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Understanding the Bilingual Education Controversy

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Understanding the Bilingual Education Controversy Powered By Docstoc
					The Language Acquisition
        Process

         Important Concepts

•Competence and performance
   –Competence: underlying knowledge of the
   system of a language;
   –Performance: actual production of
   language
Important Concepts In Language
Development


   •Innateness
       –Humans are born with the innate capacity
       to acquire language;
       –LAD –language acquisition device is
       innate;
       –UG—universal grammar are properties
       common to all languages of the world; UG
       allows humans to learn any language they
       are exposed to.
Important Concepts In Language
Development


   •Systematicy and variability
      –Human beings are “bio-programmed” to
      acquire language in a step-by-step --
      systematic way, i.e. certain properties of
      language are released at certain
      developmental ages;
      –There is a remarkable amount of
      variability amidst this systematicity.
Important Concepts In Language
Development

   •Imitation
        –Imitation is important in the acquisition of
        language, especially phonology;
        –At early stages children manifest ‘surface
        imitation’ --no meaning is attached to it;
        –At early states children are considered ‘poor
        imitators’ --they are more concerned with
        meaning.
   •Practice
        –It seems that practice is an important key to
        acquisition --to the formation of linguistic
        habits.
Important Concepts In Language
Development


   •Input
       –Input and environment are important in
       language acquisition;
       –Overall, children ignore language
       correctness; however, they have an innate
       capacity to infer correct forms and they
       eventually transfer correct forms to their
       speech repertoire offered in meaningful
       contexts.
Important Concepts In Language
Development


   •Interaction with the environment
        –Children have an innate capacity to
        acquire the language they are exposed to.
        –However, mere exposure is not sufficient;
        interaction with adults and older peers is
        the key to acquisition.
Important Concepts In Language
Development


   •Language and Cognition/Thought Relationship
       –Language enhances and refines
       intellectual development;
       –Language is necessary for higher abstract
       reasoning;
       –Language enables the child to think faster
       and more efficiently.
     Stages in Language
         Acquisition


•Infancy: Pre-speech
     –Crying
     –Cooing
     –Babbling
     –Holophrastic stage
Stages in Language
Acquisition


   •Infancy: Pre-speech
        –Crying: begins at birth --attention, need,
        comfort
        –Cooing: end of 1 month; uses organs of
        articulation --liprounding, sounds produced
        at back of mouth

       All babies no matter the language they are exposed
                    to go through these stages
Stages in Language
Acquisition


   •Infancy: Pre-speech
        –Babbling: begins at 5th-6th month; use of
        consonant-vowel combinations [ba]/[ga];
        language serves to fulfill needs; language
        development is accompanied by gestures,
        pointing, reaching, touching—process of
        acquaintance with the world.

          The distinctive pitch features of the native language
         shows at this stage (intonation patterns are language
                                 specific)
Stages in Language
Acquisition


   •Holophrastic stage:
       –Babbling: begins at 1 year old; use of
       one-word utterances [milk] displaying a
       range of communicative functions;
       language is context-bound—entirely link to
       action.

        Children in bilingual homes advanced through the
       same stages of language as children in monolingual
                               homes
Stages in Language
Acquisition


    •Toddler to Preschool
        –Telegraphic speech
        –Print awareness
        –Sociolinguistic awareness
        –Linguistic awareness


        –This is a stage of incredible linguistic acquisition
        and cognitive development and knowledge about
        the social functions of language.
Stages in Language
Acquisition


    •Toddler to Preschool
        –Telegraphic speech stage: 18 mo- 2
        years old; production of telegraphic
        speech-- abbreviated utterances -two-
        word sentences; echoing, imitation,
        practice, lots of input and a great deal of
        language acquisition quickly. Children
        begin to experiment reading; writing is a
        symbolic representation of objects;
        beginning of the scribble stage
Stages in Language
Acquisition


    •Toddler to Preschool
        –Print awareness: children develop an
        understanding that print communicates.

         Bilingual children adhere to the grammar of both
           languages, particularly in homes where both
                languages are used spontaneously
Stages in Language
Acquisition


    Pre-school to school age: 3-6 years of
    age

    •Development of writing
       –Reading and writing have common
       developmental origins and occur
       simultaneously; writing seems to develop first;
       –Writing development is ruled-governed and
       systematic;
       –Oral and written aspects of language develop
       in a parallel way;
Stages in Development of Writing


    •Development of writing cont..
        –Initially children interpret letters as being a
        direct representation of object; letters have
        the form of objects;
        –Letters become recognized as being
        arbitrary symbols, organized in a linear
        fashion;
        –3-5 years old children develop awareness
        that writing communicates language;
Stages in Development of Writing



    •Development of writing
       –Content of writing develops from speech;
       –Reading and writing are related—one
       enhances the other;
       –Extensive reading makes writing more
       sophisticated;
       –Children invent speech in much the same
       way as they invent speech.
Stages in Development of Writing



    Scribbling stages:
       –Pre-communicative: scribbling
       conveys no message;
       –Sense of story: able to tell story.
       –Integrate scribbling with letters

				
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