Characteristics of Human Language Some understanding of the language of the above authors can draw the conclusion, that there is some similarity of the language definition. This similarity is characteristic of / characters in all languages used by humans. This is a common character trait that can be found in every language, including: 1. Language as a System Said system is already commonly used in everyday life which is defined as a regular arrangement to form an overall pattern that is meaningful or functional. The system is formed by a number of elements or components that relate to each other functionally. Language consists of elements or konponen that regularly arranged according to certain patterns and form a unity. Associated with the characteristics of the system, language is a systematic and systemic. Language is systematic because it follows the rule or rules of order. Language also is systemic because of the language itself is a system or subsystems. For instance, subsystems phonology, morphology syntax, semantics and the lexicon. 2. Language as a Symbol The word symbol is often paired with the symbol with the same sense. Symbol is one of the signs that are arbitrary and conventional. Thus, based on this sense the symbol is the equivalent of Saussure's notion of the sign. According to Saussure the sign is arbitrary. When the language is first started there, when the first word (sign / symbol) took effect, sound or any sound sequence (Saussure called the signifier / marker) was chosen to express any concept (Saussure calls the signified / marked). Evidence of the arbitrariness of it is that when different languages began to exist, these languages develop different signs, as well as using the signifier and signified different. In the previous discussion the authors mention that each symbol represents something called the language of meaning or concept. For example, the symbol of the language which reads [kursiy] represents the concept or the meaning of "an object that serves as a seat, usually with four legs and have a rest" and the symbol of the language, which reads [qolam] represents the concept or the meaning of "an object with a pointed end and inked function to write ". 3. Language is sound Is technically sound impression on the nerves as a result of vibration of the eardrum reacts due to changes in air pressure. And that is the sound of the language are sounds generated by the tool man said. However, not all of the sound produced by said instrument the person, including the sounds of language. Shouting, sneezing, coughing, snoring, although generated by the tool man said not including the sounds of language because it can not be combined with other sounds to convey a message. While the definition of the sounds of language here is a unit of the sound produced by the tool man said as observed in the phonetic and the phonemic fon as a phoneme. 4. Language is Meaningful As discussed earlier, language is a symbol of a sound system. As a symbol of course there is the symbolism. So, which is symbolized is a concept that contains the concept and idea or meaning to be conveyed in the form of sound. Coat the sounds of language that is meaningful in the language of the units in the form of language morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and discourse. Because the language is meaningful, then it forms a non-significant sound in any language, not language, because language is a function of the message, concept, idea or thought. 5. Language is arbitrary The meaning here is the absence of arbitrary obligatory relationship between the tangible symbol of the language sounds (marker) with the concept or definition contained by the symbol (sign). We can not explain why the symbol of the language which reads [qolam] represents the concept or the meaning of "an object with a pointed end and inked a function to write". Why not with [lamqo] or [malqo]. If there is a relationship between markers of the marker must, of symbols in Arabic that reads qolam, qolam also be called by the people of Indonesia is not a pen, as well as the English would still call qolam not a pen. 6. Conventional language In addition to arbitrary languages is also conventional, meaning that all the languages that comply with the convention that a particular symbol is used to mark each concept ditandainya. If an object with a pointed end and inked a function denoted by the pen to write, then all the Indonesian people must obey. So if kearbitreran language lies in the relationship between the symbols of sound with the concept that it represents, then it lies in the adherence kekonvensionalan language speakers of the language to use that symbol in accordance with the concept it represents. 7. Productive language Language is said to be productive because of the limited components, to produce units that the sums are infinite. With a total number of letters hijaiyyah 29, can be words, phrases, clauses, sentences and an infinite number of discourses. 8. Unique language Each language has its own uniqueness, artnya has a characteristic not shared by other languages. For example, in Arabic syakal differences can cause differences in meaning. For example fa'ala words that show an active verb with the word fu'ila indicating passive verb. 9. Universal language Because the language of speech, then the universal characteristic of the most common language is the language that has the sounds of language consisting of vowels and consonants. Indonesian has 6 vowels and 22 consonants fruit, while Arabic has three pieces of short vowels and 3 long vowels and consonants 28 pieces, 16 pieces memililiki English vowels including diphthongs and 24 consonants. 10. Dynamic language Attachment and association with human language is always changing, causing the language is also changing and not static, because that language is called dynamic. The most obvious change, and most common in areas of the lexicon and semantics. 11. Varies language Members of the public of a language usually consists of various social status and backgrounds. Due to these differences in the language they used was to be varied. Variations in this language there are three terms you need to know, namely idiolek, dialect, and variety. Idiolek is the hallmark of a language that is owned by individuals. Dialect is a variation digunaan by a group of community members at a place and a time. Vaariasi language diversity is the language used in situations, circumstances, or specific purposes. 12. Human language Said to be humane because the only language used and owned by humans. If there are some animals that understands human language, it is limited to a habit or practice that is given to the beast.
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