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COMMONWEALTH of THE BAHAMAS

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					     Country Profile




COMMONWEALTH of THE
     BAHAMAS
BAHAMAS (BS)




Fig. 1. The Bahamas’s Flag.




Fig. 2. Map of the Bahamas 1.




Fig. 3. Map of the Bahamas’ EEZ2.

Geographic Coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W 1
Terrestrial extent: 10,070 km2 1
Coastline: 3,542 km 1
EEZ area: 654,715 km2 2
Shelf area: 106,323 km² 2
Marine Fisheries Landings (production in tons):
Other countries operating in this EEZ: There are periodically arrests of foreign fishing
vessels in Bahamian waters. From 1997 to 1998, there were nine arrests, most were from


1
    CIA World Factbook
2
    Sea Around Us Project website http://www.seaaroundus.org


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the Dominican Republic, but sometimes others are from Cuba, Honduras, and the US
(Anon., 1998).
Government agency for marine fisheries:
Government agency for the protection of marine environment:
Population: 303,770 (July 2006 est.) 1
Description: In 1492, Christopher Columbus first arrived in the Bahamas and the
Lucayan Indians inhabited the islands. In 1647, British settlement of the islands began
the islands became a colony in 1783. The Bahamas obtained independence from the UK
in 1973 and the nation has prospered due to tourism and international banking ever since.
The Bahamas are members of Caricom and FAO.

The Fisheries of the Bahamas

Overview
The fishing industry is extremely important to the Bahamas. In 1995, fisheries
contributed 2.25% to the GDP, making it economically more important than agriculture,
banking, and insurance (Anon., 1998). Most of the fisheries exports go to the US, and in
1997 these exports were valued at B$62.7 million.

In 1991, 52% of the total weight and 83% of the total value of the recorded commercial
landings were spiny lobster (Villegas, 1992). Now, 95% of fishermen are believed to
target spiny lobsters (Gittens, 2004). Other important commercial fisheries include conch
(11% of the weight landed in the same period), groupers (13%), and snappers (9%).
Jacks, grunts, and sponges are targeted less often by the commercial fisheries. The sport
fisheries tend to target medium and large migratory pelagic fish such as dolphin,
barracuda, wahoo, and blue marlin.

1.   What fisheries exist in this territory and what are the target species?

There are three main commercial fisheries in the Bahamas: spiny lobsters, queen conch,
and scalefish (Appendix 1).

Spiny Lobster: The Bahamian spiny lobster fishery is the fourth largest in the world
(Anon., 1998). In 1997, the fishery produced 5.7 million pounds of frozen tails, which
was between 6,450 to 7,700 tons live weight. In 2002, the most recent fishing mortality
rates available indicated that the stock was close to being fully exploited (Gittens and
Braynen, 2002). The stock biomass abundance also showed a declining trend.

Queen Conch: In the Exuma Cays, the shallow water conch populations are heavily
overfished (Gascoigne, 2002). The deep water populations are also reaching the point of
overfishing. In 1997, conch landings were 1.43 million pounds (Anon., 1998). Since
queen conch is listed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
Flora and Fauna (CITES) as a species at risk of overexploitation, the Bahamas has an
export quota of 450,000 pounds meat weight. Thus of the 1.43 million pounds landed in
1997, only 360,000 of those pounds were exported.




                                            3
Scalefish: Scalefish includes mainly reef associated fin fish species such as grouper,
snapper, jacks, grunts, hogfish, triggerfish, and other species (Anon., 1998). Surveys at
Long Island suggest that the known grouper spawning aggregations around the Bahamas
have collapsed or are near collapse (Gascoigne, 2002). The High Cay spawning
aggregation also seems to be in decline. The effects of fishing, especially of Nassau
grouper, are also obvious from comparisons between inside and outside the Exuma Cays
Land and Sea Park.

2.   What are the specific vessel and gear types used in each fishery?

In 1992, the Bahamas had a fleet of 305 boats that ranged in length from 20 to 90ft (6-
27m) (Villegas, 1992). In 1995, it was estimated that there were 4,000 small boats and
vessels in addition to the registered boats that were 11 to 100ft (Gittens, 2004).
Furthermore, approximately 9,300 people are employed full-time as fishermen and
12,000 fishermen are employed part-time (Anon., 1998). Many of the fishermen use
hand lines and fish traps as their main types of fishing gear.

Spiny lobster are harvested by spear, lobster hook, compressors, lobster traps, and casitas
(Gittens, 2004). A casita is made of a sheet of zinc placed on concrete blocks or wood.
Lobsters are attracted to casitas because they create a safe place to live. A license is
required to use compressors and lobster traps. Many small vessels that fish for lobster
work with a large vessel that acts as the base of operations. This way the small boats can
stay at sea for up to four weeks at a time. Almost all lobster landings are just the tails,
thus the head and legs are being wasted.

Conchs are collected mainly by hand harvest, both hookah and free diving (Gittens,
2004). A few fishermen use a conch staff, which is a pole that can be up to 9m long with
two prongs at the end, to capture conch.

3.   Where and when are the specific gear types deployed for each of these fisheries
     (seasonality, trip duration, etc)?

Many of the commercial fishing operations fish inside the 200 mile zone that is reserved
for Bahamians (Appendix 2) (Villegas, 1992). In particular, the main fishing areas for
the licensed commercial fishing vessels landing at Nassau are Berry Island and South
Andros, where more than half of the recorded effort exerted takes place. Sport fishermen
tend to prefer locations like Cat Cay, Abaco, and Berry Islands. Most of the crayfish
(spiny lobster) are landed in Abaco, Nassau, and Eleuthera.

4.   What species of marine mammals, sea turtles, and sea birds occur and maybe at
     risk for capture or interaction with fisheries?

Marine Mammals:

The Bahamas’ marine mammal survey began in 1991 (Balcomb and Claridge, 1997).
Since then, there have been over 200 encounters with fourteen species of dolphins and



                                             4
whales. The survey has also collected 700 sightings reports from other boaters, which
raises the total number of species encountered to seventeen. In 1997 alone, there were
reports of twelve different species (Appendix 3).

According to the Sea Around Us website, there are thirty species of marine mammals that
can be encountered in the Bahamas (Appendix 3).

No information was found regarding the bycatch of marine mammals.

Sea Turtles:

Five species of sea turtle are found in Bahamian waters, which are green (Chelonia
mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), leatherback
(Dermochelys coriacea), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olicacea) (Anon., 2006).

No information was found regarding the bycatch of sea turtles.

Seabirds:

Many different species of seabirds can be found in the Bahamas, particularly on San
Salvador Island (Hayes, 2005). Species include Audubon’s shearwater, white-tailed
tropicbird, magnificent fridatebird, brown booby, red-footed booby, double-crested
cormorant, laughing gull, brown noddy, gull-billed tern, royal tern, roseate tern, bridled
tern, sooty tern, and least tern.

No information could be found regarding seabird bycatch in the Bahamas.

5.   What collection methods (observer programs, etc.) exist for gathering fishing
     effort and bycatch data for each fishery?

In 1992, the Bahamas began administering a fisheries survey (Villegas, 1992).
Information concerning fishing sites, vessels, gear, units, fishermen, and landings are
recorded. In addition, information is being collected using a fisheries census regarding
sport fishing boats, aquaculture, fish processing plants, and buying stations.

The Department of Fisheries collects landings data indirectly through purchases by
licensed fish buyers and processors, who submit monthly purchase reports (Anon., 1998).

Two data collectors are responsible for collecting landings data for conch and lobster by
interviewing fishermen and inspecting their catch (Gittens, 2004). This data is limited
because there are multiple landing sites on several different islands and only two data
collectors.




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6.   What policy/regulatory framework exists to guide fisheries or bycatch
     management?

Maritime Boundaries/EEZ Delimitation Agreements:

There is disagreement between the Bahamas and the United States on the alignment of
the maritime boundary (CIA World Factbook).

Regional Agreements:

The Cartagena Convention has not been signed or ratified by the Bahamas (Anon., 2003).

Multi-lateral Treaties/Agreements of Relevance:

UNCLOS: The Bahamas is involved in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. The
Bahamas signed on 29 July 1983 (Anon., 2003).

UN Fish Stocks Agreement: The Bahamas signed the UN Fish Stocks Agreement on
January 16, 1997 (Mahon, 2003).

FAO Code of Conduct: The Bahamas is involved in the FAO Code of Conduct (Mahon,
2003).

CITES: The Bahamas is a contracting member to the Convention on International Trade
in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (Anon., 2003).

CBD: The Bahamas is a contracting member to the Convention on Biological Diversity
(Anon., 2003).

CMS: The Bahamas is not involved in the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
Species of Wild Animals (Anon., 2003).

MARPOL: The Bahamas has accepted four annexes to the International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (Anon., 2003).

IAC: The Bahamas is not involved in the Inter American Convention (Anon., 2001).

IWC: The Bahamas is not a member of the International Whaling Commission (Anon. 2,
2006).

For a list of all environment-related treaties and conventions to which the Bahamas is a
member, see Appendix 4.




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7.   Are there other individuals in relevant government agencies or non-government
     organizations that may be able to assist us with information on bycatch?

       No information found.

8.   What documents (journal articles, grey literature, agency reports) describe
     fisheries and bycatch in this area?

Literature Cited:
Anon. (1998). “Fisheries management action plan for the Bahamas.” The Bahamas Reef
       Environment Educational Foundation and Macalister Elliott and Partners Ltd.
       Accessed: 24 August 2006. <http://www.breef.org/fisheries.pdf>

Anon. (2001). “Newsletter.” Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire. Accessed: 16 August
       2006. <http://www.bonairenet.com/turtle/newsaug2001/page2.htm>

Anon. (2003). “Convention and Protocols Status Page.” Caribbean Environment
       Programme. Accessed: 10 August 2006.
       <http://www.cep.unep.org/law/cartstatus.html>

Anon. (2006). “Turtles.” Ardastra. Accessed: 31 August 2006.
       <http://www.ardastra.com/turtleinfo.html#bahamas>

Anon. 2. (2006). “International convention for the regulation of whaling.” International
       Whaling Commission. Accessed: 16 August 2006.
       <http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission/convention.htm#convsigs>

Balcomb, K. and D. Claridge. (1997). “Ground truth research report: Bahamas marine
      mammal survey.” Abaco Bahamas. Accessed: 29 August 2006.
      <http://oii.net/ecology/eng/dolphin.html>

Gascoigne, J. (2002). “Nassau grouper and queen conch in the Bahamas: status and
      management options.” The Bahamas Reef Environment Educational Foundation.
      Accessed: 24 August 2006. <http://www.breef.org/grouperfull.pdf>

Gittens, L. (2004). “National Report – The Bahamas.” CRFM Fishery Report. 11: 159 –
       65.

Gittens, L. and M. T. Braynen. (2002). “Report on the spiny lobster fisheries of the
       Bahamas.” FAO. Accessed: 24 August 2006.
       <http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/Y4931B/y4931b06.htm#bm06>

Hayes, W. (2005). “Research on behavioral ecology and conservation of Bahamians
       seabirds.” Loma Linda University. Accessed: 5 September 2006.
       <http://www.llu.edu/llu/grad/natsci/hayes/research-i-bahama-seabirds.html>




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Mahon, R. (2003). “International arrangements and agreements.” FAO. Accessed: 10
      August 2006. <http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5308e/y5308e0g.htm>

Villegas, Luis. (1992). “Description of the fisheries survey in the Bahamas.” FAO.
       Accessed: 23 August 2006.
       <http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC412E/AC412E00.htm>




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Appendix 1. Fisheries and associated gear types. “I “ denotes industrial, “A” for artisanal fisheries and X undetermined.

                                        Gillnets /                                                                  Falling                    Hand
                    Longline                              Trawls                 Seine nets             Traps                 Hook & line
                                     entangling nets                                                                 gear                     Harvest
 Fishery by                                                                                                                                    (free
                                                                                                                                      Hand
   Target                                                                                                                                      dive,
                                                       Mid-             Boat /                               Fyke    Cast               or
               Pelagic   Demersal   Drift   Anchored           Bottom              Beach      Purse   Pots                    Troll           scuba,
                                                       Water            Circle                               nets    nets             pole
                                                                                                                                              or wire
                                                                                                                                       line
                                                                                                                                               loop)
   Ocean
  Pelagics
  Coastal
                                     A                                               A
  Pelagics
 Demersal /
Groundfish /
                                                                                                       A                       A       A
Deep Slope /
   spp.
  Shallow-
  shelf reef
     fish

   Sharks

  Crustacea
  (shrimp)
  Crustacea
  (lobster,                                                                                            A                                        A
    crab)
Cephalopods
  (squid)

 Sea Turtles

   Marine
  Mammals




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Appendix 2. Fishing effort by gear
           Gear type                       Longline                 Gillnet             Trawl
        Artisanal / Industrial                             Artisanal

           Target species                                  Coastal Pelagics

            Vessel type

  Vessel Classification / Category
         (country specific)

         Vessel length (m)                                 < 6.1m

         Number of vessels

           Engine type
        Avg. Horsepower
       Gear Used (materials)
          How gear deployed
   (including demersal / pelagic,
   set / drift, mid-water / bottom)
             Crew Size

 Where gear deployed / area fished

     Fishing seasons (months)
  Avg. trip duration (hours /days)
 Total days fished per month / year
  Number of fishing trips per year

                                                                                 Net mesh size(s):
                                                                                 Foot rope length &
                                                                                 diameter
        Gear/vessel effort            Hook size/type:      Net mesh size:        Head rope length:
     (gear & trip information)        Number of hooks:     Net length & width:   Horizontal opening
                                                                                 width (m):
                                                                                 Tow (trawl) or haul
                                                                                 (seine) speed:

  Number of sets / hauls / soaks /
    tows per day and per trip
    Duration / Number of hours
         per set / soak / tow
  Total number of hours towed per
                  trip




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Appendix 3 . Marine mammal species sighted in Bahamian waters in 1997 (Balcomb and
Claridge, 1997).
                       Common Name                        Scientific Name
                  Atlantic bottlenose dolphin             Tursiops truncatus
                    Atlantic spotted dolphin               Stenella frontalis
                  Pan-tropical spotted dolphin            Stenella attenuata
                        Striped dolphin                 Stenella coeruleoalba
                        Fraser's dolphin                 Lagenodelphis hosei
                        Risso's dolphin                    Grampus griseus
                     Melon-headed whale                Peponocephala electra
                     Dense-beaked whale                Mesoplodon densirostris
                    Cuvier's beaked whale                 Ziphius cavirostris
                      Dwarf sperm whale                       Kogia sima
                         Sperm whale                       Physeter catodon
                     West Indian manatee                 Trichechus manatus

Potential marine mammals that inhabit Bahamian waters (Sea Around Us).
                     Common Name                           Scientific Name
                    Dwarf minke whale                  Balaenoptera acutorostrata
                         Sei whale                       Balaenoptera borealis
                       Brydes whale                       Balaenoptera brydei
                         Blue whale                      Balaenoptera musculus
                         Fin whale                       Balaenoptera physalus
               Short beaked common dolphin                  Delphinus delphis
                 North Atlantic right whale                Eubalaena glacialis
                    Pygmy killer whale                      Feresa attenuata
                  Short-finned pilot whale            Globicephala macrorhynchus
                       Rissos dolphin                       Grampus griseus
                          Gray seal                        Halichoerus grypus
                    Pygmy sperm whale                        Kogia breviceps
                    Dwarf sperm whale                          Kogia simus
                      Frasers dolphin                     Lagenodelphis hosei
                     Humpback whale                     Megaptera novaeangliae
                 Blainvilles beaked whale               Mesoplodon densirostris
                   Gervais beaked whale                  Mesoplodon europaeus
                    Trues beaked whale                     Mesoplodon mirus
                        Killer whale                          Orcinus orca
                   Melon-headed whale                    Peponocephala electra
                        Sperm whale                     Physeter macrocephalus
                     False killer whale                   Pseudorca crassidens
                Pantropical spotted dolphin                 Stenella attenuata
                                                 11
                    Clymene dolphin                             Stenella clymene
                     Striped dolphin                         Stenella coeruleoalba
                 Atlantic spotted dolphin                       Stenella frontalis
                     Spinner dolphin                          Stenella longirostris
                 Rough-toothed dolphin                         Steno bredanensis
                   Bottlenose dolphin                          Tursiops truncatus
                  Cuviers beaked whale                         Ziphius cavirostris



Appendix 4 2 Environment-related Treaties and Conventions to which the Bahamas is a
Member (Sea Around Us).

                          Short Title                            Long Title
                          CARICOM                          Caribbean Community
                                                          Convention on Biological
                             CBD
                                                                  Diversity
                                                         Convention on International
                            CITES                      Trade in Endangered Species of
                                                            Wild Fauna and Flora
                                                       Convention on the International
                       IMO Convention
                                                            Maritime Organization
                                                       International Convention for the
                       MARPOL 73/78                      Prevention of Pollution from
                                                                     Ships
                                                       Conservation and Management
                 Stradd. /Highly Migr. Fish St.
                                                        of Straddling Fish Stocks and
                             Agr.
                                                         Highly Migratory Fish Stocks
                                                        United Nations Convention on
                           UNCLOS
                                                             the Law of the Sea
                                                       Western Central Atlantic Fishery
                          WECAFC
                                                                Commission




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