Information on Poverty by heymang


									Poverty refers to being unable to afford basic human needs, such as clean
and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter.
About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live in absolute poverty today.
Relative poverty refers to the lacking a usual or socially acceptable
level of resources or income as compared with others within a society or

Poverty is usually measured as either absolute or relative poverty (the
latter being actually an index of income inequality). Absolute poverty
refers to a set standard which is consistent over time and between
countries. The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than
US $1.25 (PPP) per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 a day.
It estimates that "in 2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption levels
below $1 a day and 2.7 billion lived on less than $2 a day.
Six million children die of hunger every year - 17,000 every day.
The proportion of the developing world's population living in extreme
economic poverty fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001.
World Bank data shows that the percentage of the population living in
households with consumption or income per person below the poverty line
has decreased in each region of the world since 1990:
Region                                          1990        2002
East Asia and Pacific 15.40%        12.33%       9.07%
Europe and Central Asia        3.60%        1.28%      0.95%
Latin America and the Caribbean      9.62%       9.08%     8.64%
Middle East and North Africa         2.08%        1.69%       1.47%
South Asia                   35.04%      33.44%      30.84%
Sub-Saharan Africa                       46.07%      42.63%      41.09%

Since the world's population is increasing, a constant number living in
poverty would be associated with a diminishing proportion. Looking at the
percentage living on less than $1/day, and if excluding China and India,
then this percentage has decreased from 31.35% to 20.70% between 1981 and

The 2007 World Bank report "Global Economic Prospects" predicts that in
2030 the number living on less than the equivalent of $1 a day will fall
by half, to about 550 million.

But Africa will face difficulty keeping pace with the rest of the
developing world and even if conditions there improve in absolute terms,
the report warns, Africa in 2030 will be home to a larger proportion of
the world's poorest people than it is today.

Relative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on
social context, hence relative poverty is a measure of income inequality.

Relative poverty measures are used as official poverty rates in several
developed countries. As such these poverty statistics measure inequality
rather than material deprivation or hardship. The measurements are
usually based on a person's yearly income and frequently take no account
of total wealth.

Economic aspects of poverty focus on material needs, typically including
the necessities of daily living, such as food, clothing, shelter, or safe
drinking water. Poverty in this sense may be understood as a condition in
which a person or community is lacking in the basic needs for a minimum
standard of well-being and life, particularly as a result of a persistent
lack of income.

The World Bank's "Voices of the Poor," based on research with over 20,000
poor people in 23 countries, identifies a range of factors which poor
people identify as part of poverty. These include:

Precarious livelihoods
Excluded locations
Physical limitations
Gender relationships
Problems in social relationships
Lack of security
Abuse by those in power
Dis-empowering institutions
Limited capabilities
Weak community organizations

One third of deaths - some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day -
are due to poverty-related causes: in total 270 million people, most of
them women and children, have died as a result of poverty since 1990.
According to the World Health Organization, hunger and malnutrition are
the single gravest threats to the world's public health and malnutrition
is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality, present in half of
all cases.
Rises in the costs of living make poor people less able to afford items.
Poor people spend a greater portion of their budgets on food than richer
people. As a result, poor households and those near the poverty threshold
can be particularly vulnerable to increases in food prices. For example,
in late 2007 increases in the price of grains led to food riots in some

According to the Global Hunger Index, South Asia has the highest child
malnutrition rate of the world's regions.[46] Nearly half of all Indian
children are undernourished,[47] one of the highest rates in the world.

Research has found that there is a high risk of educational
underachievement for children who are from low-income housing
circumstances. This often is a process that begins in primary school for
some less fortunate children.
Poverty often drastically affects children's success in school. A child's
"home activities, preferences, mannerisms" must align with the world and
in the cases that they do not these students are at a disadvantage in the
school and most importantly the classroom. Therefore, it is safe to state
that children who live at or below the poverty level will have far less
success educationally than children who live above the poverty line.

Poor children have a great deal less healthcare and this ultimately
results in many absences from the academic year. Additionally, poor
children much more suffer from hunger, fatigue, irritability, headaches,
ear infections, flu, and colds. These illnesses could potentially
restrict a child or student's focus and concentration.
Poverty increases the risk of homelessness.[53] Slum-dwellers, who make
up a third of the world's urban population, live in a poverty no better,
if not worse, than rural people.There are over 100 million street
children worldwide.


Poverty reduction
Increasing the supply of basic needs
Removing constraints on government services
Increasing personal income


*   Self Employment Programme
*   - Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
*   - Wage Employment Programme
*   - Jawahar Gram Samiti Yojana (JGSY)
*   - Employment Assurance Scheme
*   National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
*   Infrastructure Development Programme
*   - Indira Awas Yojana
*   - Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana
*   - Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
*   - Rural Electrification
*   National Social Assistance Programme
*   - National Maternity Benefits Scheme
*   - National Old Age Pension Scheme
*   - Annapurna

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