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									Connecting Advanced Transportation to
 Renewable Communities – Is It Time?




         Terry Penney, Technology Manager
  NREL’s FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program
                    June 8, 2006
 Transportation and Energy Challenges

• Increasing demand for a finite resource - petroleum
• Emission reductions and fuel-economy gains have
  been offset by:
      More people
      More cars
      More vehicle miles traveled
      Larger light-duty vehicles
Demand for Fuels Outstrips Supply
Domestic Production with Transportation Use (1970-2020)
Worldwide Carbon Dioxide Emissions
                 United States         LDV

  Other Developing Countries

              Eastern Europe

                        China

                        Japan

                          India

                     Germany
                                                              U.S. light duty vehicles (LDV)
        Other Western Europe
                                                              alone are responsible for nearly
                      Canada
                                                              5% of world CO2 emissions.
              United Kingdom

                           Italy

 Other Industrialized Countries

                       France

                       Mexico

                  Netherlands


                                   0         1000       2000         3000   4000     5000        6000
                                                    Million Metric Tons in 2001

Source: S. Davis, Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 20, 2001
          So What Are We Doing?
          Changing the Paradigm




Vehicles and Fuels + Energy Smart   +   Renewables =
                      Buildings
= A Renewable Community
U.S. Renewable Energy Resources
     Pathways for Vehicles and Fuels
                                                  Hydrogen Powered
Conventional   Hybrid Electric   Plug-in Hybrid   Vehicles (including
  Vehicles       Vehicles           Vehicles         Fuel Cells)
      Hybrid Electric Vehicles
What are they and how do they work?
An HEV combines the internal combustion engine of a conventional
vehicle with the battery and electric motor of an electric vehicle.
Energy storage: Batteries, ultracapacitors, flywheels
Power unit: Fuel cells, spark ignition engines, compression ignition
direct injection engines, gas turbines
Propulsion: Mechanical input (parallel configuration), electric motor
(series configuration)
      Parallel vehicle                    Series vehicle
From Hybrids to Plug-in Vehicles

            A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
            (PHEV) uses today’s hybrid
            technology, adding a bigger
            battery and the capability to plug
            into your garage (or elsewhere) to
            fuel the battery with electricity.


               At 3 cents/mile to fill up an
               electric vehicle, compared
               to about 11 cents/mile to fill
               up a gasoline vehicle today,
               why not make a shift?
                     Hydrogen Pathways



     hydrocarbon                    water                           biomass


                     H2        H2
H2                                                      H2                    H2
           H2                       H2             H2         H
                                                             H2 2   H2
      H2        H2                          H2
                          H2                                             H2



                                            fuel cell




     Hydrogen must be derived from other energy sources.
The Next Step: Plugging-in Vehicles to a
        Renewable Community




       NEV                                    PHEV


                 View Videos

             View plug-in vehicle animation
             View neighborhood animation
   Petroleum Savings Opportunities for
         HEV, PHEV, and FCHEV
                                                1200

          Per Vehicle Cumulative Fuel Savings
                                                            HEV (15-50%)
                                                1000        PHEV (50-95%)
                                                            HEV nominal (30%)
                                                            PHEV nominal (75%)
                                                            FCHEV nominal (100%)
                                                 800
                     (barrels of oil)




                                                 600
                                                            PHEV
                                                   High Impact Path
                                                 400
                                                                                               FCHEV


                                                 200                                           HEV

                                                  0
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                                                                                   Year


PHEVs provide the best combination of rate and timing to significantly reduce
fuel consumption while hydrogen fuel cell (FCHEV) technology is being
developed.
                                                Source: NREL CTTS’ systems analysis modeling
                                              Real-World Plug-in HEV In-Use Fuel
                                                        Consumption
                                          227 vehicles from St. Louis each modeled as a conventional, hybrid and PHEV
                                         40                                                                400
                                                Conventional                                                                                                    Average Daily Costs
                                                Hybrid                                      26 mpg
                                         35                                                                350                                                  Gas.   Elec.    ¢/mi
Percentage of Vehicle Fleet In Use (%)




                                                                                                                 Cumulative Fuel Consumed (gallons)
                                                PHEV20
                                                PHEV40                                                                                                CV       $3.15     ---    8.3
                                         30                                                                300
                                                                                                                                                      HEV      $2.21     ---    5.8
                                               • 8647 total miles driven                    37 mpg                                                    PHEV20   $1.41   $0.48    5.0
                                         25                                                                250
                                               • 100% replacement of
                                                 sample fleet                                                                                         PHEV40   $1.08   $0.72    4.7
                                         20                                                  58 mpg &      200
                                                                                             140 Wh/mi                                                 Assumes $2.15/gal and 9¢/kWh

                                         15                                                                150


                                         10                                                                100
                                                                                                                                                            PHEVs:
                                                                                              76 mpg &                                                  ~40% reduction in
                                         5                                                    211 Wh/mi    50                                            operating costs
                                                                                                                                                      ~$460 annual savings
                                         0                                                                 0
                                          0         5          10          15          20            25   30
                                                                    Time of Day (hr)
Plug-in HEVs Require No New Capacity
and Even Improve Utility Performance
                               Utility Sized for
              700               Annual Peak

              650
                                                                               No PHEVs
              600       Peak Shaving                                           w/PHEVs
              550                              Excess Capacity
  Load (MW)




              500
              450                                                           Night-time
                                                                            charging
              400
                                                                            of PHEV’s
              350
              300
              250
              200
                    0          2000                4000             6000               8000
                                                     Hour
                                          Hours at Load Annually

Assumes utility controlled night-time charging for 50% of the vehicles in this utility district
Source: NREL’s analysis office EV load tool
                 V2G Enables PHEVs to Generate
                   Regulation Service Revenue
• Regulation service is used to manage the frequency
  and voltage of the electricity grid
      – Requires response of about 1 minute
      – Approximately 12% of the total cost of electricity

• Estimated revenue of
  $350-$1500 per
  vehicle/year depending
  on configuration and
  usage*
• Driving cycle more
  severe on battery than
  regulation loading
 * Based on methodology described by Kempton and Tomic,   Source: Brooks, A. and Gage, T. “Integration of Electric Drive Vehicles with the Electric
 Journal of Power Sources 144 (2005) 268–279.             Power Grid -- a New Value Stream” EVS 18 Berlin, 2001.
                              PHEV Barriers
Lithium-Ion Battery or Other Storage Technology
•   Cost per Battery
•   Cost per Unit Energy Storage
•   Longevity
•   Safety

Unrealistic Expectations
•   All-Electric Range
•   All-Electric Speed

Automotive Industry
•   New Investment Requirements at Time of Market Share Loss
•   Existing Vehicle Adaptation Constraints on Battery Space and All-Electric Range

Electric Utilities
•   Avoiding Peak Charging—Either by:
     –   Regulatory System or
     –   Pricing Incentives
                     Battery Cycle Life Data

                                                      • Existing data is limited
                                                      • Need to consider combination of
                                                        high and low frequency cycling as
                                                        in PHEV




Source: Presented by Christian Rosenkranz at EVS 20

								
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