Chapter One: Romantic Poems and Context
The difference between lyric and narrative
- Lyrics are poems written in the first person and they record the feelings of a
particular moment or private thoughts, therefore they deal with private
- Narratives may be written in the first or third person and tell a story. All stories
will involve encounters with people and show their interaction, so narrative
poems have a social dimension and they are likely to raise more public issues.
Writing in history
She dwelt among th'untrodden ways
Beside the springs of Dove,
Maid whom there were none to praise
And very few to love:
A violet by a mossy tone
Half hidden from the eye!
Fair as a star, when only one
Is shining in the sky.
She lived unknown, and few could know
When Lucy ceased to be;
But she is in her grave, and, oh,
The difference to me!
In the beginning, the poem looks to be a narrative, it talks about a girl, but all we
learn from the poem, is her name 'Lucy' and that she dies, so the poem is a lyric
(an elegy or a love poem). In the second stanza, Wordsworth describes the girl
through symbols drawn from the nature, figurative language (simile: A violet /
Fair as a star). The use of the personal pronoun 'me' indicates the poet's voice
'narrator' and that the poem is composed on individual feelings.
* Two theories about the identity of 'Lucy' according to Critics:
- Wordsworth fancied the moment in which his sister 'Dorothy' might die.
- The absence of the poet from his homeland.
Two characteristics of romantic writing
1- An assertion on the self and what it wishes, feels, fears and so on.
2- The desire to transfigure or transcend the ordinary.
England in 1819
Percy Bysshe Shelley
1. An old, mad, blind, despised, and dying king; a
Princes, the dregs of their dull race, who flow b
Through public scorn, mud from a muddy spring; a
Rulers who neither see, nor feel, nor know, b
But leech-like to their fainting country cling, a
Till they drop, blind in blood, without a blow, b
2. A people starved and stabbed in the untilled field; c
An army which liberticide and prey d
Makes as a two-edged sword to all who wield; c
Golden and sanguine laws which tempt and slay; d
3. Religion Christless, Godless, a book sealed; c
A Senate - Time's worst statute unrepealed - c
Are graves from which a glorious Phantom may d
Burst to illumine our tempestuous day. d
It is a sonnet – a poem of fourteen lines, with the rhythm Iambic pentameter and
the pointed out rhyme scheme beside the poem. The poem is angry and that is
clear through the poem's uncompromising vocabulary (mad / despised / dregs /
First stanza: Shelley illustrates that King George III is 'old, mad, blind,
despised, and dying'. Then the poet used metaphoric device in 'mud from a
muddy spring' to describe the Prince who succeeded the king because he came
from the same muddy soil, which is his father. Then he used simile in 'leech-like'
to describe the rulers as if they were insects sucking the blood of the people.
Second stanza: it is about the situation of the common people who were
starving from extreme poverty 'starved and stabbed'. In the second line he
illustrated that the army 'liberticide and prey / as a two-edge sword', who is
supposed to defend the people rights, but in fact the army was the source of
suppression, killing and torture.
Third stanza: the poet refers to the corrupted church and the parliament who
twisted the constitution in favor of the king 'A senate, time's worst statute,
unrepealed', but in the last two lines, the poet express his hopes for revolution
and reform, that a 'glorious Phantom' may spring from this decay and 'illumine
our tempestuous day' breaking the chains of tyranny.
Three poems about London
London's summer morning by Mary Robinson
Who has not walked to list the busy sounds Save where the canvas awning throws a shade
Of summer's morning, in the sultry smoke On the gay merchandise. Now, spruce and trim,
Of noisy London? On the pavement hot In shops (where beauty smiles with industry)
The sooty chimney-boy, with dingy face Sits the smart damsel; while the passenger
And tattered covering, shrilly bawls his trade, Peeps through the window, watching every charm.
Rousing the sleepy housemaid. At the door Now pastry dainties catch the minute
The milk-pail rattles, and the tinkling bell Of humming insects, while the limy snare
Proclaims the dustman's office; while the street Waits to enthrall them. Now the lamp-lighter
Is lost in clouds impervious. Now begins Mounts the tall ladder, nimbly venturous,
The din of hackney-coaches, wagons, carts; To trim the half-filled lamps, while at his feet
While tinmen's shops, and noisy trunk-makers, The pot-boy yells discordant! All along
Knife grinders, coopers, squeaking cork-cutters, The sultry pavement, the old clothes-man cries
Fruit barrows, and the hunger giving cries In tone monotonous, while sidelong views
Of vegetable-vendors, fill the air. The area for his traffic: now the bag
Now every shop displays its varied trade, Is slyly opened, and the half-worn suit
And the fresh-sprinkled pavement cools the feet (Sometimes the pilfered treasure of the base
Of early walkers. At the privet door Domestic spoiler), for one half it's worth,
The ruddy housemaid twirls the busy mop, Sinks in the green abyss. The porter now
Annoying the smart girl 'prentice, or neat girl, Bears his huge load along the burning way;
Tripping with band-box lightly. Now the sun And the poor poet wakes from busy dreams,
Darts burning splendour on the glittering pane, To paint the summer morning.
Mary Robinson wrote forty two lines of poetry that are described as a blank
verse poem. 'Blank here means not rhyming, but the term blank verse is used
specifically to describe verse in unrhyming iambic pentameters'. It means the
absence of any particular rhyme and the variation of line lengths and the rhyme
scheme for this poem is 'abcddefgaaaaaidgejfkddlmiloiiagnaanodpqman'.
The poet throughout the poem gave a detailed description of the sounds and
activities that happened in the crowded city of London in a hot summery day.
She began the poem by using a rhetorical question about the different sounds
that can be heard just by walking in the streets of London during the early
morning 'Who has not walked to list the busy sounds of summer's morning in the
sultry smoke of noisy London?' (1/2/3).
After the first scene which began with 'On the pavement hot' (3) Mary
Robinson used the word 'Now' in lines (9/15/18/20/23/27/29/35/39), which
broke the poem into short prose passages. Truly the poem is full of various
words and meanings that recorded information about the daily life in London,
with the use of repetition such as the previously mentioned word 'Now' and
repeated line endings such as 'trade' (5/15), 'door' (6/17), 'feet' (16/31) and 'cries'
(13/33) which are part of the rhyme scheme.
Mary Robinson used specialized poetic diction, periphrasis and over-reliance on
adjectives, which are the characteristics of the language of eighteenth century
poetry. And the poem is full of new scenes with new characters, sounds, places
and objects such as 'The sooty chimney boy' (4), 'the sleepy house maid' (6), 'The
milk-pail rattles' (7), 'The din of hackney-coaches, wagons, carts' (10), 'Knife-
grinders, coopers, squeaking cork-cutters' (11), 'the hunger giving cries' (12),
'neat girl' (19), 'shops' (24), 'the smart damsel' (25), 'the passenger' (25), 'the
lamp-lighter' (29), 'The pot-boy' (32), 'the old-clothes-man' (33), 'The porter'
(39) and finally 'The poor poet' (41). Mary Robinson tried to capture the
activities of daily life in London 'the industrial city' by using various words and
meanings which described different characters, jobs, places, objects and sounds
'The poem's method is basically to list what is seen and heard'.
Upon Westminster Bridge by William Wordsworth
Earth has not anything to show more fair:
Dull would he be of soul who could pass by
A sight so touching in its majesty.
This City now doth like a garment wear
The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,
Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie
Open unto the fields, and to the sky,
All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.
Never did sun more beautifully steep
In his first splendour valley, rock, or hill;
Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep.
The river glideth at his own sweet will -
Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;
And all that mighty heart is lying still.
Wordsworth's poem is a sonnet composed of fourteen lines, written in iambic
pentameter with the rhyme scheme 'abbaabbacdcdcd'. The poem is full of
cheerful images like 'fair' (1) 'majesty' (3) 'beauty' (5) 'bright and glittering' (8)
'beautifully' (9) 'calm' (11) 'sweet' (12) 'mighty' (14). The poet's voice is clear
throughout the poem. He began the poem by saying "Earth has not anything to
shew more fair" (1) and this is a conflicting statement because he is a romantic
poet who is giving nature's qualities to the city, while denying that earth can
give a fairer scene. In the third and fourth line, Wordsworth is more fascinated
by the loftiness of the scene and continuo his admiration by using simile in 'The
city now doth like a garment wear'(4).
In the last four lines of the octave, Wordsworth gave freedom to the city limits
by expanding the view in the morning which is 'silent, bare'(5). He gave more
space to the scene by mentioning 'Ships, towers, domes, theaters and temples'
(6) beginning in the sea and reaching the sky then spreading to the fields. In the
end of the octet he portrayed that entire scene in 'the smokeless air' (8) removing
the real situation of the industrial city which is normally covered by the smoky
In the sestet, Wordsworth describes the beauty of the rising morning sun as if it
was alive! 'Never did the sun more beautifully steep' (9) and shining over 'valley,
rock, or hill' (9). In the following two lines, Wordsworth stated that he never
saw or experienced such a tranquil view and then he used personification by
giving life to the river ' The river glideth at his own sweet will' (12). Finally,
Wordsworth ended the poem by describing the city of London which is full of
houses as a heart which is 'lying still' (14) Therefore Wordsworth gave the city
life when all people were a sleep with no working factories or smoke.
London by William Blake
I wandered through each chartered street, a
Near where the chartered Thames does flow, b
A mark in every face I meet, c
Marks of weakness, marks of woe. d
In every cry of every man, c
In every infant's cry of fear, d
In every voice, in every ban, c
The mind-forged manacles I hear: d
How the chimney-sweeper's cry e
Every blackening church appals, f
And the hapless soldier's sigh e
Runs in blood down palace-walls. f
But most, through midnight streets I hear g
How the youthful harlot's curse h
Blasts the new-born infant's tear, g
And blights with plagues the marriage-hearse. h
- Language: the language that Blake has used in London is mainly negative,
because he uses dark, gloomy adjectives such as blackening, hapless, plague.
- Structure: The lines are short and this makes the poem more compact, helping
to get to the point quickly. It also makes the rhymes more noticeable. It is
written in iambic tetrameter. It is written in four stanzas with the rhyme scheme
as outlined beside the poem.
- Social background: William Blake presents his poem as a social protest
against the suffering of those who lived in the city during the time of the
revolutions. It deals basically with the difficulties and hard life of the time,
seeing only the worst side of it, and reflecting Blake‘s extreme disillusionment.
Blake lived during a period of intense social changes, being a witness of the
transformation of an agricultural society into an industrial one.
First stanza: the first two lines of the poem include one of the basic ideas of
what Blake is trying to show, using a great variety of images: a corrupt city in
which everything is owned even the river, and a city where nobody can be free.
The repeated word 'chartered' was used as a metaphor to mean that even those
things that are impossible to be controlled by humans such as a river, are easily
controlled when power and wealth are involved. Then the poet, once again, uses
repetition 'And marks in every face I meet / Marks of weakness, marks of woe' to
get his aim, which is, basically, causing on his reader the impression that the
whole of London society, without exception, are included in his poem. The use
of 'every face' is the best example.
Second stanza: Living in a city like the one described in the lines above, it is,
living in a city where everything is owned by others, the ones to whom you
work for long hours, often being exhausted, but without escaping from poverty.
It is obvious, then, that what the speaker is hearing is the cry of every man and
the cry of every infant (In western-civilization, man has always been believed to
be the stronger sex, and only permissible to cry in the most desperate of
situations). Another image is the use of the expression 'mind-forged manacles'
that the speaker hears in 'every voice' and 'in every ban'. The terrible situation, in
which Londoners were obliged to survive in, induces them to think that there
was no option and that their way of living was the only one possible.
Third stanza: Blake is showing the relation between the oppressed and the
oppressors. In the first case 'how the chimney-sweeper’s cry / Every blackening
church appalls', Blake is protesting about the poor young children that were sent
to work, breaking their innocence and childhood, and without any institution,
not even the church, is trying to stop and prevent it.
Fourth stanza: finally, 'the new born infant’s tear' who has been born from a
'youthful harlot’s curse' who at the same time, is going to 'blight with plagues
the marriage hearse'. New birth at this time is not a happy event but a
continuation of the cycle of misery, and the wedding carriage is seen as a
'hearse' leading to a kind of death, perhaps of innocence or happiness.
According to critics, there were two kinds of 'harlots' at this time, there was the
commonly known (streetwalker) selling her body for money to survive, and the
second was the eighteenth century wife and mother who was selling her body,
mind and soul for survival.
Q Which of the three poems of London is most useful to historians?
Mary Robinson's poem because it provides a lot of information and details about
the city of London, from daily life to people, jobs names, places and so on.
Novelty and Nature
Q- Why does Wordsworth claim that the lives and language of the rural
poor are suitable for poetry?
They provide for the essential passions of the heart a better soil in which they
can attain their maturity, they are less under restraint, and they speak a plainer
and more emphatic language. And because in that condition of life, our
elementary feelings coexist in a state of greater simplicity and the passions of
men are incorporated with the beautiful forms of nature.
Their language is suitable because such men of the rural poor always
communicate with the best objects from which the best part of language is
originally derived, and because of their rank in society and the sameness and
narrow circle of their intercourse being less under the influence of social vanity,
they convey their feelings and notions in simple and unelaborated expressions.
According to Wordsworth, the lives of the people in the countryside (rural) and
their language provide a very suitable environment for the emotions (passions)
of the poet's heart, in order that they reach awareness (maturity), and because
rural people speak a simpler and emphatic language.
Wordsworth and Coleridge rejected the learned and highly sculpted forms of
eighteenth century English poetry and brought poetry within the reach of the
average man by using normal, everyday language in their poetry (leveling of
Children and the Romantic lyric
Anecdote for Fathers by William Wordsworth
I have a boy of five years old; In careless mood he looked at me,
His face is fair and fresh to see; While still I held him by the arm,
His limbs are cast in beauty's mold And said, "At Kilve I'd rather be
And dearly he loves me. Than here at Liswyn farm."
One morn we strolled on our dry walk, "Now, little Edward, say why so:
Or quiet home all full in view, My little Edward, tell me why."---
And held such intermitted talk "I cannot tell, I do not know."---
As we are wont to do. "Why, this is strange," said I;
My thoughts on former pleasures ran; "For, here are woods, hills smooth and warm:
I thought of Kilve's delightful shore, There surely must one reason be
Our pleasant home when spring began, Why you would change sweet Liswyn farm
A long, long year before. For Kilve by the green sea."
A day it was when I could bear At this, my boy hung down his head,
Some fond regrets to entertain; He blushed with shame, nor made reply;
With so much happiness to spare, And three times to the child I said,
I could not feel a pain. "Why, :Edward, tell me why?"
The green earth echoed to the feet His head he raised---there was in sight,
Of lambs that bounded through the glade, It caught his eye, he saw it plain---
From shade to sunshine, and as fleet Upon the house-top, glittering bright,
From sunshine back to shade. A broad and gilded vane.
Birds warbled round me---and each trace Then did the boy his tongue unlock,
Of inward sadness had its charm; And eased his mind with this reply:
Kilve, thought I, was a favoured place, "At Kilve there was no weather-cock;
And so is Liswyn farm. And that's the reaon why."
My boy beside me tripped, so slim O dearest, dearest boy! my heart
And graceful in his rustic dress! For better lore would seldom yearn,
And, as we talked, I questioned him, Could I but teach the hundredth part
In very idleness. Of what from thee I learn.
"Now tell me, had you rather be,"
I said. and took him by the arm,
"On Kilve's smooth shore, by the green sea,
Or here at Liswyn farm?"
This poem seems to be a hybrid of lyric and narrative and in this poem there is a
narrator and another character with a speaking part (the narrator's son)
Q What is the difference between the narrator and the child?
The narrator can't gain from his son any rational answers to his question,
because the child doe's not speak the language of reason spoken by the adult,
therefore the narrator cannot prompt his son to give an answer that will satisfy
his rational expectations. 'The poem displays two view points which are not
opposed but simply different'.
Q Give some interesting points about the poem?
The poem gives a voice to a marginal figure ' a child'.
The dialogue in the poem is about an adult and a child who agree to differ.
Blake's songs of Innocence and of Experience (important)
The main theme of the poems in this work came from Blake's belief that
children were born innocent, but they lost their "innocence" as they grew older
and were influenced by the beliefs and opinions of adults and the ways of the
world. Therefore, they grew to become experienced, and when this happened,
they could no longer be considered innocent.
The poems from "Songs of Innocence" were written from an innocent child's
perspective. Those from "Songs of Experience" were written from the
perspective of a more experienced person who had seen all of the evil in the
world and had, in a way, become bitter towards it.
The Chimney Sweeper' by William Blake
1. When my mother died I was very young,
2. And my father sold me while yet my tongue,
3. Could scarcely cry weep, weep, weep, weep,
4. So your chimneys I sweep, and in soot I sleep.
5. There's little Tom Dacre, who cried when his head
6. That curled like a lambs back was shaved, so I said.
7. Hush Tom never mind it, for when your head's bare,
8. You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair
9. And so he was quiet. and that very night.
10. As Tom was a sleeping he had such a sight
11. That thousands of sweepers Dick, Joe, Ned, and Jack
12. Were all of them locked up in coffins of black,
13. And by came an Angel who had a bright key
14. And he opened the coffins and set them all free.
15. Then down a green plain leaping laughing they run
16. And wash in a river and shine in the Sun.
17. Then naked and white, all their bags left behind.
18. They rise upon clouds, and sport in the wind.
19. And the Angel told Tom, if he'd be a good boy,
20. He'd have God for his father and never want joy.
21. And so Tom awoke and we rose in the dark
22. And got with our bags and our brushes to work.
23. Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and warm
24. So if all do their duty, they need not fear harm.
The chimneysweeper who is speaking is one who has had experience in the
business for some time. He is trying to give advice to a new chimney sweeper
little Tom Dacre. In lines (5 to 8) the older chimneysweeper is telling Tom that
his hair can’t be ruined if it is shaved and that it is nothing to cry about because
it is part of the job. Later that night, when they went to bed, Tom had a dream in
lines (11-12) Here the coffins are used to represent the chimneys that the little
boys have to shimmy through. Blake writes in lines (13-14) here the angel that
comes to save the boys is the angle of death. The angel is setting them free
because they are going to heaven. The angle tells Tom that if he does his work
and is a good boy that God will take care of him. (19-20). Blake then goes on to
write 'So if all do their duty, they need not fear harm' (24). this line is very
ironic because that is what the little boys think, however, the children do not
know that they will die young from an unpleasant death because of this job. By
saying this, Blake illustrates how he sees the world through the eyes of a child.
Nurse's Song by William Blake
1. When voices of children are heard on the green
2. And laughing is heard on the hill,
3. My heart is at rest within my breast
4. And everything else is still
5. Then come home my children the sun is gone down
6. And the dews of night arise
7. Come, come leave off play, and let us away
8. Till the morning appears in the skies
9. No, no! Let us play, for it is yet day
10. And we cannot go to sleep
11. Besides in the sky, the little birds fly
12. And the hills are all covered with sheep
13. Well, well go and play till the light fades away
14. And then go home to bed
15. The little ones leaped and shouted and laughed
16. And all the hills echoed.
This is a narrative poem and it has a narrator 'the nurse'. A nurse (maid) is
usually an authority figure for children, the person who is in charge, but here the
nurse gives in to children; the children get their own way, and the nurse is happy
to let the children follow their desires, so there is no need to overthrow her
authority, rather, there is mutual agreement that one can do what one wants.
Desire is not threatening, the outer world not frightening. The poem presents a
vision of correspondences, of harmony, first; between the nurse and the children.
We hear the voices of both the nurse and the children, in dialogue. Secondly,
between the children and the landscape 'the hills echo their laughter'.
Q Compare the dialogue of Anecdote of Fathers with Nurse's Song?
Both poems are dialogues between an adult and a child or children, and both
children present a rational understanding, but for the children in the 'nurse's
song' there is a big difference in the significance claimed for their way of
- The experience 'nurse's song' is much shorter, and there is no narrative
sequence, it contains one voice ' the nurse', and like most of the songs of
experience, the poem is a monologue rather than a dialogue.
A Poison Tree by William Blake
I was angry with my friend. And it grew both day and night
I told my wrath, my wrath did end. Till it bore an apple bright.
I was angry with my foe. And my foe beheld it shine,
I told it not, my wrath did grow. And he knew that it was mine.
And I watered it in fears, And into my garden stole
Night and morning with my tears When the night had veiled the pole:
And I sunned it with smiles In the morning glad I see
And with soft deceitful wiles My foe outstretched beneath the tree.
Q What is the form of the poem, what logic does it follow?
The formal models of the poem seem to be hymns or nursery rhymes. Each line
is a self-contained semantic unit. The poem progresses simply by the repeated
use of the word 'and'.
The poem is composed of four-line stanzas (quatrains) and regular rhyme
scheme. First, there are no similes. This poem works with metaphors and
symbols. The opening stanza is very simple and straightforward. It tells that the
speaker or narrator of the poem was angry twice once with a friend and once
with an enemy. With the friend, he shared his feelings 'I told my wrath' and that
solved the problem and ended his anger. But with the enemy 'or foe' he tried a
different tactic 'I told it not, my wrath did grow'.
In the second stanza, this process of hiding his anger and letting it grow
becomes a series of metaphors connected with the idea that the anger becomes a
'poison tree' like a real tree, needs sun (smiles) and water (tears) and so on. The
fact that this is, however, a symbolic tree, is made obvious by statements like 'it
grew both day and night'
Eventually, the tree produces an apple. The tree symbol joins a long tradition,
because Blake knew the Bible well, and Eve is supposed to have plucked an
apple from the tree of knowledge of good and evil and given it to Adam. This
caused their expulsion from Paradise, making that tree a kind of 'poison tree' too.
Drawn by the beautiful fruit, the enemy steals and eats the apple, and then lies
'outstretched beneath the tree'
Introduction by William Blake
Piping down the valleys wild
Piping songs of pleasant glee
On a cloud I saw a child.
And he laughing said to me.
Pipe a song about a Lamb:
So I piped with merry cheer,
Piper, pipe that song again--
So I piped, he wept to hear.
Drop thy pipe thy happy pipe
Sing thy songs of happy cheer,
So I sung the same again
While he wept with joy to hear
Piper sit thee down and write
In a book that all may read--
So he vanished from my sight
And I plucked a hollow reed.
And I made a rural pen,
And I stained the water clear,
And I wrote my happy songs,
Every child may joy to hear.
The poem draws on the conventions of the pastoral, it is a dialogue, but there
does not seem to be any kind of power play between the piper and the child. But
the poem does not follow the rules of the pastoral, for example the 'hollow reed'
is not used to make a flute as is usual in pastoral, but a pen.
Chapter Two: Versions of Romantic writing
* The romantic British writers are divided into two groups, the first generation:
Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge. The second generation: Shelley, Keats and
Byron. The Romantic literature of the first generation was wartime literature.
The writers of second generation died relatively young. The historical situation
was different during which the second generation began to publish.
- The difference between the point of view of wartime and post-war writers.
Romanticism: the term romantic began to be used in English in the early
nineteenth century to refer to a belief that life could be lived by ideals rather
than rules. Romantic also came to be used to describe a group of writers from
around the turn of eighteenth century whose work demonstrated such a belief
and who were thought in retrospect to have other characteristics in common.
Composed by the side of Grasmere Lake by William Wordsworth
Eve's lingering clouds extend in solid bars
Through the grey west; and lo! these waters, steeled
By breezeless air to smoothest polish, yield
A vivid repetition of the stars;
Jove, Venus, and the ruddy crest of Mars
Amid his fellows beauteously revealed
At happy distance from earth's groaning field,
Where ruthless mortals wage incessant wars.
Is it a mirror?--or the nether Sphere
Opening to view the abyss in which she feeds
Her own calm fires?-But list! a voice is near;
Great Pan himself low-whispering through the reeds,
'Be thankful, thou; for, if unholy deeds
Ravage the world, tranquility is here! '
Q Compare this sonnet with Wordsworth's 'upon Westminster Bridge'?
Both share the absence of people, and the same technique of personifying that
which is inanimate.
Q What suggests that this is a poem which is about war?
The poem refers to 'incessant wars' (8) and to 'Mars' (5) which is called the red
planet, and the 'ruddy crest' (5) may also suggest blood.
Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley
I met a traveler from an antique land
Who said: `Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,
Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,
And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,
Tell that its sculptor well those passions read
Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,
The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed.
And on the pedestal these words appear --
"My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"
Nothing beside remains. Round the decay
Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare
The lone and level sands stretch far away.'
In this poem there are three voices: the initial narrator, the traveler and the
quoted words of Ozymandias 'the name Greek travelers gave to the Egyptian
Pharaoh Rameses the second, the poem is concerned with fabled power.
The speaker recalls having met a traveler from an antique land who told him a
story about the ruins of a statue in the desert of his native country two vast and
trunk-less legs of stone stand without a body, and near them a massive,
crumbling stone head lies half sunk in the sand. The traveler told the speaker
that the frown and 'sneer of cold command' on the statue's face indicate that the
sculptor understood well the passions of the statue's subject, a man who sneered
with contempt for those weaker than himself, yet he fed his people because of
something in his heart 'The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed'.
On the pedestal of the statue appear the words 'My name is Ozymandias, king of
kings / Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!' But around the decaying ruin
of the statue, nothing remains, only the 'lone and level sands' which stretched
around it, far away. It indicates that Ozymandias has vanished almost without a
Gender and authorship: basically women were not allowed to write poetry,
therefore many women writers turned to novel writing such as Jane Austen.
* Mary Wollstonecraft: she is a liberal woman who attacked the situation in
which women's education fitted them only to get husbands; she considered
women's education at that time as enslaving. For Wollstonecraft, the gendering
of education is primary: education enforces and sustains the gender distinctions
Women and the novel
Two characteristics of romantic writing are dwelling on the private experience
of the self and a desire to transcend the social world. Wordsworth called the
lyrical 'Ballads' experiments and Shelley called his poem 'The Revolt of Islam'
an 'experiment on the tamper of the public mind'. But Jane Austen does not
seem experimental in her forms, or to experiment with the content of her
fictions, but rather with discriminating among the various languages of a social
world she accepts.
Women and poetry
The Rights of Woman by Anna Lætitia Barbauld
Yes, injured Woman! rise, assert thy right! Try all that wit and art suggest to bend
Woman! too long degraded, scorned, oppressed; Of thy imperial foe the stubborn knee;
O born to rule in partial Law's despite, Make treacherous Man thy subject, not thy friend;
Resume thy native empire o'er the breast! Thou mayst command, but never canst be free.
Go forth arrayed in panoply divine; Awe the licentious, and restrain the rude;
That angel pureness which admits no stain; Soften the sullen, clear the cloudy brow:
Go, bid proud Man his boasted rule resign, Be, more than princes' gifts, thy favours sued;-
And kiss the golden sceptre of thy reign. She hazards all, who will the least allow.
Go, gird thyself with grace; collect thy store But hope not, courted idol of mankind,
Of bright artillery glancing from afar; On this proud eminence secure to stay;
Soft melting tones thy thundering cannon's roar, Subduing and subdued, thou soon shalt find
Blushes and fears thy magazine of war. Thy coldness soften, and thy pride give way.
Thy rights are empire: urge no meaner claim,- Then, then, abandon each ambitious thought,
Felt, not defined, and if debated, lost; Conquest or rule thy heart shall feebly move,
Like sacred mysteries, which withheld from fame, In Nature's school, by her soft maxims taught,
Shunning discussion, are revered the most. That separate rights are lost in mutual love.
The title indicates a call for revolution, but in the final stanza it reveals a call for
the conventional relationship between the sexes, that both live in peaceful
equality, and women returns to her conventional role.
The figure of the poet / A Defense of Poetry by Shelley - Read
Q in the first quoted paragraph, on what basis does Shelley claim that
poetry is the most important of the arts?
For language is arbitrarily produced by the imagination, and has relation to thoughts
alone; but all other materials, instruments, and conditions of art have relations among
each other, which limit and interpose between conception and expression.
- The first quoted paragraph speaks about the superiority of poetry as the art that
employs language. Language has a more immediate relation to 'thoughts alone'
than the media of any the other arts.
Q according to the second quoted paragraph, what poetry can do?
Poetry lifts the veil from the hidden beauty of the world, and makes familiar objects be
as if they were not familiar; it reproduces all that it represents, and the impersonations
clothed in its Elysian light stand thenceforward in the minds of those who have once
contemplated them, as memorials of that gentle and exalted content which extends
itself over all thoughts and actions with which it coexists.
- The second quoted paragraph speaks of the way that we can be made to see
familiar things anew ' defamiliarization'.
Q What is the function of poetry & the poet in the third quoted paragraph?
The most unfailing herald, companion, and follower of the awakening of a great
people to work a beneficial change in opinion or institution, is poetry. At such periods
there is an accumulation of the power of communicating and receiving intense and
impassioned conceptions respecting man and nature. The person in whom this power
resides, may often, as far as regards many portions of their nature, have little apparent
correspondence with that spirit of good of which they are the ministers. But even
whilst they deny and abjure, they are yet compelled to serve, that power which is
seated on the throne of their own soul. It is impossible to read the compositions of the
most celebrated writers of the present day without being startled with the electric life
which burns within their words. They measure the circumference and sound the depths
of human nature with a comprehensive and all-penetrating spirit, and they are
themselves perhaps the most sincerely astonished at its manifestations; for it is less
their spirit than the spirit of the age. Poets are the hierophants of an un apprehended
inspiration; the mirrors of the gigantic shadows which futurity casts upon the present;
the words which express what they understand not; the trumpets which sing to battle,
and feel not what they inspire; the influence which is moved not, but moves. Poets are
the unacknowledged legislators of the world.
-It speaks about the social power of poetry and how can it affect society.
Chapter Three: Defense of poetry
Romantic poetic criticism & theory concerning three principals/arguments
1- The appropriate kind of language for poetry
2- The poetic imagination and its relation to language
3- The relationship between poetic language and politics
The leveling of the language
Q Why were Wordsworth views considered so controversial?
Wordsworth's 1802 preface was considered as a radical, even revolutionary
document, because it was thought that his revolutionary character resided not
merely on the claims made about the language of 'low' and 'rustic' people, but
also in the social and political implications of such assertions.
Wordsworth argued against the received idea of poetic language as refined,
perfected mode of eloquence available only to those with an education in
previous literary models (Wordsworth's leveling of poetic language).
Imagination and the figure of the poet
* Coleridge argued on the correct definition of (fancy and imagination).
Imagination is (the plastic, shaping power), it dissolves, diffuses, dissipates, in
order to re-create, idealize and to unify. It is a vital (living, positive
transforming) principle directed at a world which is described as essentially
fixed and dead.
Fancy is artifice, as in the diction of much eighteenth century poetry, a faculty
which merely shuffles the (fixed and dead) elements of the material universe
around. It has no other counters to play with but fixities and definites.
Q How doe Wordsworth and Coleridge define the figure of the poet?
According to the theory of creative imagination, both of them viewed the poet as
exceptional with divine nature, and according to Coleridge, the poet embodies
the whole soul of man, therefore he is able to transform the world.
Q How does Shelley define the figure of the poet?
Shelley sees the figure of the poet as someone who embodies 'truth', and the poet
is a kind of prophet or a member of the social and cultural savant-grade, who
can see the future.
Chapter Four: Women writers and readers
* Maria Edgeworth at the age of 15 worked on a translation of a French text and
she wanted to publish the text after finishing it, but her father was persuaded by
a friend to forbid this publication, because of the perceived danger that she will
turn into 'Literary lady': a woman who will not make a good wife or mother.
The politics of sensibility
One of the strongest influences on cultural expectations of gender in the
Romantic writing period was the continuing influence of the eighteenth century
cult of sensibility (the cult of feeling arose in the eighteenth century in response
to philosophical theories that investigated the power of feeling to communicate
directly between people).
- Conduct literature: a literature that functioned in the regulation of women's
reading and writing. Conduct books were published as advice manuals for
women offering instruction on social and domestic behaviour. Conduct literature
was a means by which views on the debate and concern about femininity and
women's role in society could be expressed. On example: James Fordyce's
Sermons to Young Women.
The hierarchy of genres
Women writers worked in a range of genres, producing poetry, journalism and
didactic or children literature as well as novels. The reason for this spread of
work was partly financial, because few women writers could hope to maintain a
middle-class lifestyle on the money they could earn from novels.
* Although many women entered the public arena through poetry and other
literature forms, but the novel properly gave the largest number women the the
chance to become authors.
Chapter Five: Reading the Prelude
* The Prelude is along poem written by Wordsworth and it is much concerned
with memory, and crucially with memories of the 1790s, the decade revolution.
The Prelude as narrative
Wordsworth's Prelude: the poem is lyrical in that many of its most memorable
sections concentrate on the actions and feelings of an individual at a unique or
typical moment. But at the same time, it is a narrative, because it tells the story
of Wordsworth's early life.
- The Prelude is autobiographical, but it is not strictly autobiography, because
it messes out many of the chief events that are expected from a biography or
autobiography. For example: there is no mention of Wordsworth's courtship or
'Tintern Abbey' and the 'spots of time': memory and imagination
Tintern Abbey is a meditative poem written in blank verse and in the first
person. The poem can be analyzed as describing a landscape, but it locates it in
time as well as space (landscape poems give descriptions of a landscape only at
the beginning and at the end) and the poet later revealed that the poem was not
written in front of the location, therefore the poem is principally concerned not
with space at all but with time.
- Three important points about Tintern Abbey:
1-Imagination and memory are crucial in a way they relate to nature
2-The poem refers to a specific time and space but goes on to elude the location
3-The poem depend on addressing another person to validate the experience it
The Prelude and 'spots of time'
The Prelude contains a collection of memories of childhood incidents and
activities in which nature seems to exist for the purpose of educating the child.
Q Why did The Prelude needed to be written?
Wordsworth's poem has been seen as a secular version of the Christian scheme
of Eden such as fall and redemption that Milton treats in Paradise Lost. In the
Prelude memories of childhood would represent a lost Eden. Paradise Lost is a
poem that attempts to understand the loss of Eden (the fall) and offer
consolation. In Wordsworth's poem as a whole there is a desire for a regained
Chapter Six: Romantic verse Narrative
'Romance' in Romantic narrative
- Romance inherited by Romantic writers involves the following things:
1- Idealized love between rather idealized characters
2- Medieval and / or exotic settings
3- Adventures and dangers faced during difficult journeys or quest for an ideal.
4- Fantastic or implausible events and resolutions of problems.
La Belle Dame sans Merci (The Beautiful woman without Mercy) Keats
The poem has two versions: one published during his life time in a journal called
The Indicator and one after his death, copied by Brown, an associate of Keats.
Q after reading the poem, identify the romance conventions it is employing?
The poem seems to be very much in the romance tradition. The language is
stylized, an imitation of medieval romance. It seems much nearer to the gothic
strain of romance than that employed by female novelists such as Austen.
* The poem is presented by a (the narrator) who meets a knight and hears of
how he has met and become 'in thrill' to a lady. This lady is an idealized figure
in the sense that she seems supernatural, from another world.
Q Are there any differences in the two versions in the representation of the
relationship between the 'knight' and 'lady'?
* In the first line of stanza 9:
Brown text (And there she lulled me asleep) the figure of the lady as a 'fatal
woman', an 'enchantress' the lady 'lulls' the knight to sleep.
Indicator version (And there we slumbered on the moss) the two figures fall
asleep together, therefore the nightmare vision cannot be attributed to the lady,
and is more likely produced by the knight’s own imagination.
Q Discus the nightmare vision presented to the knight?
The feeling left at the end of the poem is surly one of a male protagonist having
fallen into a kind of dream, or having had a vision of an idealized female, the
effect of which is to leave him in a psychological and physical alienated state.
The process of falling in and out of a vision might well be the main point of the
poem. Keats may well be employing romance to dramatize a process which is
frequently represented by romantic poets (the experience and subsequent
departure of a vision of the ideal)
The Eve of St Agnes / Keats
The poem explores the human desire for the ideal within the context of a
romance (a love relationship).
Q Is Madeline a self-deluded figure 'hoodwinked' by her own imagination?
Or is she a victim?
Madeline was a 'victim' of her own delusion in the hope of love and the desired
husband. And Porphyro used her belief in the superstition of St Agnes's Eve and
succeeded in seducing Madeline. But according to Keats, Madeline's belief in a
superstitious idea captured her heart and mind with a phony promise of an
idealized dream. Therefore Madeline is a victim not merely of her own
imagination but of the actions of her supposed ideal hero.
Alastor / Shelley
* The poem is an allegory (symbolic story) which depends on the figure of the
poet in the search for the ideal.
Summary: the poem is about a young poet who travels east, he rejects an Arab
maiden who secretly likes him. Then he reaches a valley in Kashmir, sleeps and
dreams of a beautiful 'veiled maid' who sings and plays to him. He dreams that
they embrace. He awakes to find himself alone, and then quests for the beautiful
maid of his vision, whom he has mistaken for a reality.
* There is a narcissistic aspect of the poet’s ideal. The poet cannot find his
imagined ideal in the world: it cannot exist in the world, and it is merely the
reflection of his own mind.
Q Discuss the character of the Arab maiden?
The Arab maiden is to remind us that if the poet had not succumbed to an
unrealizable quest for the ideal he would have been able to find love and
* Alastor utilizes one of the greatest strengths of Romantic verse narrative: its
dialogic nature: in a verse narrative it is possible to juxtapose different voices or
points of views, to set them in conflict or dialogue with each other.
* Keats poems presented a kind of dialogue between different view points:
idealism versus rationalism, the imagined world vesus the physical world.
Chapter Seven: Gender and Poetry
Gender and poetry (Wordsworth: a poet is 'a man speaking to men')
In the masculine tradition, women were located as passive, quasi-natural objects.
They were passive objects while men are active speaking subjects.
To Melancholy by Charlotte Smith
Q What is the setting of the poem?
The setting is (a gothic landscape of shadows and strange sounds) and it's very
important to the mood of the poem.
Q Hoe did the poet used nature in the poem?
Nature reciprocates the speaker's feelings. Smith used personification 'autumn
spreads her … veil'; 'the wood 'sights', the wind is 'saddened'. Therefore nature
became a mirror for the speaker, in reflecting and fostering her melancholy.
Q Who is the speaker in Charlotte Smith poem?
The speaker is a proponent of sensibility (the poet) because the poem itself has
been generated out of a personal negative experience.
The Grave of Poetess by Felicia Hemans's tribute to Mary Tighe
Q After reading the poem 'The grave of poetess', describe what Hemans
thinks are the most important characteristics of Tighe's writings?
According to Hemans, Tighe's poetry 'song' is characterized by 'sorrow' and her
life by weeping 'How often didst thou weep'. Her poetic voice conforms to the
demands of feminine discourse in that it is 'not loud, but deep' as in deeply felt.
Her thoughts are described as 'tender' and elevated 'high'.
Floating Island by Dorothy Wordsworth
Q How is nature represented in the first stanza of the poem?
It could be summed up by the word 'harmonious' with a balance in in nature.
Q what is the relationship between the speaker and the neutral scene in the
second and third stanzas?
The poet shifts from the general to the particular and from neutrality to emotion.
The poet's 'I' is invoked for the first time when the floating island comes into
being, which suggests that the speaker's subjectivity may in some way be
identified with the existence and fate of the island.
Chapter Eight: Romantic allegory
Allegory as a mode of writing and reading
- Allegory: 'saying one thing while meaning another' Allegory presupposes that
language can communicate meanings in subtle, indirect ways. It is a literature in
which a text appears to contain multiple meanings 'layers of meaning'. Or
contain figures, images and symbols which appear to point to meanings other
than those which are most obvious and immediate. Therefore it is a text that
possesses 'depth' that can inspire its readers.
The four Levels of allegory
1-Literal level: the actual story and events on the surface as they appear. Stories
derive from myth; therefore there is a strong link between allegory and myth.
2-Ethical level: the moral meaning, therefore this level is traditionally seen as
pertaining to the morality of each individual human being.
3-Historical level: it concerns the manner in which the story sheds light upon
and relates to the social and political events of the day.
4-Apocalyptic level: the religious or spiritual meaning, and the conflict between
good and evil.
Romantic writings and allegory
Q What are the view points of Romantic writers towards allegory?
Romantic writers such as Wordsworth and Coleridge considered allegory as an
inferior form of poetry, because allegorical writing is far too restrictive and
manipulative to constitute great art. They regarded allegory as a mode of
literature which attempted to manipulate its readers by restricting the
possibilities of meaning within the story it presented. Black states that 'Vision or
imagination is a representation of eternally exists, really and unchangeable.
Fable or allegory is formed by the daughters of memory'.
Chapter Nine: Colonialism and the exotic
Coleridge and the Orient (Kubla Khan)
- Cultural stereotype: a fixed, immutable image of a people and is customs.
* According to Jones (1772), European culture was marked by reason, whereas
Oriental culture exemplified imagination in a superior degree.
Q Discuss the war of ideas within Coleridge?
Coleridge had two contracting view points, one extolling 'admiring' Hindu
mysticism, and the other commending Christian political radicalism.
Q What indicates that Kubla Khan is an orientalist poem? (Important)
Following in the tradition of eighteenth century orientalist narratives, the orient
of Kubla Khan is represented as a place of magical beauty and power, but also
of tyranny, eroticism and danger. These were qualities of contemporary
stereotypes about the orient. Kubla Khan is the type of oriental tyrant in search
of power over his dominion. The sonnet 'Ozymandias' by Shelley can be
compared to Kubla Khan, because both empires end in ruins, therefore the work
of artists is more eternal than the tyrants rule.
Alastor by Shelley
Q Compare Kubla Khan by Coleridge with Alastor by Shelley, is there a
resemblance in the way each poem represents the relationship between East
In these orientalist narratives both Coleridge and Shelley represent the
relationship between east and west as gendered, that is to say, as a European
man falling in love with, or being seduced by, a fascinating oriental woman,
who leaves her lover disappointed and broken hearted.
The Corsair by Byron
Q How did Byron represent Conrad in the poem?
Byron portrayed Conrad as a disappointed idealist 'a man of loneliness and
mystery', a kind of fallen angel who has turned into a free-booting pirate,
pledged to wreak havoc with Turkish shipping and resist the stern power of the
local Turkish Pasha. His only virtue lies in his faithful love for his wife Medora.
Q Discuss Conrad's (chivalric European code of honour) in contrast to
Gulnare's oriental conduct?
Conrad's code of honour is a paradigm of aristocratic virtue, but it is hopelessly
ineffectual in practical situations. He is willing to allow himself to be killed
brutally by Seyd simply because he has lost the game. On the other hand,
Gulnare throws all codes of honour to the winds but in so doing effectively puts
an end to Seyd's tyranny and rescues Conrad.
Q Explain cultural opposition East / West in the inversion of gender and
class in the poem 'the Corsair'? (The reverse of gender roles)
A strange inversion of gender and class takes place as Gulnare exchanges her
passive 'womanly' qualities for those of a revolutionary male, and Conrad adopts
a passive stance, allowing himself to be led by the dominant Gulnare.
Q Why did Byron's contemporary British readership found the character
of Gulnare son fascinating?
For contemporary readership, Gulnare represents an exorbitant and horrifying
character, creating an identical character to that of the best Gothic villains.
Q Explain how did the official ideology of European imperialists was
betrayed in the poem 'the Corsair'?
The military and sexual tactics of Conrad and his band represents the 'official'
ideology of European imperialists (white men saving brown women from brown
men) But the outcome of Byron's poem represents betrayal and an inversion in
the ideology of European imperialists because Gulnare rescued Conrad from
prison (brown woman saving white men from brown men – only to seduce them
away from their white women).On the other hand, Medora's tragic death made it
clear that Conrad has turned Turk and betrayed the values of his own culture.
Q Compare and contrast Byron's description of Medora and Gulnare in
terms of cultural stereotyping?
Byron represented Medora as the domestic faithful wife, therefore characterized
by passivity, sensitivity and fidelity, so she represented a positive picture of
western women, on the other hand, Byron represented Gulnare as an unfaithful
woman and a seducer with heady charms. And when Gulnare assassinated Seyd,
she broke the rules of allowable feminine behaviour and became 'unsexed';
therefore she represented a negative picture of Eastern women.
Poetry techniques & important definitions
1- Selection of speaker: It can be the poet himself, or a character, a thing
-Alliteration: repetition of sounds, usually the first letters of successive words,
or words that are close together, for example:
'Flashed flickering forth fantastic flies'
-Assonance: a repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds.
-Onomatopoeia: a word that seem to imitate the sound or sounds associated
with the object or action, for example, ' cuckoo/ buzz'
-Rhyme: an echo of a similar sound, usually at the end of a line of poetry, such
as 'O fleet, sweet swallow'.
-Rhythm: a pattern of beats or stresses in a line of poetry creating a sense of
movement, such as the iambic rhythm, for example:
'I went across the road and bought a pair of shoes'
3- Imagery: a special use of language in a way that evokes sense impressions
(usually visual), many poetic images function as mental pictures that give shape
and appeal to something otherwise vague and abstract, for example 'yonder
before us lie / Deserts of vast eternity'
4- Figurative language.
-Metaphor: an image in which on thing is substituted for another, or the quality
of one object is identified with another, for example, the sun becomes ' the eye
-Simile: an image in which one thing is likened to another, the similarity is
usually pointed out with the word 'like' or 'as' such as 'my love is like a red rose'.
-Personification: writing about something not human as if it were a person, for
example, 'Busy old fool, unruly sun'.
Ballad: originally a song which tells a story (narrative), often involving a
dialogue, and characteristically the storyteller's own feelings are not expressed,
for example, the Lyrical Ballads: a collection of poems by Wordsworth and
Blank verse: a term specifically used to describe verse in unrhyming iambic
Narrative: the telling of a series of events (either true or fictitious). The person
relating these events is the narrator, but in poetry it is referred as the speaker.
Dialogue: a spoken exchange between characters, usually in drama and fiction
but also sometimes in poetry.
Epic: a long narrative poem dealing with events on a grand scale, often with a
hero above average in qualities and exploits.
Elegy: a poem of loss, usually mourning the death of a public figure, or
someone close to the poet.
Ode: a poem on a serious subject, usually written in an elevated formal style,
often written to commemorate public events.
Diction: the writer's choice of words. Poetic diction might be described for
instance as formal or informal, elevated or colloquial.
Refrain: a line or phrase repeated throughout a poem, some times with
variations, often at the end of each stanza.
Sonnet: a poem of fourteen iambic pentameter lines with varying rhyme
schemes originally composed of an octave and a sestet, often expressing two
successive phases of a single thought or sentiment.
Octave: a group of eight lines of poetry, often forming the first part of the
Sestet: a group of six lines of poetry, often forming the second part of the
Quatrain: a group of four lines of poetry usually rhymed.
Tercet: a group of three lines in poetry, some times referred as a triplet.
Turn: a distinctive movement of change in mood or thought or feelings. In the
sonnet, the turn usually occurs between the octave and the sestet.
Pun: double meaning or ambiguity in a word, often employed in a witty way.
Puns are often associated with wordplay.
Couplet: a pair of rhymed lines, often used as a way of rounding off a sonnet;
hence the term 'closing couplet'.
Heroic couplet: iambic pentameter lines rhyming in pairs, most commonly used
for satiric or didactic poetry, and particularly favored in the 18 th century.
Rhyme scheme: a pattern of rhymes established in a poem. The pattern of
rhymes in a quatrain for instance, might be 'a b a' or 'a b b a'.
Caesura: a strong pause in a line of verse, usually appearing in the middle of a
line and marked with a comma, semi-colon, or a full stop.
Enjambment: the use of run-on lines in poetry. Instead of stopping or pausing
at the end of a line of poetry, we have to carry on reading until we complete the
meaning in a later line.
Ellipsis: omission of words from a sentence to achieve brevity and comparison.
Epigram: witty, condensed expression. The closing couplet in some of
Shakespeare's sonnets is often described as epigram.
Metre: a measurement of a line of poetry, including its length and its pattern of
stressed and unstressed syllables.
Foot: a unit of metre with a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, which
forms the smallest unit of rhythm in a poem.
Poetic inversion: reversing the order of normal speech in order to make the
words fit a particular rhythm, or rhyme, or both.
Questions to analyse any poem
1. What kind of poem is it?
Is it a lyric or narrative or sonnet and so on?
2. What does it talk about?
Does it talk about society, politics, love, landscape, nature and so on?
3. Who or what is speaking?
Is it the poet or another character?
4. What is the form of the poem?
How many lines or stanzas? Are the lines short, long or equal?
Identify the sound techniques in the poem such as rhyme scheme, rhythm,
alternation, assonance and so on?
5. Identify figurative language or imagery in the poem?
What are the poetic images in the poem and types of adjectives such as colorful
or dark words? Identify personification, metaphor and simile?
6. Identify repetition of lines or ideas or words?
Such as the word 'and' which combines the lines together.
7. What is the importance of the title?
Does it shape the way in which we read the poem?
8. Discuss the last verse paragraph or stanza?
What does it add to the poem? Does it summaries the theme of the poem?