Uses of the
Volitive and Optative
Also known as the Hortatory or Jussive
For exhortations, commands, orders
Similar to the imperative (para! parate!)
The command is not as strong in the
Translation: Imperative or you should or let
Ad urbem ambulatis (indicative)
Ad urbem ambulate! (imperative)
Ad urbem ambuletis (subjunctive)
1st and 3rd persons:
Ne + subjunctive
Ne librum paret
Let him not prepare his book
He should not prepare his book.
Noli or Nolite + infinitive
Expresses a wish
Usually with the word Utinam = if only
Subjunctive translated as may . . .
In the negative:
Utinam ne . . .
Ne . . .
Utinam ne pauper sim
Ne ad insulam navigent.