the strong. Q.3 Why according to Gandhiji’s India cannot rival Britain/Europe in force of arms? Ans. Gandhiji said that India could not rival Britain / Europe because: 1. In India, people believed in non-violence. 2. British had been conquering countries by force as they had the required resources. 3. India, on the other hand can not resist with ammunition as it would be costly, 4. Indians did not have the required resources and Indians had no resistance in bearing injuries. Rowlatt Act Gave the govt powers to suppress political activities and detain political prisoners without trial for 2 years. This act was passed by the imperial legislative council despite opposition by the Indian members. Gandhi started the Rowlatt Act Satyagraha on 6th April. This all India satyagnaha was suppressed by the British administration. Martial law was imposed in Amritsar by General Dyer. On 13th April Jalianwallan Bagh Incident took place. Humiliation and repression of the people continued. Suppresion of Rowlatt Satyagraha The news of the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh brought angry crowds to the streets in North India There were strikes, clashes with police and attack on government buildings. The news of the massacre at Jallianwala Bagh brought angry crowds to the streets in North India. There were strikes, clashes with police and attack on government buildings. The government tried to stop the crowd with brutal measures. Indians were humiliated and terrorized. Satyagrahi’s were forced to rub their noses on ground, crawl on streets, do salaam to the britishers. People were beaten and villages were bombed GandhiJi was very upset seeing this violence; therefore he called off the Rowlatt Satyagraha. Khilafat Movement In order to bring Hindus and Muslims closer, Gandhi took up the Khilafat issue and made it a part of the national struggle because he felt there was a need to launch a more broad based movement, this could not be possible without hindu-muslim unity. Khilafat Issue After the end of the First World War, a harsh peace treaty was forced on Turkey because it was defeated. Turkey was the seat of the Khalifa who was the spiritual head of the Islamic World. The muslims were very upset with the treaty because it would lead to division of Turkey and destroy the authority of Khalifa. To defend the temporal powers of the Khalifa, the Ali Brothers formed the Khilafat Committee. KHILAFAT / NON COOPERATION MOVEMENT Launched in 1920 Non-cooperation Programme was adopted at the Nagpur session in Dec 1920.Many social groups participated but each one understood Swaraj in a different way. Non Cooperation Movement The aims of Non-cooperation movement were: 1.To protest against the Punjab wrong i.e. the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre. 2.To protest against the Khilafat wrong i.e. injustice to the caliphs of ottoman empire. 3.To attain Swaraj within one year. , Gandhi started the Non Cooperation movement & proposed that the movement should unfold in stages:- .FIRST STAGE:- The movement should begin with the surrender of titles tht the government awarded. .SECOND STAGE: There would be a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods. .THIRD STAGE:- In case the government used repressions a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched. Mahatma Gandhi and Shaukat Ali mobilized support for the movement in the summer of 1920. Many leaders within the Congress were not interested in starting the Non- Cooperation Movement: They were reluctant to boycott the council elections scheduled for November1920. They feared the movement might lead to popular violence. Thus, between September and December, there was no internal trouble between the congress. Finally, in the congress session at Nagpur in December, 1920, a compromise wasworked out and the Non-Cooperation movement was adopted. Movement in towns The movement spread to towns and cities and the middle class participated in large numbers using methods like boycotts of schools, colleges, law courts, picketing foreign goods shops etc. The middle class participation in towns and cities started the movement. 1.PARTICIPATION BY STUDENTS & OTHER PROFESSIONALS: a. Thousands of students left Govt. controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices. 2.PARTICIPATION BY POLITICIANS: The council elections were boycotted in most provinces except madras, where the justice Party, the party of the non Brahmans felt that the entering the council was one way of going power. 3.PARTICIPATION BY TRADERS: a. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloths burnt in huge bonfires. b. In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. c. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922, its value dropping from Rs. 102 Crore to Rs. 57 Crore. Movements slowed down in towns and cities Over a period of time, the movement gradually slowed down in towns for various reasons – Khadi cloth was more expensive than the British mill cloth, poor people could not afford to buy it. The boycott of british institutions let to a problem because alternative Indian institutions were slow to come up. Effect of Non Cooperation on the economy Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed foreign cloth was burnt in bon fire. Import of foreign cloth dropped to half. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods. People started throwing away imported clothes, wore Indian clothes Indian textile mills and handlooms boosted. Swaraj(Non Cooperation Movement) in the country side In Awadh the peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra The peasants led the movement against the Talukdars and Landlords Peasants were forced to pay very high rents and many other taxes Peasants had to do ‘Begar’-Work at the landlord’s farm without any payments Peasants had no security of tenure - they were regularly forced to leave the land they tilled so that they could not get any rights over it. The measures adopted by peasants to protest against the zamindars / talukdars were: Nai-Dhobi Bandh In many places the panchayats organized these bandhs to deprive the landlord of the services of barbers and washermen OUDH KISAN SABHA In june 1920, J.L. Nehru began going around the villages in Awadh, talking to the villagers, By October, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by J.L. Nehru, Baba Ramachandra and a few others. VIOLENCE As the movement spread in 1921,the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over. NO TAX MOVEMENT In many places local leaders told peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor. This was not true. Congress was unhappy with the Awadh peasant movements since it was a Non- Gandhian movement,the leaders used the name of Mahatma to spread their ideas-This angered the congress. . SOURCE – B Pg-59 a.Which aspect of the peasant movement greatly inspired J.L. Nehru. b.How did the British control the peasant movement of Awadh. The aspect of the peasant movement that greatly inspired J.L. Nehru were: The peasants behaved as brave men calm and unruffled in the force of danger. They were peaceful and with all humility used non-violence. The British controlled the peasant movement of Awadh by: The British officials fired on people and used violence against them. They did not allow political leaders to meet the peasants. The British used repression and violence against a non-violent crowd. Swaraj(Non Cooperation Movement) in the tribal areas – Gudem Hills Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of swaraj in yet another way. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, for instance, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s. People were not allowed to enter the forests to graze their cattle,or to collect fuelwood and fruits. The hill people very angry as their livelihood was affected and their traditional rights were being denied. The government began forcing them to contribute begar for road building The Leader of the tribals Alluri Sitaram Raju was their leader. He claimed to have a variety of special powers He could make correct astrological predictions and heal people He could survive even bullet shots. Raju was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement, and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking. He asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, not non- violence. Swaraj in the plantations The plantation workers understood Swaraj in their own way. In Assam, the plantation workers thought they would have the right to move freely in and out of the tea gardens without permissions. They thought they could retain a link with their villages. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone will be given land in their own villages. The inland emigration Act of 1859.- plantation workers violate it: Under the inland emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission, and in fact they were rarely given such permission. The workers violated the ACT by: When they heard of the Non-cooperation movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village. TOWARDS CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 1920s: Reason for withdrawl of Non Cooperation Movement Gandhi ji decided to withdraw non-cooperation movement in February 1922 as he felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they could be ready for mass struggles. Swaraj Party C.R Das and Moti Lal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the congress to argue for a return to council politics These leaders wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils as they felt it was important to oppose British policies with in the councils. They argued for reform and alsowanted to show that the councils were not truly democratic. Factors that shaped Indian politics towards the late 1920s Effect of the world wide economic depression resulted in fall of agriculture prices. Peasants found it extremely difficult to sell their harvest and pay their revenue The demand for agriculture goods fell and exports declined.The country side was in a turmoil The Simon commission was sent by the new Tory govt. in Britain To look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. As there were no Indian members in the commission, it was boycotted by the Indians with slogans of ‘Go back Simon’ when it arrived in India in 1928. All parties participated in demonstrations and rallies. Lahore session of Congress 1929 In December 1929, under the Presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, The congress session was held in Lahore. It demanded for ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence for India. It was declared that 26th January 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence SOURCE – C Pg-63 Q.When was the Purna Swaraj resolution passed and where? Name the leader who was the President of the Congress? On which day, was the pledge of Independence taken? I) The Purna Swaraj resolution was passed in December, 1920 at the Lahore session of the Congress. ii) Jawahar Lal Nehru was the President of the Congress. iii) On 26 January 1930, the pledge of Independence was taken. Q. Why did the people of India demand complete independence from the British? Which were the rights denied to the Indian people by the British? People of India demanded complete independence from the British’s because :- 1 People of India were deprived of many rights under the British Rule like the following:- a. Right to Freedom. b Right to enjoy fruits of their toil c. Right to necessities of life. d. Right to full opportunities of growth.. e. Right to abolish the government. f. Right not to be exploited. 2. British exploited India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. Therefore, the people of India decided not to have any connections whatsoever with the British. Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement Mahatma Gandhi started his famous salt march from Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal town of Dandi to abolish the salt tax. He found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation . Salt was something consumed by both rich and poor alike. It was an essential item of food. The salt tax also revealed the most oppressive face of British rule as the government had monopolized its production & distribution. Abolishing of salt tax would affect all classes within Indian society and would bring them together in a united campaign. On his way to Dandi wherever Gandhiji stopped he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British. This brought more and more people into the movement for non-payment of salt tax. When Ghandhiji reached Dandi on 6th April 1930 he ceremonially violated the law by manufacturing salt by boiling seawater. It was illegal for anyone to make salt, as it was a government monopoly. By defying the government he wanted to highlight that the British government was illegitimate in the eyes of the Indians. Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke the salt law. Hence ,salt march was an effective symbol of resistance to colonialism. Spread of Civil Disobedience Movement Gradually the movement spread to different parts of the country. Foreign clothes were boycotted and liquor shops picketed. Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. Village officials resigned and people often violate forest laws. Govt began arresting congress leaders. Violent clashes took place in many areas-in Sholapur industrial workers attacked police posts,law courts,municipal buildings etc. Many were killed in Peshawar when Abdul Gaffar Khan known as Frontier Gandhi was arrested in April 1930. Gandhi- Irwin Pact Mahatma Gandhi entered into a pact with Irwin on 5th march 1931. Gandhi agreed to participate in the 2nd Round Table Conference. The govt agreed to release the political prisoners. M.K. Gandhi called off the movement and went to attend the Conference. The Conference failed and Gandhiji returned disappointed. He again re-launched the civil disobedience movement. PARTICIPATION OF PEOPLE IN CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT The participation of the rich peasant communities in the countryside in the Civil Disobedience movement. The rich peasant community like the Patidars of Gujrat and the Jats of UP were active in the movement. They were hard hit by the great depression and falling prices and found it impossible to pay the revenue debt because their cash income had disappeared. The govt. refused to reduce the revenue demand. This led to widespread resentment and the rich peasants became supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement They organized their communities to participate in the boycott programme. Swaraj for them was a struggle against high revenues. In 1931, the Civil Disobedience Movement was temporarily suspended without revenue rates being revised which disappointed the rich peasant communities. Thus many refused to participate in the movement when it was restarted in 1932. The relationship between the poor peasants and congress The poor peasants were not just interested in lowering of the revenue demands. They were mostly small tenants who were cultivating land taken on rent from landlords. Due to economic depression they found it extremely difficult to pay their rent as their cash incomes were unpredictable. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord be cancelled. The Congress was unwilling to support ‘No Rent’ campaigns in most places because they thought that it might upset the rich peasants and landlords. The business classes and the Civil Disobedience Movement The business classes wanted protection against import of foreign goods. They also wanted a rupee – sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports. To organize that business interest, they formed the India industrial & commercial congress in 1920 and the federation of Indian Chamber of commerce and industries (FICCI) in 1927. They were led by prominent industrialists like Purushottam Das, Thakurdas and G.D.Birla. The industrialists supported the civil disobedience movement when it was first launched. They gave financial assistance & refused to buy or sell imported goods. For the businessmen Swaraj meant a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without restrictions. The business groups no longer uniformly enthusiastic about Civil Disobedience Movement after the failure of the 2nd Round Table Conference Business Groups were not uniformly enthusiastic after the failure of the 2nd Round Table Conference They were worried that their business would suffer due to the spread of militant activities as well as due to the growing influence of socialism amongst the younger members of the congress. The congress reluctant to include workers demand Congress was reluctant to include workers demand as parts of its programme of struggle. It felt this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces. The industrial working classes did not participate in large numbers in the civil disobedience movement The industrialists came closes to the congress and thus the workers stayed aloof. However, workers participated in the Nagpur region. Some workers did participate in the civil disobedience movement by adopting some of the ideas like: o Gandhian programme like boycott of foreign goods, as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions. o Strikes by railway workers in 1930 and dock workers in 1932. o In 1930 thousands of workers in Chota Nagpur tin mines wore Gandhi Caps and participated in protests - rallies and boycott campaigns. Women participation in the civil disobedience movement Moved by Gandhiji’s call service to the nation was looked upon as a sacred duty of women. Women participated in large nos. in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jails. In the cities the women were mainly from the high caste families & in the villages from the rich peasant households. THE LIMITS OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE Dalits-who were they The nations ‘untouchables’ called themselves dalit or oppressed from around the 1930’s. The different names given to the untouchables: by Gandhi was- Harijans & by Ambedkar – Dalits. Gandhiji tried to eliminate untouchability Gandiji declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchablitity was not eliminated. Gandhiji tried to eliminate untouchability by : Calling the ‘untouchables’ harijan, or children oF God. Organizing Satyagraha to secure them only into temples, and across to public wells, tanks, roads and schools. Cleaning toilets himself to dignify the work of the sweepers. Persuading the upper castes to change their heart and give up ‘ the sin of untouchability’ The Dalit leaders tried to solve the problems of the community Dalit leaders began organizing themselves by demanding: Reserved seats in educational institutions A separate electorates that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. Political empowerment, they believed, would solve the problems of their social disabilities. The Dalit participation in the civil disobedience movement limited The dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience movement was limited to Maharashtra and Nagpur religion where their organisation was strong. The congress had ignored the dalits for fear of offending the Satnamis, the conservative high caste Hindus. Leader of the Dalits Dr. BR Ambedkar organized the Dalits into the Depressed classes Association in 1930. Clash between Gandhi and Dr. BR Ambedkar Dr B R Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for Dalits at the 2nd Round Table Conference Gandhiji was very upset with Ambedkar and began a fast unto death. Gandhi believed that separate electorates for the Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into the society. The Poona Pact of September 1932 Poona Pact of September 1932 took place when Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position. It gave the depressed classes (Later be known as scheduled castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils, but they were to be voted in by the general electorate. Some Muslim political organizations in India were lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience movement Some Muslim political organizations were lukewarm in their response to civil disobedience movement because: After the decline of the non cooperation movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress.hence could not respond to the call for a united struggle. From the Mid- 1920’s, the congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu- religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha The relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened. Each community organized religious processions provoking Hindu-Muslim clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities. The Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha could not come to a compromise at the all parties Conference as Mr. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha, strongly opposed efforts for a compromise There was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between the two communities when the civil disobedience movement started. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslim as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.. Jinnah willing to give up the demand for separate electorates – Why Jinnah, one of the leaders of the Muslim League was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates: If Muslims were assured reserved seats in the central assembly and representation proportion to population in the Muslim- dominated provinces(Bengal and Punjab) But in 1928, M.R. Jayakar strongly opposed this compromise at the All parties conference. THE SENSE OF COLLECTIVE BELONGING There were various cultural processes which played an important part in the making of nationalism.History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints & symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism. Bharat Mata – Rise of Nationalism The identity of India came to be closely associated with the image of Bharat Mata It was in the twentieth century, with the growth of nationalism that the identity if India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. The image of Bharat mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chatophadhyay. Bharat Mata was portrayed as an ascetic figure, calm, composed, divine and spiritual Devotion to the mother figure was seen as evidence of one’s nationalism. Revival of Indian Folklore In late nineteenth century India, nationalists began recording folklores sung by bards and began touring villages to gather folk songs and legends. These tales gave a true picture of traditional culture that had been corrupted and damaged by outside forces. It was essential to preserve this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past. In Bengal, Rabindranatha Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths and led the movement for folk revival. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four volume collection of Tamil Folklores. Folklores was the most trust worthy manifestation of people’s real thoughts and characteristics. The tricolour flag – rise of nationalism A tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed during the Swadeshi movement in Bengal. It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Swaraj flag Gandhiji designed the swaraj flag in 1921. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self help. Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance. Reinterpretation of History of India The British highlighted India’s past as backward and primitive. The Indian writers re-interpreted and wrote about India’s great achievements. The nationalist historians urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievement in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British Rule. SOURCE E.Pg-72 Q. Who were the soldiers who had come from a tiny island faraway? Ans. Britishers. Q. What did the foreign travellers in India marvel at? Ans.In earlier times, foreign travelers in India marveled at the courage, truthfulness and modesty of the people of the Arya Vamsa. Q.What have been the reasons for degeneration? Ans.The absence of the qualities of courage, truthfulness and modesty has led to moral degeneration. Economic exploitation and hoarding bounties by foreigners has led to political and economic degeneration Assignment Answer the following Questions based on chp.-Nationalism in India 1.List the economic and political problems that World War I created for India. 2.What do you understand by Satyagraha? Give egs. of early Satyagrahas organized by Gandhiji. 3. Describe the immediate aftermath of the Jalianwalla Bagh massacre. 4. What was the Khilafat issue? 5.What were the aims of Non-cooperation movement? Describe the stages in which the Non-Cooperation Movement unfolded? 6. Why were many leaders within the Congress not interested in starting the Non Cooperation Movement?. 7. How did the middle class take part in the Non-Cooperation Movement? 8. Why did the Non-cooperation movement slow down in the cities? 9. What were grievances of peasants of Awadh? 10.What measures were adopted by peasants to protest against the zamindars/talukdars 11.Who was Baba Ramchandra? What were his contributions to the Awadh peasant movement? 12 Why and by whom was the Awadh Kisan Sabha formed? 13. Why was the congress unhappy with the Awadh peasant movement? 14. What were the problems faced by the forest people of Andhra Pradesh? 15. Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Why is he considered an interesting figure? 16. How was Raju inspired by Gandhi? What ways did he differ from him? 17. How did plantation workers of Assam interpret Swaraj? 18. Explain inland emigration Act of 1859. How did plantation workers violate it? 19. When and why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement? 20. Who formed the Swaraj Party and with what aim? 21. Give two factors that shaped Indian politics in the late 1920’s 22. Why was Simon Commission appointed? Why and how Indians opposed it? 23. What was the significance of Lahore Session of Congress? 24. How did different sections of people interpret Swaraj during Non-Cooperation Movement? Explain with 2 examples. 25. What were the different names given to the untouchabilites by Ambedkar and Gandhi? 26. What was the attitude of Gandhi towards the untouchables 27. What were the decisions made in the Poona Pact? Why did Gandhiji go on to fast unto death before the pact? 28. Why did the Dalits not participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? 29.Why did the Muslim political organization show lukewarm response to Civil Disobedience Movement? 30. Trace the emergence of idea of Bharat Mata which symbolizes the identity of Indian nation during independence. 31 What is the role played by folktales and folklores in spreading the idea of nationalism? 32.Trace the emergence of national flag. How did it unify and inspire the people with nationalism? 33. In what ways did reinterpretation of History instill a sense of national pride in people?