ROMANTICISM

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					ROMANTICISM


   浪漫主义
   Romanticism is a complex artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that
    originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and
    gained strength during the Industrial Revolution. It was partly a revolt
    against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment
    and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature, and was
    embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.
   The movement stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience,
    placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror, and the awe
    experienced in confronting the sublimity in untamed nature and its qualities
    that are "picturesque", both new aesthetic categories. It elevated folk art and
    custom, as well as arguing for a "natural" epistemology of human activities
    as conditioned by nature in the form of language, custom and usage.
Our modern sense of a romantic character is sometimes based on Byronic or
Romantic ideals. Romanticism reached beyond the rational and Classicist
ideal models to elevate medievalism and elements of art and narrative
perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines
of population growth, urban sprawl and industrialism, and it also attempted to
embrace the exotic, unfamiliar and distant in modes more authentic than
chinoiserie, harnessing the power of the imagination to envision and to
escape.
The ideologies and events of the French Revolution, rooted in Romanticism,
affected the direction it was to take, and the confines of the Industrial
Revolution also had their influence on Romanticism, which was in part an
escape from modern realities; indeed, in the second half of the nineteenth
century, "Realism" was offered as a polarized opposite to Romanticism.
Romanticism elevated the achievements of what it perceived as
misunderstood heroic individuals and artists that altered society. It also
legitimized the individual imagination as a critical authority which permitted
freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to
historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its
ideas.
        INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
   The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
    when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation had a
    profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain. The
    changes subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually
    the world, a process that continues as industrialisation. The onset of the Industrial
    Revolution marked a major turning point in human socialthe rise of the first city-
    states]]; almost every aspect of daily life and human society was eventually
    influenced in some way. In the later part of the 1700s the manual labour-based
    economy of some parts of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by
    the manufacture by machinery. It started with the mechanisation of the textile
    industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of
    refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved
    roads and railways. The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and
    powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic
    increases in production capacity.The development of all-metal machine tools in the
    first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production
    machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout
    Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting
    most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.
        FRENCH REVOLUTION
   The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of political
    and social upheaval in the political history of France and
    Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental
    structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal
    privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent
    radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of
    nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights.
   Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil, including
    executions and repression during the Reign of Terror, and
    warfare involving every other major European power.
    Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include
    the Napoleonic Wars, the restoration of the monarchy, and two
    additional revolutions as modern France took shape.
   In the following century, France would be governed variously
    as a republic, dictatorship, constitutional monarchy, and two
    different empires.
              Ⅱ.ROMANTICISM IN
                  GERMANY
   An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang Goethe whose
    1774 novel The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout
    Europe emulating its protagonist, a young artist with a very sensitive and
    passionate temperament. At that time Germany was a multitude of small
    separate states, and Goethe's works would have a seminal influence in
    developing a unifying sense of nationalism. Another philosophic influence
    came from the German idealism of Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich
    Schelling, making Jena (where Fichte lived, as well as Schelling, Hegel,
    Schiller and the brothers Schlegel) a center for early German romanticism
    ("Jenaer Romantik"). Important writers were Ludwig Tieck, Novalis
    (Heinrich von Ofterdingen, 1799) and Friedrich Hoelderlin. Heidelberg
    later became a center of German romanticism, where writers and poets such
    as Clemens Brentano, Achim von Arnim, and Joseph Freiherr von
    Eichendorff met regularly in literary circles. Important motifs in German
    Romanticism are travelling, nature, and ancient myths. The later German
    Romanticism of, for example, E. T. A. Hoffmann's Der Sandmann (The
    Sandman), 1817, and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff's Das Marmorbild
    (The Marble Statue), 1819, was darker in its motifs and has gothic elements.
                    Wolfgang Goethe

   was a German writer. George Eliot called him "Germany's greatest man of
    letters… and the last true polymath to walk the earth." Goethe's works span
    the fields of poetry, drama, literature, theology, humanism, and science.
    Goethe's magnum opus, lauded as one of the peaks of world literature, is
    the two-part drama Faust. Goethe's other well-known literary works
    include his numerous poems, the Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister's
    Apprenticeship and the epistolary novel The Sorrows of Young Werther.
   Goethe was one of the key figures of German literature and the movement
    of Weimar Classicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; this
    movement coincides with Enlightenment, Sentimentality (Empfindsamkeit),
    Sturm und Drang, and Romanticism. The author of the scientific text
    Theory of Colours, he influenced Darwin with his focus on plant
    morphology. He also long served as the Privy Councilor ("Geheimrat") of
    the duchy of Weimar.
   Goethe is the originator of the concept of
    Weltliteratur ("world literature"), having taken
    great interest in the literatures of England, France,
    Italy, classical Greece, Persia, Arabic literature,
    amongst others. His influence on German
    philosophy is virtually immeasurable, having
    major impact especially on the generation of
    Hegel and Schelling, although Goethe himself
    expressly and decidedly refrained from practicing
    philosophy in the rarefied sense.
   Goethe's influence spread across Europe, and for
    the next century his works were a major source of
    inspiration in music, drama, poetry and
    philosophy. Goethe is considered by many to be
    the most important writer in the German language
    and one of the most important thinkers in Western
    culture as well. Early in his career, however, he
    wondered whether painting might not be his true
    vocation; late in his life, he expressed the
    expectation that he would ultimately be
    remembered above all for his work in optics.
                           Schiller
   Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10,
    1759 – May 9, 1805) was a German poet, philosopher,
    historian, and dramatist. During the last few years of his life
    (1788–1805), Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated,
    friendship with already famous and influential Johann
    Wolfgang Goethe, with whom he greatly discussed issues
    concerning aesthetics, encouraging Goethe to finish works he
    left merely as sketches; this thereby gave way to a period now
    referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together
    on Die Xenien (The Xenies), a collection of short but harshly
    satiric poems in which both Schiller and Goethe verbally
    attacked those persons they perceived to be enemies of their
    aesthetic agenda.
   Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 –
    February 17, 1856) was a journalist, essayist, and one of the
    most significant German romantic poets. He is remembered
    chiefly for selections of his lyric poetry, many of which were
    set to music in the form of lieder (art songs) by German
    composers.
   August Wilhelm (later: von) Schlegel (September 8, 1767 –
    May 12, 1845) was a German poet, translator, critic, and a
    foremost leader of German Romanticism
   Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (later: von) Schlegel (March 10,
    1772 - January 12, 1829) was a German poet, critic and
    scholar. He was the younger brother of August Wilhelm
    Schlegel.
             Ⅲ.ROMANTICISM IN ENGLAND
   William Blake (28 November 1757 — 12 August 1827) was an English poet,
    painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognized during his lifetime, Blake's
    work is today considered seminal and significant in the history of both poetry
    and the visual arts.
   Blake's prophetic poetry has been said to form "what is in proportion to its
    merits the least read body of poetry in the language."His visual artistry has led
    one modern critic to proclaim him "far and away the greatest artist Britain has
    ever produced." Although he only once traveled any further than a day's walk
    outside London over the course of his life, his creative vision engendered a
    diverse and symbolically rich corpus, which embraced 'imagination' as "the
    body of God," or "Human existence itself."
   Once considered mad for his idiosyncratic views, Blake is highly regarded
    today for his expressiveness and creativity, and the philosophical and mystical
    currents that underlie his work. His work has been characterized as part of the
    Romantic movement, or even "Pre-Romantic," for its largely having appeared
    in the 18th century. Reverent of the Bible but hostile to the established Church,
    Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American
    revolutions, as well as by such thinkers as Emanuel Swedenborg.
   Despite these known influences, the originality and singularity of Blake's work
    make it difficult to classify. One 19th century scholar characterised Blake as a
    "glorious luminary,a man not forestalled by predecessors, nor to be classed
    with contemporaries, nor to be replaced by known or readily surmisable
    successors."
   William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet
    who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature
    with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads.Wordsworth's masterpiece is generally
    considered to be The Prelude, an autobiographical poem of his early years which the poet
    revised and expanded a number of times. The work was posthumously titled and published,
    prior to which it was generally known as the poem "to Coleridge". Wordsworth was
    England's Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death in 1850.
   Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) was an English poet, critic,
    and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of
    the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. He is probably best known
    for his poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as his major prose
    work Biographia Literaria
   Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish
    historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time.In some ways Scott
    was the first English-language author to have a truly international career in his lifetime, with
    many contemporary readers all over Europe, Australia, and North America. His novels and
    poetry are still read, and many of his works remain classics of both English-language
    literature and of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of The
    Lake , Waverley and The Heart of Midlothian.
   John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was one of the principal poets of the
    English Romantic movement. During his short life, his work received constant critical attacks
    from the periodicals of the day, but his posthumous influence on poets such as Alfred
    Tennyson has been immense. Elaborate word choice and sensual imagery characterize Keats's
    poetry, including a series of odes that were his masterpieces and which remain among the
    most popular poems in English literature. Keats's letters, which expound on his aesthetic
    theory of "negative capability", are among the most celebrated by any writer.
   Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced was one of the major
    English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the
    English language. He is perhaps most famous for such anthology pieces as Ozymandias, Ode
    to the West Wind, To a Skylark, and The Masque of Anarchy. However, his major works were
    long visionary poems including Alastor, Adonais, The Revolt of Islam, Prometheus Unbound
    and the unfinished The Triumph of Life.Shelley's unconventional life and uncompromising
    idealism, combined with his strong skeptical voice, made him an authoritative and much
    denigrated figure during his life and afterward. He became the idol of the next two or three
    generations of poets, including the major Victorian and Pre-Raphaelite poets Robert
    Browning, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Algernon Charles Swinburne, as
    well as William Butler Yeats and poets in other languages such as Jibanananda Das and
    Subramanya Bharathy. He was also admired by Karl Marx, Henry Stephens Salt, and
    Bertrand Russell. Famous for his association with his contemporaries John Keats and Lord
    Byron, he was also married to novelist Mary Shelley.
   Lord George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) was as famous in his lifetime for his personality
    cult as for his poetry. He created the concept of the 'Byronic hero' - a defiant, melancholy
    young man, brooding on some mysterious, unforgivable event in his past. Byron's influence
    on European poetry, music, novel, opera, and painting has been immense, although the poet
    was widely condemned on moral grounds by his contemporaries.
             Ⅳ.ROMANTICISM IN FRANCE
   François-René, vicomte de Chateaubriand (September 4, 1768 –
    July 4, 1848) was a French writer, politician and diplomat. He is
    considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature.
   Victor-Marie Hugo (February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a
    French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman,
    human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent
    of the Romantic movement in France.In France, Hugo's literary
    reputation rests primarily on his poetic and dramatic output and only
    secondarily on his novels. Among many volumes of poetry, Les
    Contemplations and La Légende des siècles stand particularly high in
    critical esteem, and Hugo is sometimes identified as the greatest
    French poet. Outside France, his best-known works are the novels Les
    Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris).Though extremely
    conservative in his youth, Hugo moved to the political left as the
    decades passed; he became a passionate supporter of republicanism,
    and his work touches upon most of the political and social issues and
    artistic trends of his time. He is buried in the Panthéon.
   Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, Baronne Dudevant (July 1, 1804
    – June 8, 1876), best known by her pseudonym George Sand, was a
          Ⅴ.ROMANTICISM IN ITALY AND
   Alessandro FrancescoPOLANDManzoni (March 7,
                         Tommaso
    1785–May 22, 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist. He is
    famous for the novel The Betrothed, one of the major works
    of Italian literature.
   Giacomo Taldegardo Francesco di Sales Saverio Pietro
    Leopardi, Conte (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) was an
    Italian poet, essayist, philosopher, and philologist. He was
    considered, along with Dante, to be one of Italy's two
    greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers.
   Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (Lithuanian: Adomas
    Bernardas Mickevičius; December 24, 1798–November 26,
    1855) is one of the best-known Polish poets and writers,
    considered the greatest Polish Romantic poet of the 19th
    century, alongside Zygmunt Krasiński, Juliusz Słowacki
    (the Three Bards) and Cyprian Kamil Norwid.
            Ⅵ.ROMANTICISM IN RUAAIA
   Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian Romantic author who is considered
    to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature.Pushkin
    pioneered the use of vernacular speech in his poems and plays, creating a style of
    storytelling—mixing drama, romance, and satire—associated with Russian literature
    ever since and greatly influencing later Russian writers.Born in Moscow, Pushkin
    published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the
    literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Imperial Lyceum in
    Tsarskoe Selo. Pushkin gradually became committed to social reform and emerged
    as a spokesman for literary radicals; in the early 1820s he clashed with the
    government, which sent him into exile in southern Russia. While under the strict
    surveillance of government censors and unable to travel or publish at will, he wrote
    his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, but could not publish it until years
    later. His novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was published serially from 1825 to 1832.
   Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov , a Russian Romantic writer and poet, sometimes
    called "the poet of the Caucasus", was the most important Russian poet after
    Alexander Pushkin's death. His influence on later Russian literature is still felt in
    modern times, not only through his poetry, but also by his prose. His poetry remains
    popular in Chechnya, Dagestan, and beyond Russia
                          Ⅶ.ART
   Francisco Goya, considered to be "the Father of Modern
    Art," began his painting career just after the late Baroque
    period. In expressing his thoughts and feelings frankly, as
    he did, he became the pioneer of new artistic tendencies
    which were to come to fruition in the 19th century. Two
    trends dominated the art of his contradictory; they actually
    were not. Together they represented the reaction against
    previous conceptions of art and the desire for a new form of
    expression. In order to understand the scope of Goya's art,
    and to appreciate the principles which governed his
    development and tremendous versatility, it is essential to
    realise that his work extended over a period of more than 60
    years, for he continued to draw and paint until his 82nd year.
   David, Jacques-Louis (1748-1825). French painter, one of
    the central figures of Neoclassicism.
   Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was the
    most important of the French Romantic painters.Delacroix's use of expressive
    brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the
    work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the
    Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of
    William Shakespeare, the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott, and the German writer
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his
    chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of
    the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on color and movement rather
    than clarity of outline and carefully modeled form. Dramatic and romantic content
    characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical
    models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the
    exotic.Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was also inspired
    by Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the
    sublime", of nature in often violent action.
   Théodore Géricault (September 26, 1791 – January 26, 1824) was an important
    French painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other
    paintings. He was one of the pioneers of the Romantic movement.
   Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775 – 19 December 1851) was an
    English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can
    be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. Although Turner was
    considered a controversial figure in his day, he is now regarded as the artist who
    elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting.
                                Ⅷ.MUSIC
   Ludwig van Beethoven (December 16, 1770– March 26, 1827) was a German
    composer and virtuoso pianist. He was a crucial figure in the transitional period
    between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music, and remains
    one of the most respected and influential composers of all time.Born in Bonn, then
    in the Electorate of Cologne (now in modern-day Germany), he moved to Vienna,
    Austria, in his early twenties and settled there, studying with Joseph Haydn and
    quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. Beethoven's hearing gradually
    deteriorated beginning in his twenties, yet he continued to compose masterpieces,
    and to conduct and perform, even after he was completely deaf.
   Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian
    composer. He wrote some 600 lieder, nine symphonies (including the famous
    "Unfinished Symphony"), liturgical music, operas, and a large body of chamber and
    solo piano music. He is particularly noted for his original melodic and harmonic
    writing.While Schubert had a close circle of friends and associates who admired his
    work (including his teacher Antonio Salieri, and the prominent singer Johann
    Michael Vogl), wider appreciation of his music during his lifetime was limited at
    best. He was never able to secure adequate permanent employment, and for most of
    his career he relied on the support of friends and family. Interest in Schubert's work
    increased dramatically in the decades following his death.
   Fryderyk Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the
    Romantic period. He is widely regarded as the greatest Polish
    composer, and ranks as one of music's greatest tone poets by reason of
    superfine imagination and fastidious craftsmanship. Chopin was born
    in the village of Żelazowa Wola, in the Duchy of Warsaw, to a Polish
    mother and French-expatriate father, and in his early life was regarded
    as a child-prodigy pianist. In November 1830, at the age of 20,
    Chopin went abroad; following the suppression of the Polish
    November Uprising of 1830–31, he became one of many expatriates
    of the Polish "Great Emigration.“
   Robert Schumann, sometimes given as Robert Alexander
    Schumann,was a German composer, aesthete and influential music
    critic. He is one of the most famous Romantic composers of the 19th
    century.He had hoped to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist, having
    been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck that he could become the
    finest pianist in Europe after only a few years of study with him.
    However, a hand injury prevented those hopes from being realized,
    and he decided to focus his musical energies on composition.
    Schumann's published compositions were, until 1840, all for the piano;
    he later composed works for piano and orchestra, many lieder , four
    symphonies, an opera, and other orchestral, choral and chamber works.
    His writings about music appeared mostly in the Neue Zeitschrift für
    Musik , a Leipzig-based publication that he jointly founded.
   Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born
    and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn
    (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a
    German composer, pianist and conductor of the early
    Romantic period. He was born to a notable Jewish
    family, the grandson of the philosopher Moses
    Mendelssohn. His work includes symphonies,
    concerti, oratorios, piano and chamber music. After a
    long period of relative denigration due to changing
    musical tastes and antisemitism in the late 19th and
    early 20th centuries, his creative originality is now
    being recognized and re-evaluated. He is now among
    the more popular composers of the Romantic era.

				
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