Cavity classification and nomenclature by jennyyingdi

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									What is operative dentistry?
It is the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of
   defects of natural teeth.
These defects may be:
• Dental decay
• Erosion
• Abrasion
• Attrition
• Hypolasia
• Discoloration
• Trauma
                 Scope

Operative dentistry is participated in
 sequential phases with a main objective
 to achieve total patient welfare, rather
 than to drill and fill.
                        Scope
I.     Diagnosis and clinical assessment of patients’
       problems (age general health and dietary habits)
II.    Outlining of the treatment plan in a logical
       sequential order of procedures (selection of an
       appropriate material)
III.   Execution of operative procedures to eliminate
       the lesion and provide the necessary preparation
       that accommodates the selected restorative
IV.    Construction of the restoration, and application of
       cavity liners/ bases and matrix
V.     Regular clinical assessment of restorations and
       the general health of the dentition
             Objectives

I. Restoration of health
II. Restoration of efficient and
     comfortable mastication
III. Restoration of esthetics
IV. Restoration of normal occlusion
             Dental caries

What is dental caries?

It is a reversible infectious disease
  resulting in the dissolution and
  destruction of the hard dental tissue
Etiology of dental caries
      Etiology of dental caries
I.   Tooth structure (host)

It is composed of:
o Enamel
o Dentin
o Cementum
o Pulp
     Etiology of dental caries
II. Bacteria (micro-organisms)

Streptococcus mutans, they are
    cariogenic bacteria resulting in
    carious defects in the hard tooth
    structure
     Etiology of dental caries
III. Carbohydrates (diet)

Mainly sucrose, it can break down and
    fermented by cariogenic bacteria
    giving acids that demineralize hard
    tooth structure
       Types of dental caries
According to severity:

a. Acute (rampant) :rapidly invading process
   that usually involves several teeth

b. Chronic :of variable depth and longer
   standing and tend to be fewer in number
       Types of dental caries
According to onset :

a. Primary (incipient) :describes the first
   attack on tooth structure

b. Secondary (recurrent) :observed
   under or around the margins of a
   restoration
       Types of dental caries
According to direction :

a. Forward caries :it is considered as a
   graphical representation of the
   pathway of dental caries

b. Backward caries
      Types of dental caries

Senile caries



Residual caries
      Types of dental caries
According to the number of surfaces
   involved:

a. Simple
b. Compound
c. Complex
       Types of dental caries
According to site:

a. Pits and fissure caries
b. Smooth surface caries
c. Root caries
         Cavity preparation
What is a cavity?
It is a discontinuity in the surface

What is a prepared cavity?
It is the mechanical alteration of a cavity
  to be suitable to receive a restorative
  material
      Cavity
classification and
  Nomenclature
       Areas liable to caries
• Pits and fissures
  A fissure → incomplete union of 2
  enamel lobes
  (complete union→ groove)
  A pit → incomplete union of 3 enamel
  lobes
  (complete union→ fossa)
• Areas in the proximal surfaces of teeth
  gingival to the contact points ( areas
  where food debris stagnate and
  ferment)
• Areas below the greatest diameter of
  the tooth ( buccal deflection ridge )
Classification of cavities


• According to the dangerous areas in
  teeth to:
    ∎ Pits and fissure cavities
    ∎ Smooth surface cavities
• Black’s classification { G V Black} :
  Class I
Class II
Class III
Class IV
Class V
Class VI
• According to the number of
  surfaces affected into:



 ∎ Simple cavity ( 1 surface )
 ∎ Compound cavity (2 surfaces )
 ∎ Complex cavity(more than 2 surfaces )
•  Mount’s classification {mount
   and hue 1997} :
  A Si/Sta concept for minimal invasive
   preparations.
Surfaces are:
1. Site 1 pits and fissures and on smooth
   enamel surfaces
2. Contact areas
3. Cervical areas
Sizes are:
1. Size 0 initial lesion not yet cavitated
2. Size 1 smallest minimal lesion
3. Size 2 moderate sized lesion
4. Size 3 cavity needs modifications and
   enlargment to provide protection to
   the remaing tooth structure
5. Size 4 cavity is extensive as loss of
   cusp or an incisal edge
Walls and angles of cavities
Definitions :
1.   Cavo-surface angle is the angle formed by the junction of the
     wall of the cavity with the surface of the tooth
2.   Dentino-enamel junction is the line of junction between
     enamel and dentine
3.   Enamel wall is the portion of the cavity which consist of
     enamel
4.   dentine wall is the portion of the cavity which consist of
     dentine
5.   Pulpal wall is the wall of prepared cavity occlusal to the pulp
     and at right angle to the long axis of the tooth
6.   Axial wall is any wall in the prepared cavity parallel to the
     long axis of the tooth
Rules for naming internal parts
of cavities stated by Black:
1. Surrounding walls of the cavity take
   the name of the tooth surface
2. The pulpal wall and if the pulp
   chamber is included its called sub-
   pulpal wall
3. Axial wall
4. Line angle
5. Point angle

								
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