CRCT Review Earth Science

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					CRCT Review Earth Science
  Chapter 9        CRCT Preparation

1. A student models a volcanic eruption by using a
syringe to inject blue colored water through a dome
shaped gelatin mold. What is one of this model’s most
significant limitations?
A Gelatin is clear, whereas actual volcanoes are opaque.
B Gelatin does not accurately simulate the materials of
which actual volcanoes are made.
C Actual volcanoes have red lava, not blue.
D Actual volcanoes erupt with more force than a syringe.
  Chapter 9         CRCT Preparation

2. When a volcanic explosion fills the atmosphere with a
large amount of volcanic ash, which of the following is a
likely result?
A The average global temperature will decrease.
B The average duration of a day will become shorter.
C Ocean tide levels will be affected.
D Only the area near the volcano will be affected.
  Chapter 9        CRCT Preparation

Use the illustration to answer question 3.

3. What is the term for the area
to which the arrow is pointing?
A lava
B crater
C vent
D magma chamber
  Chapter 9         CRCT Preparation

4. Which of the following situations represents the
greatest amount of potential energy?
A A large bolder is blown into the air by an explosive
B Low viscosity lava flows quickly downhill.
C A huge boulder is perched atop a cliff and is on the
verge of falling 1000 m to the ground below.
D A tree that was blown over by a powerful eruption lies
flat on the ground.
  Chapter 9         CRCT Preparation

5. A model of a volcano that uses vinegar and baking
soda is limited because
A the eruption is unpredictable.
B baking soda is white, while lava is red.
C real volcanoes are much larger than the model.
D most volcanoes are extinct.
  Chapter 9         CRCT Preparation

6. In which of the following situations would there be the
greatest amount of kinetic energy?
A just prior to eruption, when incredible pressure has
built up inside a volcano
B during an explosive eruption in which pyroclastic
material is blown high into the atmosphere
C just after an explosive eruption, when most of the
debris has settled back to the ground.
D long after a shield volcano has moved from a “hot
  Chapter 9        CRCT Preparation

Use the table to answer question 7.

7. According to the data collected above, which type of
magma is least likely to cause an explosive eruption?
A felsic magma             C mafic
B intermediate magma       D ultramafic
    Chapter 9        CRCT Preparation

8. One of the active volcanoes on the island of Hawaii is
named Kilauea. If Kilauea is a shield volcano, which of
the following is a valid conclusion?
A Kilauea formed from repeated eruptions of low viscosity
lava that have spread over a wide area.
B Kilauea formed from repeated moderately explosive
eruptions of pyroclastic material.
C Kilauea is primarily made up of alternating layers of lava
and pyroclastic material.
D Kilauea has formed a cinder cone through repeated
eruptions of high viscosity lava.
    Chapter 9         CRCT Preparation

9. A large volcanic eruption covers nearby farmland in
several meters of ash. Which is a true statement about
the ash in the immediate future?
A The ash will be an effective plant fertilizer and will result
in record crop yields.
B The ash will smother the crops, possibly leading to food
shortages in the immediate area.
C The ash will be a nuisance, but it can easily be removed
from the area.
D The ash may cause thunderstorms.
   Chapter 9        CRCT Preparation

10. Georgia has no volcanoes. Yet, Georgia’s climate can
still be affected by volcanoes. How?
   Chapter 9      CRCT Preparation

11. How does magma form at a convergent boundary?
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

12. Water chemically breaks down rock because
A water expands when it freezes.
B acids in the water react with chemicals in the rock.
C materials dissolved in the water are deposited.
D water is not affected by wind.
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

13. The component of soil that is made up of organic
material is called
A abrasion.
B humus.
C bedrock.
D leaching.
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

14. Which of the following areas would experience the
most weathering?
A an area with high winds, significant rain, hot summers,
and freezing winters
B an area with heavy rains, constant temperatures, and
gentle winds
C an area with constant heat, minimal rain, and high
D all areas are subject to the same amounts of
  Chapter 10         CRCT Preparation

15. The dissolving of rock by acids that occur naturally in
A is known as acid precipitation.
B is known as oxidation.
C is known as chemical weathering.
D causes most of the mechanical weathering of rocks.
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

16. Which of the following statements describes how a
rock changes after it is in a riverbed for a long time?
A The rock rapidly breaks into smaller pieces.
B Chunks of the rock break off, and the rock becomes
C The edges of the rock are worn away, so its surface
becomes smoother.
D The rock absorbs water from the riverbed and becomes
 Chapter 10       CRCT Preparation

Use the picture to answer question 17.
17. The picture shows the
process of mechanical
weathering that can cause cracks
in rocks in Georgia’s northern
mountains to widen. What is this
process called ?
A abrasion
B dissolution
C ice wedging
D oxidation
  Chapter 10         CRCT Preparation

18. Why does air chemically weather rock?
A The air molecules are abrasive.
B Air fills cracks in the rock and later expands, causing
the cracks to enlarge.
C The oxygen in the air combines with elements in the
rock in a process called oxidation.
D The rock wears away after wind blows sand against
the rock.
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

19. Which of the following is an everyday example of a
chemical phenomenon?
A Fast moving river water rushes over rocks.
B Organic acids produced by lichens break down rock.
C Rocks tumble down a mountain during a rockslide.
D Ice forms in a crack in a rock and makes the crack
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

20. Which human activities can help prevent soil erosion?
A planting cover crops and employing contour plowing
B strip mining and deforestation
C building cities and highways
D growing crops and burning fossil fuels
  Chapter 10         CRCT Preparation

21. Naomi made the pie graph during a
laboratory experiment in which she
analyzed the composition of loam found in
Georgia. Based on this chart, which of the
following is a valid conclusion?
A Approximately 95% of the material that
makes up loam is useless to plants.
B Decayed organic matter is the least
abundant component of loam.
C Only about 9% of loam’s composition is
useful to plants.
D Only about 16% of loam’s composition
is useful to plants.
  Chapter 10        CRCT Preparation

22. The soil of the Southern Piedmont areas of Georgia is
thin and low in nutrients. Much of this terrain was cleared
at one time for lumber, fuel, and agricultural land. This
led to negative environmental impacts. Why might
farmers move from one plot of this land to another, and
how might this movement increase the negative
environmental impact?
  Chapter 10         CRCT Preparation

23. Why is the soil of tropical rain forests thin and
  Chapter 11        CRCT Preparation

24. In the water cycle, the sun’s energy causes
A evaporation.
B condensation.
C precipitation.
D percolation.
  Chapter 11        CRCT Preparation

25. Which one of the following landforms results from
river and stream erosion?
A mountains
B glaciers
C river channels
D aquifers

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