PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN
AND COMMUNITIES (P4C)
DEVELOPING CITIZENSHIP THROUGH
DIALOGUE AND ENQUIRY
LEVEL 1 TRAINING
A number of documents from the SAPERE Level One Training Handbook have
been included in this pack with permission from SAPERE. The copyright for
these documents remains with SAPERE
P4C LEVEL ONE TRAINING
1. Setting the scene : Course Aims, Format and Methodology
2. P4C in Practice – The Oldham P4C DVD 2008
3. What is Philosophy? What is Dialogue and Enquiry?
Why do it?
4. Establishing Ground Rules for Working Together
5. Enquiry One
6. The Community of Enquiry : The Thinking Cs
The Ten Steps
7. Active Listening
8. Enquiry Two
9. Choosing Stimulus Materials
10. Last Words and ‘Homework’
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE TRAINING
Aims – Finding answers together
By the end of the training it is intended that you will have:
A good practical understanding of the philosophical enquiry approach
A positive “hands on” experience of the approach through participating in
The skills, motivation and confidence to start using the approach in their own
settings and contexts
Earned the Level One Certificate of attendance
In addition it is intended that for you personally and professionally you will:
Have developed the skills of active listening and reflection
Be more confident in taking part in and leading meaningful dialogue with
Developed empathy for others and the capacity to enter into other people’s
worlds and experiences
As a result of the training participants will be able to
Become reasonable citizens: that is ready to reason and be reasoned with
Become skilled enquiry facilitators
Have the confidence and competence to facilitate discussions around issues
of interest for young people including controversial issues relating to identity,
diversity, ethnicity, religion and belief
Establish enquiry groups in their own organizations and develop the ability of
young people to think both for themselves and with others
Develop the skills, attitudes and behaviours of their young people to deal
confidently with a range of controversial issues relating to their lives and
experiences and the real world
How is this to be achieved : A word about methodology
Duality of role : participants and learners
Focus on ‘living the experience’ reflecting on the experience
applying the learning
I hear : I forget
I see : I remember
I do : I understand
How are the aims to be achieved? –
A few words about the methodology of the course
Active Learning: Duality of role - as contributors and as learners
Philosophical enquiry is an active and engaging process – very different from a lot of
what passes for education and learning (of facts, etc.) Those participating in the
course will be encouraged from the start to raise questions, and to construct
meaningful answers, of their own. They will also be encouraged to focus on and
develop habits of thinking and learning, clearly justifying the claim that this course
promotes general ‘skills for living’.
They will, therefore, be as much in the role of thoughtful and vocal contributors as
passive and silent learners. But – lest this prospect raises any anxieties about
‘having to speak in public’ - be assured that contributions are always voluntary.
What happens, generally, is that participants just grow in confidence about the
contribution they can make.
Focus on ‘living the experience’ / reflecting on the experience / applying the learning
Another way of emphasising the active nature philosophical enquiry is to say that it
is a reflective practice, and not just the (fairly mindless) process of accumulating
and regurgitating information – the sort of thing that helps people pass exams or do
well in quizzes. Indeed, experience, and what you make of it, is much important in
this practice than calling information to mind.
For example, if participants in an enquiry are trying to make sense and value out of
important concepts such as ‘love’ or ‘loyalty’ or ‘leisure’, they will properly draw much
more on their own lives and experiences than on laws laid down by ‘experts’, or
even on the experiments of scientists, valuable though those can be.
A further benefit of thinking of enquiry in this way is that it encourages the informal
practice of habits and skills beyond the times and sessions in which a group meets
formally. That is to say, individuals begin to apply their learning more generally, and
to think of themselves as ‘enquirers’. They come to be – and be seen to be - more
reflective in their everyday life.
The expectation that participants will become more reflective through the course is
mirrored by an expectation that the course tutors will themselves model both
reflectiveness and (its close relation) reasonableness throughout the course. They
will listen well, not rush to judgement, and aim to have good reasons not just for
what they say but also for what they do.
Let it just be noted that these are high ideals – and ones towards which everyone
might be striving, not the tutors alone!
What is Philosophy? What is P4C? What do we mean by Dialogue and
Enquiry? Why do it?
Philosophy is ..
Love philo of wisdom Sophia
The study of the meaning and nature of existence, reality, knowledge, goodness etc.
(Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)
‘The unexamined life is not worth living’
‘I only know that I know nothing’
Socratic dialogue: The search for truth through dialogue
South Failsworth Primary School Philosophy Club
Philosophy is ..
about asking and answering questions that not a lot of people have thought
finding answers together to the big questions of life
about thinking about the things we say
thinking about things deeply and sharing our own thoughts
talking about tricky questions and using our minds to answer them Philosophy
means – love of wisdom (Philo – love of, Sophy – wisdom)
Bringing Philosophy back to Education and Life : Aims of P4C
“The aim of a thinking skills program such as P4C is not to turn children into
philosophers or decision-makers, but to help them become more thoughtful, more
reflective, more considerate and more reasonable individuals.”
Education can be seen as (…) a context in which young people learn to be
reasonable so that they can grow up to be reasonable citizens, reasonable
companions and reasonable parents
Making moral judgements is not an end in itself; it is a means for improving the
quality of life
Matthew Lipman (1924 -)
Origins & Rationale
How (and why) did P4C start?
Philosophy for Children, sometimes abbreviated to ‘P4C’ or ‘P for C’, is the
‘trademark’ of a curriculum for 6 - 16 year olds developed by Professor Matthew
Lipman and his associates at the IAPC (Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy
for Children) at Montclair State University, New Jersey.
Lipman’s project, conceived at Columbia University in the late 1960’s in the wake of
student unrest, was to encourage young people/citizens to be more reasonable -
that is, ready to reason and be reasoned with. Like the ancient Greek philosophers,
he saw this as the path to the ultimate goal of education: ‘practical wisdom’, or good
“I know nothing except the fact of my ignorance.”
Socrates (469 – 399
Lipman emphasised the importance of questioning or enquiry in the development
of reasoning. He also appreciated from Lev Vygotsky, the Russian psychologist, that
we learn to think much as we learn to speak - by internalising the patterns of speech
and thought that we hear around us. Thinking to ourselves is, in effect, borrowing the
language of others to talk to ourselves.
“What the child can do in co-operation today, he can do alone
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) – Mind in Society
Putting these educational insights together, Lipman developed a new model of
learning - ‘Communities of Inquiry’, (using the American spelling of ‘Inquiry’) in which
teacher and children collaborate with each other to grow in understanding, not only
of the material world, but also of the personal and ethical world around them.
The phrase, ‘community of inquiry’, was actually coined by American philosopher
Charles Peirce (1839 - 1914) to describe the community of scientists of which he
counted himself a member. Lipman gave the phrase new meaning and life by
pointing it in the direction of philosophical enquiry.
He was also influenced in his interpretation and implementation of the idea by John
Dewey, his predecessor at Columbia, famous for such books as ‘How We Think’
(1910), and ‘Democracy and Education’ (1916).
“an education that emphasizes community, communication, intelligent enquiry, and a
reconstructive attitude can best serve the citizens of an ever-changing world.”
For Dewey (1859 – 1952) Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education)
Citizzenship: Mathew Lipman
Critical Thinking is important if we are to have a reflective citizenry in a democracy. I
don’t think you want a sodden mass of citizens who just take whatever they are told
and accept whatever they are told without reflection. I think you want them to judge
what they are told in critical way. Not to be uncritical that is a terrible notion of a
democracy – an uncritical citizenry.
I think that you are watching a major change in the nature of education, because if
you could get education to centre on thinking rather than rote learning, then you’re
preparing for a very different kind of world.
Those who are in greatest need and direst need often are given hand-me-downs,
are given routine treatments – they are drilled – they are given basic skill until it
comes out of their ears. Even if they could learn in some pedestrian way to read,
they would not be learning to read critically, or to read imaginatively, or to write with
any kind of creativity. It’s simply failing them as citizens, it’s failing them as human
beings to do this.
The community of inquiry in the classroom can function the way a safety net does for
acrobats: it’s there in case you fall; it’s there to catch you and to keep you from
serious damage. And I think that it does this in the sense that you know that there
are others in the same boat, and that they feel for you. And so you don’t go
immediately to the desperate remedy of violence and drugs. You talk it over
Professor Mathew Lipman from the DVD Socrates for 6 year Olds
DEVELOPMENT OF ‘PHILOSOPHY FOR COMMUNITIES’
Since the early beginnings in the USA in the 1960’s P4C has grown and developed
as an international movement. It is now practised in over 60 countries. Work with
children in school has been a central feature of this development. At the same time,
the work with adults, “Philosophy for Communities”, has also grown and developed
in a wide range of contexts and community settings including:
Working intergenerationally with parents/grandparents joining their children in
Working with parents groups following parenting skills courses
Working with local tenants to explore issues in relation to housing and
Working with local residents as an innovative consultation model
Working with young people from different religious backgrounds in interfaith
Working with staff groups both as part of training and development days/team
meetings to team build and establish shared values
Working with young offenders
Developing “recreational philosophy” through PiPs: Philosophy in Pubs /
PHILOSOPHY FOR CHILDREN AND COMMUNITIES (P4C)
P4C is a pedagogical approach that is ideally suited to achieving the three aims of
the curriculum, as outlined in the recently published QCA document, to enable all
young people to become:
The approach also is ideally suited to providing a safe environment to address
controversial issues as recommended in the Diversity and Citizenship DfES Report:
It is the duty of all schools to address issues of ‘how we live together’ and ‘dealing
with difference’, however difficult and controversial they may seem.
The process of dialogue and communication must be central to pedagogical
strategies for Citizenship
Diversity and Citizenship DfES Report: January 2007
The contribution that P4C can make to promoting social and emotional wellbeing as
a prerequisite for effective learning, is now recognised and endorsed in the Primary
and Secondary National Strategy Social and Emotional Aspects of learning (SEAL)
Group enquiry facilitated through use of higher-order questioning and opportunities
for individual and group reflection. Many of the learning opportunities require pupils
to question and respond to a stimulus or structured activity, for example the use of
drama or role play. This allows learners to explore ambiguity and complexity in the
social situations in which they find themselves. In schools familiar with Philosophy
for Children this might be used very effectively to promote social and emotional skills
if the stimuli are chosen to explore social and emotional skills.
Primary SEAL Guidance Document DfES April 2006
Islam and Citizenship Education Project:
Developing a Citizenship Curriculum for Madrasahs
Guidelines for holding a dialogue
Islam encourages dialogue and the building of strong relationships
between different peoples.
Definition of Dialogue
Having a dialogue requires the following:
• Listening carefully to each other.
• Attempting to understand each other’s point of view.
• Responding politely.
• Attempting to come to a common agreement.
• Finally, if a common agreement cannot be reached, it should end with, “Let’s agree
In a healthy dialogue:
• information is exchanged.
• stories and experiences are shared.
• view points are clarified.
• participants listen in order to understand each other with the aim of coming up with
solutions to problems.
يا ع ا س ة ن نا ب ي ء ن ب ي
“Say, O People of the Book! Come now to a word agreed upon between us
and you” (Surat Al `Imran 3:64)
Explain that this verse encourages Muslims to dialogue with others. The Qur`an also
teaches us ways of holding a dialogue e.g. to look for similarities and common
ground as a starting point.
س ت ن ع د ي ي ن ن دن س ي د ع
ي ب ع
“And do not insult those who worship other than God, because they will insult God in
a hostile way without knowledge.” (Surat al-An`am 6:108)
UQuestionU: Should we make fun of anybody or their religion?
USuggested answersU: No, because if we make fun of other people and their
religion then they will also do the same.
“God will not be kind to him who is not kind to people.” (Bukhari)
Here the word people includes Muslims and non-Muslims. A Muslim is told to be
kind to all people regardless of their religion, colour or race. Being kind includes
listening and talking politely to each other and trying to understand the views of the
“Your soul is always attracted to impoliteness, and you are supposed to be polite.
One's self naturally opposes you, but you must try to prevent it from doing evil
deeds. If you let yourself go, you will be a partnerin the corruption that follows. If you
aid yourself in following selfish desires, you are a partner in spiritually killing your
own soul." (Mishkat al-Anwar)
What do you think will happen to those who are not kind to other people?
“All creation is God’s family and the best in God’s sight is the one who benefits his
Muslims have distinct beliefs and practices but they are part of the human family and
therefore must respect and be kind to all human beings since they are also part of
God’s family. This hadith tells us of the unity of mankind.
Critical Enquiry and Research
Islam teaches us that we must reason, observe and reflect about people and things
around us before coming to any conclusions, and that we must not follow blindly.
The skills of critical enquiry and research are a key part of citizenship education and
are necessary to make informed decisions.
COMMUNITY OF PHILOSOPHICAL ENQUIRY –
1 Basic Practices and Principles
sitting in a circle or horseshoe (equality of status)
turntaking, voting, etc. (fairness of process)
wrong to ‘put down’, right to ‘pass’, etc. (respect for persons)
seeking and giving reasons (ideal of reasonableness)
proper valuing of each person’s interests and questions
acknowledgement that each person’s experience/story is unique
proper valuing of knowledge, along with the recognition that
no one is all-knowing or all-wise
2 A DEFINITION
A group of people used to thinking together
with a view to increasing
their understanding and appreciation
of the world around them and of each other
3 MAKING SENSE OF THINGS
“Pooh began to feel a little more comfortable, because when you are a Bear
of Very Little Brain, and Think of Things, you find sometimes that a Thing
which seemed very Thingish inside you is quite different when it gets out into
the open and has other people looking at it”
- The House at Pooh Corner (A.A. Milne)
SAPERE Level 1 Handbook, 2004
BROADGREEN HIGH SCHOOL – YEAR 7
Share your ideas and join in
Give a reason for what you say
Don’t be afraid to change your mind
Listen to each other
Try and understand other people’s point of view
Respect other people’s ideas
Persevere – don’t give up
Recognising the Four Thinking Cs
questioning and reasoning
(seeking reasons, evidence, examples)
connecting and suggesting
(providing explanations, comparisons, alternatives)
listening and communicating
(showing empathy, choosing words suitably)
sharing and comparing
(pooling knowledge and experience,
building on each other’s contributions)
SAPERE Level 1 Handbook, 2004
Community of Enquiry
Preparation (stilling or stirring)
Presentation (story / stimulus)
Thinking time (‘reflect and connect’)
Conversation (‘pair and share’)
Formulation of questions (open / contestable)
Airing (questions behind the questions)
Selection (common interest / voting)
First Words (interpretations / indications)
Building (‘digging deeper’ / ‘spreading wider’)
Last Words (personal closure/group evaluation
Review and Debrief
SAPERE Level 1 Handbook, 2004
STRUCTURE of an ENQUIRY
i) The class, group or community should sit in a circle.
The room should be large enough to arrange the chairs in a circle so that all the
members of the ‘community’ can see each other and achieve eye contact with
whoever is speaking. The group should also be able to hear each other clearly;
therefore the acoustics of the environment need to be considered as well. The
teacher should be part of the group and all participants should be viewed as equally
important to the success of the ‘community’.
ii) Establish the conduct of the community.
Agreed guidelines can be established by the facilitator or agreed through discussion
by the group in order to enable the community of philosophical enquiry to be a
respectful, caring and collaborative environment. Guidelines may include:
• Listen to the speaker
• Respond to the dialogue (think about what is being said)
• Give reasons (I dis/agree with X because …)
• Treat everyone’s contributions with respect
• Comment on the point, not the person
• Contribute such that you support the community
iii) Warm-up games:
Prepare the group for the enquiry by using a short thinking skills game, task or
This works as an ‘ice-breaker’ to relax people and get them talking, as well as
stimulating their critical and creative thinking. Such games may include: ‘Granny’s
shopping list’, ‘Connections’, ‘Zip Boing’ etc (see appendix). Bear in mind that far
from needing a warm-up, some groups may need a calming exercise before starting
the enquiry (particularly on windy days!) During the enquiry use brain gym exercises
to maintain the groups engagement.
2. Presentation (Stimulus)
The stimulus at the start of an Enquiry is used as a means to providing the
community with a shared topic to consider and discuss, so that key concepts may be
identified and questions generated. The stimulus could be a story read or told to the
group, a picture book, a work of art, a poem, a piece of music, a video clip … in fact,
almost anything that will stimulate thought/questions in the participants minds.
3. Thinking Time (Private Reflection)
Provide individuals within the group with the opportunity to privately reflect upon the
shared stimulus, allowing sufficient time for them to investigate their thoughts about
it. Pupils could be encouraged to think about their feelings regarding the stimulus,
about things that interested them or confused them, or provoked a reaction within
They may wish to record this reflection in the form of a cartoon, a speech bubble, a
mind map, a concept map, or simply by listing some key words.
4. Conversation (Shared Reflection)
This can involve individuals sharing their private reflections with the whole group or
within smaller groups. They can do this by passing around their recorded reflection
without discussion, or by presenting it to the large/small group and talking the others
through their thinking. Alternatively it could be a timed activity where each person is
given the opportunity to speak for 1 minute while the rest of the group listens to
This should be a voluntary activity and individuals should be given the opportunity to
pass if they do not wish to contribute publicly.
5. Formulation (Generating Questions)
The group should be given sufficient time to think about the stimulus as individuals,
pairs, or groups in order to raise questions, issues, problems or ideas stimulated by
the story. The questions should be written up with the name of the author(s) next to
it. The group should be able to see all the questions clearly so that they can consider
each one as a possible subject for enquiry.
6. Airing of the Questions
The questions may be reflected upon, discussed or critiqued before selection
Each group/pair/author could be invited to explain or clarify their question for a
minute or so, followed by an opportunity for the rest of the community to ask for any
queries they may have about the question to be explained. During the airing
process, pupils may categorise types of question, identify issues or concepts
involved within the question, and look for possible links between questions. Linking
questions can help bring other ideas into the dialogue and also raises awareness of
the range of ideas that have to be incorporated into a discussion.
7. Selection (Voting for the Questions)
The group should vote for the question they would like to go forward to the
The helps to give the ‘community’ a sense of democracy as well as allowing all
contribution to considered in a fair way. Many different types of voting systems can
be used see list in appendix.
8. First Words
The person/people who formulated the chosen question are invited to open the
discussion by sharing their initial thoughts, ideas and opinions about it. They may
also give a brief explanation of how or why that specific question was the one they
formulated or decided upon, and describe their thinking behind this. Another
possibility is for everyone to write a personal “gut reaction” to the question, possibly
comparing it at the end to a final sentence on how they would respond after the
The first words are followed by an invitation of responses from other members of the
group. It is important that all participants are given the opportunity to express their
opinions, feelings and views about the question or concept being discussed, and
that each person must listen to others and consider their points of view and ideas
respectfully. The teacher should refrain from giving an opinion, and their role should
be that of a facilitator of the enquiry (See section on Role of the Facilitator).
10. Final Words
It is important that the group is given time at the end of the discussion to reflect upon
what has been said, what they have heard and upon their own thoughts, views and
opinions about the question or issue that has been discussed. After a period of
reflection each person should be allowed the opportunity to share their final thoughts
about the question with the rest of the group, possibly writing a sentence to compare
to that which they may have written in response to the question before the enquiry.
Review and Debrief
This is an important step for enabling progression of skills and attitudes. Whereas ‘Last
Thoughts’ are focussed on the content of the enquiry, the review is focussed on process. It
is, in effect, formative (and self-) evaluation, and may use some of the formal evaluation
tools introduced later in this course and handbook. Review is often done at the end of the
day or week, rather than at the end of an enquiry session. This can enable the enquiry to
run a fuller length, but also give a little more time for reflection. Since it is expected that it
will lead into decisions about how to follow up the enquiry, e.g. pursuing some research, or
a creative/curriculum project, and also about how improve the next enquiry, it should not be
left until just before that next enquiry.
Reflections on Process / Content
1) Ask pupils to go and stand next to someone who listened to others / gave good reasons
/ showed caring thinking (etc.) really well
2) Use home (work) time; encourage pupils to discuss an enquiry question with parents,
survey different age groups, find information that might help on the web etc.
3) Ask “what went really well today in our enquiry, & what could we do better next time?” If
there’s a problem they identify (e.g. not all of us could speak when we wanted to),
challenge them to find a solution to try next time.
The Professor and the Ferryman
Indian Folktale from Stories for Thinking by Dr. Robert Fisher
There was once an old ferryman who lived in a hut by the River Ganges. For as long
as anyone could remember his family had rowed boats across the river. His father
had been a ferryman, and so had his grandfather before him.Like all the villagers the
ferryman was poor. The money he made by rowing people across the river was
hardly enough to feed his family. He had taken over the job of ferryman when he
was a boy and had been doing it ever since. Although life was hard he never
grumbled, for he was pleased to be of service to his passengers.
The ferryman learned a lot about life by talking to his passengers. He heard about
life in the city, but he could not understand why people would want to live there. It
seemed that city people spent all their lives rushing about with no time to think. The
ferryman rowed slowly. He was in no hurry. He had time to talk and time to think
about things.One day a well-dressed man with a shiny briefcase climbed into his
boat. He wore a smart suit and had well polished shoes. He looked like a city
gentleman. Slowly the ferryman began to row his passenger across the river. After a
while the man from the city spoke.
'My good man,' he said, 'have you studied any history?' 'No sir,’ said the
ferryman.'What!' said the city man in surprise. 'Not studied history? Don't you know
how important history is? Are you not proud of your country's history? Why don't you
know any history?' The ferryman shook his head. ' I don't know any history, sir. I
can't read, sir. I never went to school and so I didn't learn history.' 'Didn't learn?'
said the man. 'There's no excuse for not learning. That is why we are here. You
surely learnt some geography?' 'No sir,' said the ferryman. 'I don't know any
'Well,' said the man, 'geography tells us about the world. Don't you know anything
about the world - the countries, mountains and rivers...?' 'I never went to school,'
said the ferryman, 'I don't know about these things.' fter a few minutes the man
asked: 'Have you studied any science?' 'Sci-ence? No sci-ence, sir.'
'Haven't you heard about science?' said the man in amazement. 'About the sun,
moon and tides, about how things work? Scientists are the most important people in
the world today. Look at me. I'm a scientist. Do you see my briefcase? It is full of
important books and papers. I'm a professor of science. If you don't know about
science then you don't know about the world. You have learnt nothing! And if you
don't know anything you might as well be dead!'
The ferryman looked sad. He had never been spoken to like this before. He felt he
knew nothing, so much knowledge hidden in books that he had never learnt.
Suddenly dark clouds moved across the sky. The boat began to rock in heavy waves
and there was a roar of thunder. 'We will be caught in a storm,' said the ferryman,
'can you swim?' The professor looked fearful and clutched his briefcase. 'Oh dear!'
he cried. 'I cannot swim. I never learnt!' The small boat was tossed wildly to and fro
by the wind and waves. Lightning flashed and the rain poured down. Suddenly a
large wave overturned the boat, and both men were thrown into the swirling waters.
The old ferryman lost sight of his passenger in the water and swam slowly to the
safety of the shore. But the Professor, still clutching his briefcase, sank and
disappeared beneath the dark waters of the river.
Tips for Reflecting Back
1. Keep the focus on the speaker, “so you felt…”, “you’re saying that…”
2. Restate what you think they’ve said in your own words
3. Reflect back both facts and feelings
4. Check out with the speaker that you’ve understood
5. Do not offer advice!
6. Limit your interventions : consider if you really need to speak – use non verbal
language to show you are listening
‘To actively listen we must create space in the cluttered corridors of our
minds for communication to happen. When our cups are full – minds
overflowing with our own affairs – we have no room for the concerns of
another. The meaning of the words cannon enter, we cannot listen.
When we choose actively to listen, to make space for another, we
exercise a power that can have startling, life-giving effects’
Presenting the stimulus
Many different types of stimuli can be used for P4C, for example:
Picture books Television and popular culture
Short stories Newspaper articles
Song A real event/incident
Photographs Art work
Sensory ( Eg. Feely Food!
Bags/ Smelly boxes)
The best stimulus materials lead to the development of questions for the enquiry that
pass the “Four Cs test”. The four key words are:
1. Considerable: in the sense of being worthy of consideration; of real
substance and depth; thought provoking and engaging people’s interest
2. Contestable: in the sense of there being many different possible points of
view, opinions and responses; likely to provoke a really good “exchange”
3. Conceptual: relating to the “big ideas” of life
4. Contextual: in the sense of relating to the context of the lives, experiences
and interests of the participants to the enquiry
Stimulus Material for Developing Citizenship: Themes
1. Our Common Humanity
3. Racism and Discrimination
4. Respect for Others
6. Rights and Responsibilities
8. Environmental Issues
STIMULUS MATERIAL FOR P4C
1 Specially written material
Philosophy for Children Programme (IAPC)
Progression (revisiting of topics, concepts etc)
Entire curriculum (making planning easy)
Dialogical modelling (community aspect, thoughtfulness)
Easy access to philosophical topics, questions etc with less teacher
Linking with existing curriculum subjects
Text-based; no pictures
Identification can be problematic (gender, culture etc)
May encourage directive teaching (in contrast to CoPE
Thinking Stories (Phil Cam)
2 Specially written for ‘bridging’ (using existing stories)
Stories/Games/Values etc for Thinking (Robert Fisher)
Newswise (Roger Sutcliffe/Steve Williams)
Storywise: Thinking Through Stories (Karin Murris/Joanna Haynes)
Has advantages that come with good literature
Pictorial material ideal for young/problem readers
Use of existing literacy resources
Philosophy Club (Roger Sutcliffe/Steve Williams)
3 Not specially written material
Children’s own picture writing
(Indoor/outdoor) physical activities or games (e.g Mind & Muscle)
Masks of e.g story characters
Dolls; objects (e.g things in a matchbox brought in by the children – or
Human Beings by Adrian Mitchell
look at your hands
your beautiful useful hands
you're not an ape
you're not a parrot
you're not a slow loris
or a smart missile
we all start human
we end up human
or we're nothing
nothing but bombs
and poison gas
nothing but guns
nothing but slaves
of Greed and War
if we're not human
look at your body
with its amazing systems
of nerve-wires and blood canals
think about your mind
which can think about itself
and the whole universe
look at your face
which can freeze into horror
or melt into love
look at all that life
all that beauty
they are human
we are human
let's try to be human