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Chapter 11 The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans Chapter Outline Approaches to Understanding Modern Human Origins The Earliest Discoveries of Modern Humans Something New and Different Technology and Art in the Upper Paleolithic Summary of Upper Paleolithic Culture Homo sapiens sapiens All contemporary populations are placed in the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens. Most paleoanthropologists agree that several fossil forms, dating as far back as 100,000 y.a., should be included in the same subspecies. Recently discovered fossils from Africa are clearly H. sapiens, but show minor differences from living people and could be described as “near-modern.” Questions About the Origin and Dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens When did H. sapiens sapiens first appear? Where did the transition take place? In one region or several? What was the pace of evolutionary change? How fast did the transition occur? How did the dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens to other areas of the Old World take place? Theories of Human Origins Complete Replacement Model Regional Continuity Model Partial Replacement Model Complete Replacement Model (Recent African Evolution) Developed by British paleoanthropologists Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews. Proposes anatomically modern populations arose in Africa in the last 200,000 years. They migrated from Africa, completely replacing populations in Europe and Asia. Does not account for the transition from archaic H. sapiens to modern H. sapiens anywhere except Africa. Partial Replacement Model Proposed by Günter Bräuer of the University of Hamburg. Postulates the earliest dates for African modern Homo sapiens at over 100,000 y.a. Partial Replacement Model Initial dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens from South Africa was influenced by environmental conditions. Moving into Eurasia, modern humans hybridized with resident groups, eventually replacing them. The disappearance of archaic humans was due to hybridization and replacement. Regional Continuity Model (Multiregional Evolution) Associated with paleoanthropologist Milford Wolpoff of the University of Michigan. Populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa continued evolutionary development from archaic H. sapiens to anatomically modern humans. The Regional Continuity Model (Multiregional Evolution) Question: How did modern humans evolve in different continents and end up so physically and genetically similar? Explanation: Due to gene flow between archaic populations, modern humans are not a separate species. Earlier modern H. sapiens did not originate exclusively in Africa. Early Homo sapiens Discoveries From Africa and the Near East Dates Human Site Comments (y.a.) Remains Qafzeh 110,000 20 individuals Large sample; (Israel) (minimum) variability in expression of modern traits Skhu-l 115,000 10 individuals Earliest evidence of (Israel) (minimum) modern H. sapiens outside of Africa Early Homo sapiens Discoveries From Africa and the Near East Dates Human Site (y.a.) Remains Comments Cranium Second individual Omo-Kibish 120,000– and shows fewer (Ethiopia) 80,000? postcranial modern traits remains Klasies Several Perhaps earliest River Mouth 120,000? individuals; modern H. (South fragmentary sapiens in Africa Africa) Early Modern Homo sapiens Discoveries - Europe, Asia, Australia Dates Human Site (y.a.) Remains Comments 4 y.o. Abrigo do 24,500 child’s Shows mixture of traits Lagar skeleton Velho Interpreted as evidence (Portugal) of hybridization Famous site of early Cro- 8 modern H. sapiens; Magnon 30,000 individuals variability in expression (France) of modern traits Early Modern Homo sapiens Discoveries - Europe, Asia, Australia Dates Human Site Comments (y.a.) Remains Ordos Perhaps earliest (Mongolia, 50,000 1 individual evidence of H. China) sapiens in Asia Kow More than 40 14,000- Very robust Swamp individuals 9,000 individuals (Australia) (all ages) Lake 3 individuals, Date is controversial; Mungo 60,000- one recent extraction and (Australia) 30,000 cremation analysis of DNA Techniques for Dating Middle and Upper Pleistocene Sites Technique Physical Basis Examples of Use Date limestone formations; Radioactive decay of Uranium estimate age of Jinniushan site short-lived uranium series in China and Ngandong site in isotopes Java Accumulation of Thermolumin electrons in certain Date ancient flint tools; provide escence (TL) crystals released key dates for the Qafzeh site during heating Electron spin Date dental enamel; resonance Measurement of corroborate dating various sites (ESR) trapped electrons in Israel, Java, South Africa, and Australia The New World Ancestors of Native Americans reached the New World through migration over the Bering Land Bridge over many millennia. Debates continue, but at present, the only direct evidence of hominids in the New World date to about 12,000 y.a. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens and Homo floresiensis The Upper Paleolithic Cultural period began in western Europe approximately 40,000 years ago. Industries based on tool technologies: 1. Chatelperronian 2. Aurignacian 3. Gravettian 4. Solutrean 5. Magdalenian Upper Paleolithic Tools (a) Burin. A very common Upper Paleolithic tool. (b) Solutrean blade. This is the best-known work of the Solutrean tradition. Solutrean stonework is considered the most highly developed of any Upper Paleolithic industry. Cultural Periods of the European Upper Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic (beginnings) Cultural Periods 17,000 Magdalenian Solutrean 21,000 Gravettian 27,000 Aurignacian 40,000 Chatelperronian Middle Paleolithic Mousterian Cave Art Majority from southwestern France and northern Spain. Grotte Chauvet Dating has placed the cave painting during the Aurignacian period more than 30,000 y.a. Images include stylized dots, human handprints and animal representations. Among traces are dozens of footprints on the cave floor produced by bears and humans. Africa Rock art is found in southern Africa dating to between 28,000 and 19,000 y.a. Personal adornment dates back to 38,000 y.a. in the form of beads made from ostrich shells. Excavations in the Katanda area show remarkable bone craftsmanship. Intricate bone tools resembling harpoons were made from the ribs of large mammals. Quick Quiz 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the hypotheses explaining the origins and dispersal of anatomically modern humans? a) the partial replacement model b) the regional continuity model c) the regional replacement model d) the complete replacement model Answer: c The regional replacement model is NOT one of the hypotheses explaining the origins and dispersal of anatomically modern humans. 2. Scientists are fairly clear on when anatomically modern Homo sapiens first appeared. True False Answer: False Scientists are not fairly clear on when anatomically modern Homo sapiens first appeared. 3. The _________________ holds that anatomically modern populations arose in Africa within the last 200,000 years, migrated out and replaced populations in Europe and Asia. They did not interbreed because they were a separate species. Answer: Complete Replacement Model 3. The Complete Replacement Model holds that anatomically modern populations arose in Africa within the last 200,000 years, migrated out and replaced populations in Europe and Asia. They did not interbreed because they were a separate species. 4. The model also known as "Recent African Evolution" is based on the origin of modern humans a) in Africa and their interbreeding with local African populations. b) in Africa and their replacement of local populations in Europe and Asia. c) in China and their relatively recent evolution in Africa. d) simultaneously in Africa and China. Answer: b The model also known as "Recent African Evolution" is based on the origin of modern humans in Africa and their replacement of local populations in Europe and Asia.
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