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Uses of the Subjunctive Volitive and Optative Volitive Subjunctive Also known as the Hortatory or Jussive Subjunctive For exhortations, commands, orders Similar to the imperative (para! parate!) The command is not as strong in the Volitive Subjunctive Translation: Imperative or you should or let ... Examples Ad urbem ambulatis (indicative) Ad urbem ambulate! (imperative) Ad urbem ambuletis (subjunctive) Volitive Subjunctive Negative 1st and 3rd persons: Ne + subjunctive Ne librum paret Let him not prepare his book He should not prepare his book. 2nd persons Noli or Nolite + infinitive Optative Subjunctive Expresses a wish Usually with the word Utinam = if only Subjunctive translated as may . . . In the negative: Utinam ne . . . Ne . . . Examples Utinam ne pauper sim Ne ad insulam navigent.
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