MUSIC BASED INTERVENTION The scenario demonstrates by lm0N43u


									                      Social Work Skills
                            Chapters 1 and 2
General Social Work Skills
   As a social worker,
     You will serve people in all walks of life and in all kinds of
     The range of settings in which you might serve is wide and
     The contexts for practice are often complex, demanding and
     Competence requires adequate knowledge, ethics,
      accountability, and proficiency
                     Social Work Skill...
                ... fundamental to social work practice.
                 Are you in the right place?
 47-304-01
 Tues-Thurs
 Room
 Fall 2008

                             About Me
 Hail from East Coast of Canada
 Born and raised in a coal mining town
 Went to university to study philosophy
 Led to Social Work
 Led to Education
 Ended in academia
 Been here for 30+ years

                      About Each Other?
 Class Exercise
 Break into groups of 2
 Introduce one another
 Tell person one true statement about yourself and one false
 Have the person try and decipher which is the false and which is
  the true statement

                                       About Us
 Opportunity to learn
 Opportunity to share
 Opportunity to grow
 Opportunity to become hands-on, competent and confident
  social workers
                            Point of This Course
 Come to know, understand and practice the steps important to
  social work practice.
 To use case examples and situations that clearly illustrate the
  essential skills of social work practice.
 To work our way through summaries and skill-building exercises,
  and get involved in actual hands-on practice.
                            Teaching Methodology
   Lectures accompanied by PowerPoint outlines, class and small group
    discussions, and experiential activities.
   My responsibility:
       Provide content, and to provide the structure and opportunities to learn.
   Your responsibility:
       To learn; to be actively engaged in class, to be curious about new ideas, to be willing
        to try new skills, to ask questions when needed, and to complete all assignments
        (including assigned reading).

Course Work and Grading
 Refer to Course Outline
 Assignments
 Tests
       Multiple Choice
 Attendance
 Participation
                             This Class RULES!
   Respect for Self
      Do your best
      Positively participate in all classroom activities
   Respect for Others
      Stay on task without disturbing or distracting others
      Avoid ‘put downs’ or harass others
      Respect other people’s differences and opinions
   Respect for School
      Raise hand to speak
      Enter and exit the room quietly
      Complete all assignments on time
      Actively listen when others are speaking

   Up to here for Thus. Sept. 6th
                              Table of Contents
    Introduction
    Professionalism
    Ethical Decision Making
    Talking and Listening
    Preparing
    Beginning
    Exploring
    Assessing
    Contracting
    Working and Evaluating
    Ending
    Appendices

                            Student Resources
   Text Resources
   Student Support Resources
     Student Development and Support
       Student Counselling Center
                                     Chapter 1
                               Chapter Purpose
   The Purpose of this chapter will be to:
       Discuss breadth and complexity of social work practice
       Define and discuss the concept of “social work” skill
       Discuss the significance of social work sills
       Identify the phases or processes of social work practice
       Discuss common factors and essential facilitative qualities for professional
       Discuss the purposes and functions of The Social Work Skills Learning Portfolio
       Discuss the qualities and characteristics needed by ethical, effective social workers
           Social Workers…many the splendid role…
                  And the many splendid tasks…
        Do you Know Where You’re Going to?
What kind of social work would you like to practice in the future?

   At some point in your career as a social worker, you might:
     Serve in a child- protection capacity, responding to indications that a
      child may be at risk of abuse or neglect.
     Help families improve their child-caring capabilities or serve in the
      emergency room of a hospital, intervening with persons and families in
     Lead therapy groups for children who have been sexually victimized
      or provide education and counselling to abusive adults.
                               You might also…
   Aid couples whose relationships are faltering
   Help single parents who seek guidance and support in rearing their children.
   Serve persons who abuse alcohol and drugs
   Help family members who have been affected by the substance abuse of a
    parent, child, spouse, or sibling.
   Work in a residential setting for youthful offenders, a prison for adults, or a
    psychiatric institution.
                              You Could Even…
   Help people who are in some way physically or mentally challenged.
   Serve in a school system or perhaps as a consultant to a police
   Function in a crisis intervention capacity for a suicide prevention

                The Social workers role - a tiered approach
     Social Workers can also work in a variety of settings:
   Health and Community Services
   Health Care
   Communities
   Long-term care
   Justice
   Research
   Self-employment
                                                                   (Hick, 2002, p. 61)

                         Real Life Scenario
    Listen to the following audio recording of a client-therapy session
    Write down what the issue is
    Note what techniques the therapist uses
       The scenario demonstrates the strategic use of the Music Impact
        Inventory Scale (MIIS) with a 48 year old grandmother who lost her
        grandson accidentally last summer. Gordon was 5 years old and
        drowned in the family swimming pool. This is the six grief session that I
        have had with this grandmother.

   You may ask yourself,
     "Can I possibly learn what I need to so that I can serve competently as a
      social worker in all those places, serving such different people, and
      helping them to address such complex issues?"
     The answer to that question is certainly No!

       You can acquire expertise in those skills that are common to social work
                Regardless of situation or setting…
   Social workers are trained to function
     Within established codes of ethics and professionalism
     Within a holistic theoretical and practice framework
     By taking into account and working within the person-and-situation
      (PAS) or person-in-environment (PIE) or person-issue-situation (PIS)
     By employing social work skills

                     Social Work Code of Ethics
   Social workers pledge adherence as follows:
     The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in
      human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to
      enhance well being.
     Utilising theories of human behaviour and social systems, social work
      intervenes at the points where people interact with their environments.
                   Person-in-environment (PIE)
   Social Work seeks to recognize both the client (person), their environment,
    and the interaction between them.
   Florence Hollis (1964) PIE or "person-in-the situation"
       Stresses person's physical, social, and psychological realities that both define
        and limit that person.
       Social Workers seek to examine both the personal, and the social aspects of all
        'Problems' social/personal problems
       Most intervention happens at the individual level, with system approaches to
        problem solving seek mainly to improve individual functioning.
                     For Example: PIE for Child

 It  is for these reasons that this 304 course is invaluable,
    not only in your professional relationships but they will
    help you in your own communication skills in general

 in  truly understanding others, affirming their uniqueness
    and celebrating their individuality
                          Social Work Skill
"the practice component that brings
knowledge and values together and
converts them to action as a response to
concern and need (Johnson, 1995, p. 55),

"a complex organization of behaviour
directed toward a particular goal or activity"
                                             (Johnson, 1995, p. 431)

And a "social worker's capacity to use a
method in order to further a process
directed toward the accomplishment of a
social work purpose as that purpose finds
expression in a specific program or service"
                                            (Smalley, 1967, p. 17).

Skill is "the production of specific
behaviours under the precise conditions
designated for their use"
                              (Middleman & Gold-berg, 1990, p. 12).

                          Social Work Skill
   Circumscribed set of discrete cognitive and behavioural actions
       Derive from social work knowledge and from social work values,
        ethics, and obligations,
       Are consistent with the essential facilitative qualities,
       Reflect the characteristics of professionalism, and
       Comport with a social work purpose within the context of a phase or
        process of practice.
A "social worker's skills include being proficient in communication,
assessing problems and client workability, matching needs with
resources, developing resources, and changing social structures"

(Barker, 1995).
Twelve skills outlined by the National Association of Social Workers’
                            skills (NASW, 1981)
 Listen to others with understanding and purpose
 Elicit information and assemble relevant facts to prepare a social history,
  assessment, and report
 Create and maintain professional helping relationships
 Observe and interpret verbal and nonverbal behavior and use
  knowledge of personality theory and diagnostic methods
 Engage clients (including individuals, families, groups, and communities)
  in efforts to resolve their own problems and to gain trust
 Discuss sensitive emotional subjects supportively and without being
                              Skills Continued
 Create innovative solutions to clients’ needs
 Determine the need to terminate the therapeutic relationship
 Conduct research, or interpret the findings of research and professional
 Mediate and negotiate between conflicting parties
 Provide inter-organizational liaison services
 Interpret and communicate social needs to funding sources, the public,
  or legislators

   The skills are derived from the tasks associated with commonly
    identified phases or processes of social work practice, the
    essential facilitative qualities exhibited by most effective
    professional helpers, and the fundamental characteristics of
    professionalism and include
       Phases or processes of social work practice
 Preparing
 Beginning
 Exploring
 Assessing
 Contracting
 Working and evaluating
 Ending
                      Common Factors Research
    A review by Asay and Lambert (1999) of six decades of therapy
     outcomes and identified 4 common therapeutic factors which contribute
     to successful therapeutic outcomes:
       15% Model and Technique factors
       40% Client variables and extratherapeutic variables
       30% Therapeutic relationship factors such as:
         warmth, acceptance, empathic understanding, and client-therapist

       15% expectancy and placebo effects

                    CLIENT FACTORS (40 %)
Pre-existing characteristics of the client:
     Intelligence
     Personality traits
     Temperament
     Ethnic background
     Abilities
     Family size
     Family support
     Social network
     Etc.

Who are the clients?
   Clients, like social workers, vary is several characteristics, but with one notable

   ***Most clients that seek help have reached a point where their
    coping mechanisms no longer function.***

   Some clients seek services because someone else is distressed (e.g., a parent,
    employer, spouse, or other family member) or because they are referred,
    appointed or mandated to seek social services
   These clients tend to be less motivated than clients
      seeking help for themselves.
Which clients tend to fare better in their treatment outcomes?
   Clients who “do their homework” tend to do better. That is, clients who “complete”
    assignments given to them by their therapists (e.g., keep a diary of emotions, etc.) show better
    treatment outcomes.
   Burns & Spangler (2000) reported that depressed patients who were homework compliant,
    reported decreases in depression.

   Clients who are cooperative & open tend to have better treatment outcomes than clients who
    are resistant & defensive. (Orlinksy, Grawe, & Parks, 1994).
                 RELATIONSHIP FACTORS (30 %)
Factors that influence the quality of the
relationship between therapist and the client:
     Perceived empathy
     Acceptance
     Warmth
     Confidence
     Client’s selfexpression
     Etc.
                        Relationship Factors: The Evidence
   Krill (1986, p. xi) suggested that the relationship between a social worker and a client is
    more likely to be productive when:
   Worker and client like and respect each other.
   Client is clearly told what to expect and how to contribute to the helping process.
   Worker is warm, genuine, and sincere and regularly expresses empathy about the
    client's experience.
   Worker and client engage in goal-directed activities such as practice, in- session tasks,
    or between-session action steps.
   Worker actively seeks to involve significant persons in the client's life in the helping

                                                                                The quality of
                                                                              the therapeutic
                                                                              between social
                                                                                   worker and
                                                                                 individual or
                                                                       family is critical
                                                                          to achieving
Characteristics associated with good therapists?
                 HOPE & EXPECTANCY (15 %)
    The expectation of the client that the therapy will lead to positive
                  MODEL & TECHNIQUE (15 %)
 Beliefs
 Techniques
 Procedures
 Etc.

     contributing to the therapist’s (theoretical) frame of reference
    and practice

 Social   workers have long recognized the importance of
    the relationship
       McNeill et al (2005) found 3 common elements which lead to behavior
        change or reduction in problem behaviors:
          Accurate  empathy, respect or warmth and therapeutic genuineness;
          Establishing a therapeutic relationship or working alliance
          An approach that is person centered, or collaborative and client driven

                            Facilitative Qualities
   The characteristics of effective helpers are often called the facilitative
    qualities or the core conditions
   When consistently demonstrated by professionals, these aid in developing
    and maintaining a special rapport with their clients.
       This rapport is sometimes called the helping relationship, the working relationship,
        professional rapport, or the therapeutic alliance.

    The essential facilitative qualities become critical
    because when social workers consistently reflect
            these qualities, the risk of harming the
        person-and-situation tends to decrease and the
            probability of helping usually increases.
                              Effective Helpers
       Regardless of theoretical orientation and choice of intervention
        approach, effective helpers tend to reflect common
        characteristics such as
            Empathy
            Regard
            Authenticity
            Professionalism in their service to others.
 One of the Primary Skills to Master
 A process of joining in the feelings of another, of feeling how and
  what another person experiences, and feeling with another
 It is an understanding and appreciation of the thoughts, feelings,
  behaviours, experiences, and circumstances of another human
                          Empathetic Response
       A verbal technique that acknowledges you have heard the
        client’s emotional content.
       No requirement to feel the emotion.
       Steps:
    •     Identify the emotion – open-ended questions
    •     Identify its cause
    •     Respond in a way that shows you understand the connection between
          1 and 2
       Why is this important?
                            Empathic Listening
   A mother recalled of a time when her young daughter invited her to come outside and
   At first, the mother intently watched as her daughter repeatedly hit a tether ball, but
    soon began to wonder what her own role was in the game. So she asked her daughter.
   In response, the young girl matter-of-factly explained that every time she was
    successful in hitting the ball, the mother should congratulate her and say, “Good job!”
   This is, essentially, the role of empathic listening, that of accompanying another person
    and celebrating together the fact that the other can begin to unpack and analyze the
    challenges being faced.
   In the child’s game, success is measured by the ability to have the ball and its cord
    wrap around the post.
   In empathic listening, success is measured by the ability to unpack the often
    pain-soaked narrative and let it float to the surface.

                  Empathetic Response: CAUTION
 Some clients feel quite uneasy when the worker is frequently and
  intensively empathic.
 They might prefer a formal encounter in which the worker
  provides direct advice and guidance in a business-like fashion.
                       Other Facilitative Factors
 Integrity
 Professional knowledge
 Critical thinking and lifelong learning
 Ethical decision making
 Self-understanding and self-control
 Cultural competence and acceptance of others
 Social support and self-efficacy

   The facilitative quality of regard or respect suggests an attitude of non-controlling,
    warm, caring, unconditional positive regard non-possessive acceptance of other
   In cross- or inter-cultural contexts, regard also includes the genuine acceptance of
   Respect of this nature goes well beyond basic tolerance to include appreciation of the
    value of diversity in human communities.
 Authenticity refers to the genuineness and sincerity of a person's
  manner of relating. Reflecting fundamental honesty, an
  authentic social worker is natural, real, and personable.
 The presentation is congruent so that verbal, non-verbal, and
  behavioural expressions reflect synchronicity.
 Words and deeds match.
   Includes several characteristics:
        integrity,
        professional knowledge and self-efficacy,
        ethical decision making,
        critical thinking and lifelong learning,
        self-understanding and self-control,
        cultural competence and acceptance of others
        social support.

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