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The construction of the Vienna underground railway and measures

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 21

									                                                           ISSN 0077-5606
CANADA INSTITUTE                                         I NS1-ITUT CANADI EN
FOR SCl ENTl FlC AND TECHNICAL                           DE L'INFORMATION SCIENTIFIQUE
INFORMATION                                              ET 'TECHIVIQUE
                                                         NRC/CNR T T - 1900




                            TECHNICAL TRANSLATION

                            TRADUCTION TECHNIQUE




            THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE VIENNA UNDERGROUND RAILWAY
           AND MEASURES TAKEN TO PROTECT ST. STEVEN'S CATHEDRAL


                MITTEILLINGEN     DES INSTITUTES           R
                                                       F ~ GRUNDBAU UND
                BODENMECHANIK, TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAT, WIEN,




                          TRANSLATED BYITRADUCTION DE
                                    D.A.    SINCLAIR


 T H I S I S THE TWO HUNDRED AND THIRTY-FIRST I N THE S E R I E S OF TRANSLATIONS
              PREPARED FOR THE D I V I S I O N OF B U I L D I N G RESEARCH




                                           OTTAWA
                                            1977




        National Research       Conseil national
I$      Council Canada          de recherches Canada
                             NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL 0 F CANADA
                          CONSEIL NATIONAL DE RECHERCHE5 DU CANADA


                                  TECHNICAL TRANSLATION
                                  TRADUCTION TECHNIQUE
                                                                    ,
T i t l e/Ti t r e :                The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Vienna underground
                                    r a i l w a y and measures taken t o p r o t e c t
                                    S t . Steven's Cathedral         .
                                    (Der U-Bahnbau und d i e Massnahmen zum Schutz
                                    des Stephansdomes)          .
Authors/Auteurs:                    A. ~ s l l e r, A. Hondl , and E . Proksch
                                                   l

ReferenceIReference:                M i t t e i l ungen des I n s t i t u t e s f l r Grundbau und
                                    Bodenmechani k, Technische U n i v e r s i t d t , Wien,
                                    1 4 (112-4): 19-26, 1976.

Translator/Traducteur:              D .A. S i n c l a i r




                 Canada I n s t i t u t e f o r             I n s t i t u t canadien de
                  S c i e n t i f i c and Technical           1 'information scientifique e t
                  Information                                 technique


                                             Ottawa, Canada
                                                KIA OS2
                                                         PREFACE


               Tunnel 1 i n g f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , pub1 i c u t i 1 it i e s , water           supply, and
other       purposes        is     becoming more and more                          important         with      increasing
urbanization.             The OECD             (Organization                for     Economic         Co-operation         and
Development) has              e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e minimum demand f o r such c o n s t r u c t i o n i n
t h e United States              during      the       1970's        will       t o t a l almost $12 b i l l i o n .      The
maximum demand c o u l d be s e v e r a l times t h i s amount.                          Underground c o n s t r u c t i o n
i n Canada        is     growing i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n .            T h i s paper p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e
case r e c o r d o f t h e measures               taken        to      protect        an h i s t o r i c c a t h e d r a l from
damage due t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e           Vienna         underground          railway.        The r e p o r t
o u t 1 ines t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e sub-surface c o n d i t i o n s and                 the structural
c h a r a c t e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g as a b a s i s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n method.
The e x e c u t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i s d e s c r i b e d and i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e          building
was monitored throughout.                    It     is     o f much          interest         to     the     construction
i n d u s t r y g e n e r a l l y and t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i s     t h e r e f o r e made a v a i l a b l e by t h e
N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l .          We     are        i n d e b t e d t o M r . D.A.    Sinclair f o r the
t r a n s l a t i o n and t o D r .     J.H.L.         Palmer        of     this      D i v i s i o n who reviewed t h e
manuscript.


Ottawa                                                                      .
                                                                          C B. Crawford
December 1977                                                             D irector
                                                                          D i v i s i o n o f B u i l d i n g Research
      THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE VIENNA llNDERGROUND RAILWAY
                         O
     AND MEASURES TAKEN T PROTECT ST. STEVEN'S CATHEDRAL


                                              SUMMARY


The s t a t i o n p i p e s f o r t h e "Stephansplatz"                        s t a t i o n 1i e a t
a d i s t a n c e o f o n l y 5 m f r o m Vienna's                        greatest        cultural
monument, S t . Steven's Cathedral.                              The f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e
"Pagan Towers" go down                      to     a     depth           o f t h r e e meters and
rest,        to    some         e x t e n t , on s e t t l e n i e n t     endangered          loess
soil.         Before           the     c o n s t r u c t i o n work on t h e underground
r a i l system was begun, a thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made
o f t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e c a t h e d r a l and i t s r e a c t i o n t o
the     c o n s t r u c t i o n work,            and     the      engineering             of    the
underground system was planned t a k i n g these f a c t o r s i n t o
account.          'The     planners           foresaw          the        use o f bored p i l e
walling        and i n j e c t i o n m a t e r i a l        as       the      best      means    of
s e p a r a t i n g t h e s o i l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
work      from      that         beneath S t . S t e v e n ' s .             The s t r e s s    and
s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e former, i t was reasoned, would, i n t h i s
way, have t h e l e a s t              possible          i n f l u e n c e upon t h e l a t t e r .
A d d i t i o n a l measures          taken        include shield tunneling with
compressed          air        compensation t o                protect         the       immediate
vicinity of              the     endangered zone, l o w - v i b r a t i o n e r e c t i o n
of     the     bored p i l e              walls          for        the      a d j o i n i n g open
construction               pits,          and        restriction               of       pit    wall
deformation.               Measurements              taken         of       the     cathedral's
reaction w i t h respect                  t o s e t t l e m e n t , s l o p e and v i b r a t i o n
during       the         tunnel       construction               proved        the       measures
i n s t i t u t e d t o have been a1 t o g e t h e r successful                     .
                                                           THE PROBLEM

                   The " S t e p h a n s p l a t z " ( S t . S t e v e n ' s Square)         underground s t a t i o n 1 i e s
at       a       depth         o f a b o u t 26 m ( t u n n e l f l o o r ) , a b a r e 5 m away            from      the     west
facade o f S t . S t e v e n ' s C a t h e d r a l , V i e n n a ' s most i m p o r t a n t c u l t u r a l monument.
W h i l e most            of      t h e b u i l d i n g foundations i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l core o f t h e c i t y ,
owing t o t h e i r n o r m a l l y              2- o r 3 - l e v e l basement d e s i g n , had been c o n s t r u c t e d
a t c o n s i d e r a b l e depths, j u s t above t h e                 Q u a t e r n a r y groundwater t a b l e i n t h e
gravel           , the    v e r y h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d (up t o 80 ~ ~ / m ' ) * C a t h e d r a l        foundations
are          only        3 m deep, r e s t i n g f o r t h e most p a r t             on     settlement-prone               loess.
Undisturbed, dense                       gravel      was    found       beneath t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o n l y a t t h e
southwest c o r n e r .               Neither the          church       basement        of     the      cathedral nor the
s o - c a l l e d catacombs e x t e n d t o t h e              vicinity         of     t h e west f a c a d e ( F i gure 4 ) .
The qua1 i t y             of      the     masonry w i t h         respect       to     the        stones and t h e cement
employed i n t h e c a t h e d r a l               foundations          (Figure        1)     was      i n v e s t i g a t e d by A,
K i e s l i n g e r (1949 and 1971) and v a r i e d                   greatly,        depending o n             the      various
times o f construction.                      Many d i f f e r e n t s i z e s o f stones            were     used,       ranging
from slabs                 of      r o c k and s m a l l e r p i e c e s o f s t o n e up      to     boulders         1 m       in
diameter.             The c e n t r a l      Romanesque s e c t i o n w i t h t h e G r e a t P o r t a l (Ri e s e n t o r )
and       t h e two Pagan Towers                     (HeidentUrme)            reveals        the     use o f        calcareous
sandstones, L e i t h a 1 imestones, q u a r t z sandstones f r o m t h e                               flysch        zone     and
numerous remnants                     of    R O M ~ encampment w a l l s ,             P l a c e s were found w i t h good
m o r t a r , b u t o f t e n t h e r e was much t o o l i t t l e , o r t h e m o r t a r was washed o u t o r
e n t i r e l y absent.             Two l a r g e G o t h i c c h a p e l s    (Eligius        and      Holy      Cross) were
added on a b o u t 1340, and w h i l e t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n s                  are        i n d e e d more      recent,
they         show         no     essential         differences         f r o m t h o s e i n t h e Ronanesque c e n t r e
section.             In        spite o f         s e p a r a t i n g j o i n t s between t h e G o t h i c and Romanesque
f o u n d a t i o n s , no uneven s e t t l e m e n t phenomena c o u l d be observed.                          S t . Steven's
Square 1 i e s a t a n e l e v a t i o n o f +14.5 m WN t o d 5 . 5 m WN (WN =                                  Vienna datum
=        156.68          m above           the     A d r i a t i c Sea) o n t h e "City t e r r a c e ' ' f r o m t h e R i s s
glacial            period.            A1 ong w i t h       Romanesque and             mediaeval            foundations         and
b a c k f i l l s down t o a d e p t h o f 1 0 m and more, t h e r e a r e u n d i s t u r b e d Q u a t e r n a r y


*    p       =    p o n d = gm f o r c e ( r e v i e w e r ' s n o t e )
deposits          which       i n p l a c e s extend t o t h e present-day                        surface.        Below       and
alongside          t h e Cathedral t h e Quaternary sediments, w i t h an average t h i c k n e s s
o f 1 4 t o 16 m, b e g i n w i t h 2         -     2.5 m o f          dark       b u r i a l -ground s o i l ( F i g u r e 3 ) .
Next come "1 oess" and a l l loess-loam v a r i a n t s , 4                              -   5 m thick, consisting o f
h i g h l y compacted, ye1 low, f i n e sandy s i l t s w i t h                        numerous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f
genuine l o e s s ( h i 1 l s i d e 1 oess) such as s e n s i t i v i t y t o subsidence ( F i g u r e 6 ) ,
largely            homogeneous              stratification                     and        calcareous             capillaries
(pseudomycel ium)         .     Accordi rrg t o A. K i e s l inger (1 971)                     t h i s i s t h e t y p e known
as       "basin     loess",       which 1 acks t h e f r i a b l e cohesion o f                        typical        h i 1l s i d e
loess.           Thus,    the      "deep t r e n c h t 1 and t h e water course o f                      the     "Rotenturm"
brook r u n n i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e Great P o r t a l , which had been b a c k f i l l e d ,                        were
typical          loess    ravines.          Red-brown loamy                   round r u b b l e       stones      have       been
embedded i n places i n t h e                 loess-loam               s e r i e s as a r e s u l t o f r e c e n t e r o s i o n
and.accumulation.                Below      the         loess         t h e r e i s t y p i c a l f l a t r u b b l e from t h e
nearby sandstone h i l l y r e g i o n              of       t h e Vienna Woods, w i t h wide-ranging g r a i n
s i z e and i n a l t e r n a t i n g open o r            h e a v i l y loamed l a y e r s down t o approximately
+3 m WN, i n t e r r u p t e d by a 0.9 t o 2.0 m t h i c k l a y e r o f y e l l o w s i l t and f i n e
sand which i s o f t e n s e r r a t e d o r loosened up w i t h 1enses o f r u b b l e ( 1 ower
boundary +2.7 m t o 4.25 m WN). The 1 0                                -
                                                      11 m t h i c k ice-age r u b b l e complex
(local         rubble)     comes       to     a n end            in        t h e l o w e r p a r t w i t h o l d e r , n o t very
e r o s i o n - s u s c e p t i b l e , non-loamy       quartz         and c r y s t a l 1 i n e      round r u b b l e s       of
v a r y i n g sandiness         w i t h a groundwater b e a r i n g l a y e r about 1 . 5 m and more i n
thickness.          The boundary between t h e                      Q u a t e r n a r y and T e r t i a r y a t a depth o f
14   -    16 m     (-0.4 m WN t o -1.55 m WN, and i n boreholes up t o                                    +    0.4 m WN) i s
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a coarse 1 ayer o f stones g r e a t e r                     than      250 mm i n diameter.
Iq       the   stratum         immediately u n d e r l y i n g t h e Quaternary, t h e M i d d l e Pannonic
Viennese         marl     continues         to          great          depths          (Congerian             marl,      Middle
P1 iocene-Late T e r t i a r y )         in      the       form o f a very s i l t y , s t i f f c l a y t o clayey
s i l t , grey-brown t o grey-blue,                    i n t e r r u p t e d by d i s t i n c t     1 ayers o f f i n e sand
0.5 cm t o          25 cni t h i c k .            In      t h e excavation and t u n n e l areas these sandy
s t r a t a d i p very g e n t l y     to     t h e n o r t h and i n c r e a s e i n t h i c k n e s s o v e r a s h o r t
distance          from 0 t o 10 cm w i t h                varying           groundwater           b e a r i n g and    erratic
pressure c o n d i t i o n s .      The s t i f f marl         , which         i s d i v i d e d by bedding j o i n t s and
deeply           s l o p i n g t e n s i o n and shear f r a c t u r e s was found t o be e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y
stable.           The perched second groundwater s e r i e s uncovered a t about 31 m depth
(-16 m t o              -17 m WN),       c o n s i s t i n g o f fine-sandy, s l i g h t l y c l a y e y s i l t (Table
I)i s noteworthy. The p r e s s u r e curves o f t h e f i r s t and second groundwaters
were approximately t h e same, v a r y i n g b e f o r e t h e s t a r t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n from
30     -    50 cm i n t h e            first    groundwater              and o n l y 20         -   30 cm i n t h e second.
However, t h e second groundwater showed 1arge                                   v a r i a t i o n s o f pressure ( F i gure
8)         i n d i f f e r e n t phases o f c o n s t r u c t i o n (bored p i l e          installation,              pressure
grouting)         .
                  The     s o i l -mechanical        properties                                    in
                                                                            o f t h e formations represented
s o i l p r o f i l e BL 314 ( F i g u r e 3 ) can be d e r i v e d f r o m T a b l e s I and 11. The
comparatively h i g h r e l a t i v e settlement of i = 5 % i n t h e loess i s s t r i k i n g
and portended an eventual                      s e t t l e m e n t o f as much as 8 cm, given t h e e x i s t i n g
l a y e r thickness (Figure 6).                   I n the          gravel       strata      a       r e g i o n o f anomalous
granulometry o f 0.4               -    2 m i s noteworthy
                                           m                              (Figure        7).        The marl, a p a r t from
the         sandy     strata      embedded         in        it,    as      a    slightly to              h i g h l y cohesive,
fine-grained s o i l ,             is     a    medium p l a s t i c ,           stiff     clay        t o medium p l a s t i c ,
semi-compact             silt.          Its    geological                                     be e s t i m a t e d from
                                                                     p r e s t r e s s i n g can
                                                                                               2
l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o be o f    the        o r d e r o f 200 Mp/m (A. Casagrande's
estimate).            The     s t i f f n e s s c o e f f i c i e n t obtained from t e s t s ( i n i t i a l loading)
v a r i e s between 2,000           -   5,000 Mp/m 2 (maxirmm 8,000 ~ ~ / r n ' ) and does n o t depend
l i n e a r l y on t h e depth.           I n t h e medium p l a s t i c s i l t s a u n i a x i a l compressive
strength o f             about      20 ~            / m ~
                                                 ~ was obtained, t o g e t h e r                with        a     permeability
coefficient             of    1 0 - ~ m / s . I n t h e medium p l a s t i c t o e x t r e m e l y p l a s t i c          clays
the         uniaxial       compressive          strength           varies        between        20    -    90 ~           /   m
                                                                                                                      ~ and t h e   ~
permeability c o e f f i c i e n t from 10-I'                  to        10-lo     m/s.         The        average a n g l e o f
i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n deduced f r o m t h e         r o u t i n e Viennese            tests           (E=   const) i s
28'.         With     repeated s h e a r i n g these angles a r e reduced t o one h a l f and o f t e n
less.
                                                 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS


              To s o l v e    t h e problem, t h e r e was a c h o i c e o f s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
Because o f t h e         s ~ l lamount            of    information           available,        first       of     all a
r e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r o u t e f a r t h e r away    from      the    Cathedral was contemplated.
An e l e v a t i o n o f t h e r o u t e was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d , b u t was r e j e c t e d on account
o f t h e deep sub-basement complex i n t h e a d j a c e n t s e c t i o n s .                  Since removal o f
t h e s t a t i o n would be d e t r i m e n t a l t o       its     f u n c t i o n i n g and would r a i s e o t h e r
formidable         problems, an a t t e m p t was made t o r e n d e r                the     original        solution
feas-i b l e w i t h t h e a i d o f every conceivable supplementary p r e c a u t i o n .                          Fi r s t
o f a l l , i t was decided t o change, d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e                  Cathedral,          from
t h e o r i g i n a l l y proposed open           cut    c o n s t r u c t i o n method t o a s h i e l d t u n n e l i n g
operation.         Open c u t s were r e t a i n e d         only     i n t h e a d j a c e n t areas ( F i g u r e 5 ) .
Since t h e      danger       o f s o i 1 c o l l a p s e d u r i n g t u n n e l d r i v i n g c o u l d n o t be r u l e d
o u t and because o f           the     importance o f t h e Cathedral, a d d i t i o n a l p r e c a u t i o n s
were taken.         As f a r as p o s s i b l e ,       t h e r e was     to     be     no m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e
historical         continuity         of        t h e Cathedral, i n c l u d i n g i t s foundations.                'This
requirement         r u l e d o u t t h e use o f anchor p i l e s and u n d e r p i n n i n g s e c t i o n            by
section w i t h a        1 ongi t u d i n a l     g r a t i n g and r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e foundations.
It was n o t       p o s s i b l e t o achieve any improvement o f t h e Cathedral f o u n d a t i o n
it s e l f through precautions, because any underpinning s o l u t i o n s                              by means o f
pressure g r o u t i n g o r         structural          measures e n t a i l e d t o o h i g h a r i s k f o r t h e
Cathedral.         Moreover, a s o l u t i o n was p r e f e r r e d i n which i t was n o t necessary
t o involve the i n t e r i o r o f the              Cathedral.          Finally, themethod whichwould
e n t a i l t h e l e a s t r i s k was sought.           e
                                                         W were        convinced t h a t a p r o t e c t i v e w a l l
o f bored p i l e s would c o n s t i t u t e t h i s optimum s o l u t i o n ( F i g u r e 2 ) .              In    this
way    we     hoped,       f o r t h e most p a r t , t o separate t h e s o i l volume                   immediately
i n v o l v e d i n t h e b u i l d i q g o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i t s s t r e s s e s and s e t t l e m e n t s , from
t h e volume o f s o i l beneath t h e Cathedral, and thus, i n t h e event o f a t u n n e l
c o l l a p s e , t o p r e v e n t a dangerous l o s s o f s u b s o i l f r o m beneath t h e Cathedral.
                                                       EXECLITION



              In     November        1970,       the     C i t y o f Vienna asked t h e F a c u l t y o f C i v i l
Engineering           and       Architecture           of     the     Vienna         Polytechnical              Institute
(Technische Hochschule Wien) t o make an e x p e r t                               appraisal           with     a view t o
dependably a v o i d i n g a l l          danger        to    t h e Cathedral i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t .
Professors H. Borowicka, A.                    Kieslinger,           E.     Schischka           and E. Tremmel , who
were     entrusted w i t h the appraisal, stated                           that      the       F a c u l t y deemed t h e
measures proposed by t h e C i t y o f Vienna t o                         be    fundamentally            adequate.       In
a d d i t i o n , o t h e r supplementary measures were suggested which would enable any
danger t o be recognized promptly, so t h a t countermeasures c o u l d i n ~ m e d i a t e l y
be     initiated.           This     involved primarily                   the     i n s t a l l a t i o n o f measuring
devices,       s p e c i a l o v e r l a y s d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n work,     and     finally,       the
supervision          of       operations        by     an     independent            engineer who,              like    the
government s u p e r v i s o r on 1arge             hydraul i c p r o j e c t s , would, regard1ess o f t h e
d a i l y progress o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , be p e r s o n a l l y        r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e safety o f
t h e Cathedral.           The p r o f e s s o r s named above and C i v i l              Engineer F. Liebscher,
who    was appointed s u p e r v i s o r , t o o k o v e r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d v i s i n g        and
supervising          the construction               operations            insofar      as       they     involved the
Cathedral     .
              The f i f t y     piles      c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e p r o t e c t i v e w a l l were produced by
the    rotary        d r i 11i n g method w i t h            continuously           advancing           casing,       while
c o n t i n u o u s l y checking t h e behaviour o f t h e Cathedral.                          I n o r d e r t o preserve
groundwater          comnunication, a space o f a t l e a s t 10                      -     30 cm,        for     a    pile
diameter o f 90 cm, was l e f t between p i l e s .                       Then t h e w a l l s         o f t h e open-cut
switching         shaft      and o f t h e deep open c u t ( F i g u r e 4) were produced by                            the
same method.          To     guard a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a blow-out d u r i n g s h i e l d
driving with              compressed a i r ,         and t o         provide         special        support       of    the
protective wall             i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e Pagan Towers, a slab-shaped zone i n
t h e Quaternary was r e i n f o r c e d ,         and two diaphragms were produced by pressure
grouting.         For t h e d r i v i n g o f t h e      s t a t i o n s h i e l d , t h e T e r t i a r y was pressure
grouted       (Figures       2 , 4 and 5 ) .        From t h e      particularly          large        quantity o f
g r o u t i n g m a t e r i a l consumed i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e western s t a t i o n tubes, i t i s
assumed t h a t a n c i e n t ,      unfilled       c a v i t i e s must    have been present.                 Minimum
w a l l movement was        achieved d u r i n g e x c a v a t i o n o f           t h e open c u t by c a r e f u l
appl i c a t i o n o f p r o v i s i o n a l reinforcement h o r i z o n s .     Re1 i e f o f water pressure
i n t h e second groundwater t a b l e was accomplished by i n s t a l l i n g pipes.                            Owing
t o t h e very l a r g e     size of         t h e deep         open c u t , e x c a v a t i o n was executed i n
one-third sections.               Tunnel d r i v i n g i n t h e s t a t i o n area was c a r r i e d o u t w i t h
a hand s h i e l d , w i t h corrrpressed a i r a t 0.5 atm.               gauge.



                                                   CONCLUSIONS


             The v e r y    extensive          observations          of    settlements,            v i b r a t i o n s and
i n c l i n a t i o n s a t almost a l l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n t h e Cathedral showed t h a t t h e
p r o t e c t i v e measures taken had            proved e n t i r e l y    adequate,           and       none o f t h e
measured v a l ues came anywhere near exceedi ng t h e                          pernii s s i b l e range ( Fi gure
11).     Most of t h e s e t t l e m e n t s measured a r e t r a c e a b l e        to     the       production o f
the    bored      p i l e w a l l s owing t o t h e unavoidable v i b r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
t h i s method o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and            the    disturbance         to     the     existing soil
equilibrium w i t h i t s modifications.                    Loss o f       s o i l and loosen-ing w i l l a l s o
have played an i m p o r t a n t p a r t .         The major i n f l u e n c e , however, arose f r o m t h e
fact that        this    was       the    first      measure taken and t h e one t h a t was a p p l i e d
c l o s e s t t o t h e Cathedral.          Once      the       protective wall           was     completed, t h e
s a f e t y o f t h e Cathedral in r e 1 a t i o n t o t h e remaining c o n s t r u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s
was    significantly           increased. As expected, s h i e l d d r i v i n g w i t h compressed
a i r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o n l y a small s e t t l e m e n t component. The v i b r a t i o n s
measured i n t h e course o f t h i s work were i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Nor d i d e x c a v a t i o n
o f t h e deep     open c u t cause any i n c r e a s e o f s e t t l e m e n t .           The simultaneously
executed         pressure groutings                with     presumed       1i f t i n g e f f e c t s ,     make      it
impossible t o          estimate       t h i s component w i t h any accuracy.                 The d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f settlements w i t h respect              to     l o c a t i o n ( F i g u r e 12) shows general evenness
w i t h a p r e d i c t a b l e maximum a t t h e      north      Pagan Tower owing t o t h e p r o x i m i t y
o f the switch shaft.              The s h i e l d d r i v i n g process       probably         had no        effect.
The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f t h e Cathedral
shows d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e p r o t e c t i v e w a l l ( F i g u r e 9 ) , b u t
d i r e c t comparison w i t h              t h e areas on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e w a l l cannot be made
satisfactorily            o n account              o f influences o f d i f f e r e n t kinds.             For t h e
c o n s t r u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s t h e upper v i b r a t i o n 1i m i t was p u t a t an a c c e l e r a t i o n
o f b = 20 cm/sec                 . 2
                                            F o r continuous loading, 2 cm/sec2, and occasional
l o a d i n g , 5 cmjsec2, were t a k e n t o be acceptable.                          Observations o f these
l i m i t s proved adequate. The 136.7 m h i g h South Tower i s f a r o u t s i d e t h i s
narrower s e t t l e m e n t range. Compared w i t h i t s long-term r a t e o f settlement,
t h e i n c r e a s e i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t , ( F i g u r e 10).
                                                                    References




B a c h l e l t n e r , R . ( 1 9 6 6 ) : "Der U i e n e r Dom"
                                          Wiener Dom-Verlar, Y i e n
B a l o ~ h , I .( 1 9 7 0 ) :            " G u t a c h t e n i i b e r d e n Bau-
                                          zustand von S t . S t e p h a n U ,
                                          unveroffentlicht
Borowicka,II. ( 1 9 6 3 ) :               "Der '.\riener R o u t i n e -                                                        .                 n
                                                                                                                         ,t ~ ~ l i t a c l i t e G n l ~ c r u n r !
                                          scherversuch",
                                          Mitteilunc des Insti-                                                          S t ~ p h a n s p l a t z " ,unver-
                                          t u t e s f u r Grundbau und                                                   of f e n t l i c h t
                                          Bodenmechanik T.H.Wien,                                                        "Geolorie von ' i i e n ,
                                          IIeft 5                                                                        I::urzfessur,f. IgL.'+",
Borowicka,H. (1970) :                     "10 J a h r e Wiener                                                           IIollin~k-3orntraep?q,
                                                                                                                         Lli e n - E e r l i n
                                          Ro~~tinescherversuch",
                                          M i t t e i l u n ~ e nd a s I n s t i -                                       "h~rr,ct;l ~ i j b e rc ; l t -
                                                                                                                                        i             j
                                          t u t e s f u r Grundbau und                                                   Sc.hiit ~rna?~nat;rr,cr, t .       G
                                          Rodenmechanik T.h. Wien,                                                       Z t e p l ~ a n, unver-
                                                                                                                                           "
                                          H e f t 11                                                                     i<ff r ? r i t l i c h t
Bundesversuchs-und                        " R e s o n a n z r n e s s u n ~ e ni m                                       "Geol o c i s und U-Bahnhal~
Forschungsanstalt                         Bereich d e r E l i c i u s -                                                  i n Wien", Der Aufbau,
A r s e n a l , Wien ( 1 9 7 4 ) : k a p e l l e d e s S t e p h a n s -                                                 IleTt; 1 1 / 1 2 , l:ien
                                          domes", u n v e r o f f e n t l i c h t
                                                                                     S i n g e r (1932) :
Dollerl,A.(1970):                         "Die R a u c r u n d u n t c r -
                                          suchungen f u r den Wiener                                                     " 3 e r i c h t 6 - s aonbau-
                                          U-Bahnbau", Der Aufbau                     Stoperer,K. (1975) :
                                                                                                                         m c i r t p r s iiber d ~ n
                                          H e f t ?/h, Wien                                                              Eirt,citsfortschritt",
Pakult5t f u r                        "Gutachten uher den                                                                Z 6 , i t s c h r i f t " k r Don",
A r c h i t e k t u r und             S c h u t z d e s Domes v o n                                                      .rlen, I i s f t 2
                                                                                                                         7 r.



Bauin~enieu-wesen                     S t . S t e p h a n wtihrend d e s             Versuc1.s- 1 ~ n 6                  "Erschiitt.erunrs-
T.H. Wien (1971):                     B a u e s d e r U-Bahn",                                                           messllngen am . ' ) t ~ p h a n C -
                                      unveroffentlicht                                          .,
                                                                                     Forschunrsanstalt d e r
                                                                                     Gtad t b'j e n , IA 39
                                                                                                       '                 dom", u n v e r o f f e n t l . i c h t
Fischer,K.(l950):                     "Technischer B e r i c h t ,                   (1971 h i s 1973):
                                      Sudturn St. Stephan" ,                                                              "Uas u n t a r i r d j s c h e
                                      Gewichteberechnungen,                                                               L'ien i m 3 p z u p a u f d s n
                                      unveroffentlicht                                                                    Bau k u n f t i c e r U n t e r -
Grundbau d r r S t n d t              " B e r i c h t i i b e r d i e zu e r -                                            ~rundbal.nen". Zeit-
Yien    -
       MA 2 9 ( 1 9 6 9 ) :           w n r t e n d e n SchutzmaRnah-                                                     s c h r i f t CIAV; 'A'ien,
                                      men f u r d e n Dom zu S t .                                                        H e f t 9/70
                                      Stephnn a n l a l l l i c h d e s
                                      U-nahnbaues",                                  Wiener S t a d t v e r -      " t I e i f , u n g s - und L i b e l l e n -
                                      unveroff e n t l i c h t                       messunE;, KA 41 ( 1 9 7 1 ) : rnessungen",
                                                                                                                   unveroffcntlicht
                                               elevation




                                                                         circular course     wall




                                                    * -1.5   WV~ ,
                                                              - ,J         from 1 .5 circular
                                                                           course
                                                                         '-ground plan
Pig. 1 Schecht 1367           -
                         Domfundament
       Sampling h o l e 1367           -
                               footing of
       cathedral




                               I    HEIDENTURM    -Pagan                 Tower




                                   SCHUTZWAND-                           ve wall
                                                                         iennadatum   (WN)
                                   BEREICH     -grouting                 in Section

              STATIONS-


  -.
  :IF.   2
             \ station tubes
              ROHREN           o           v


             i e s t - O s t Schnitt, 9-Behn        -
                                                     M


                                                        Dm o
                                                                     o      ~



             '.:est-eest s e c t i o n , c a t h e d r a l
             ur~derrround
                                                             -
         BORE HOLE 314
 Classification     Classification
 accd, to Tables    accd, to
 I and I1           Drill master
 (DIN 18196,4023)



                         BOHRUNG 314
   K l a s s ~ f ~ k a t ~m na n
                          o                                  Klassifikatim dcr
                                                                                                                           +
   Tabelle I und P
   IDIN 181%. 60231            .1L.65 ir WN       .   ?   0.0
                                                             Bohrmeislws
                                                                                 + 14.65   above WN(Vianna d a t u m ) =   - 0.0




   Hohen         1:200             -   19.85 u.WN
 IWN   =   W i e n a Null = 156.6Bm iiber NN [Adria)]
                                                                                     Elevations lr200    -19,85 below W N
                                                                                    WN = 156.68 m above s.s.1 (Adriatic)
l*ic. 3      Dodenprofil               - B                                           GW = Groundwater
             Soil profil               - b oorherhl oocl h
                                                         e
                                                             314
                                                             314




             *    The a b b r e v i a t i o n s used below a r e presumably d e f i n e d i n t h e
                  r e l e v a n t DIN document ( T r a n s l a t o r )
                                           Portal
                                          P;~USChapel
                                          y Sqoss
                                             ;hapel




Fig. 4   Situation Stephanspletz Wien
         Situation Stephans latz Vienna
         S t . Steven's %q. a r e a
                      Pagw+Tewe~s
                      North         South       1




                                                                                                            = Vienna
                                                                                                              datum


                                                                                                            section
                                                                                                            med h o r i z




F ~ F .5   Nord-Siid S c h n i t t durch d a s U-Bahnbauwerk m i t c e o l o g i s c h ~ mF r o f i l
                                                                                             a
           North-south s e c t i o n , s t a t i o n , s o i l s t r a t a , ~ e o l o ~ i c p rl o f i l

                   a. loess-loam
                   b. broken s l a t e
                   c. sandy loam and g r a v e l
                   d. broken s l a t e and p e b b l e s
                   GW = groundwater
                P rmeabilit c o e f f i                t
              ----eDurchlassigkeifskoeffizientcki e n,,, k
                       7         L         6            0.10   mls

                                                                     Shaft 1367
                                                                     Cube sample
                                                                     Depth = 2.30  -  2.55 m
                                                                         .
                                                                     Abel jewski
                                                                     r e 1 settlement




                                                                      Pressure
       Fig. 6 L i j R , Druck-Porenziffer-Diagramm
              Loess, pressure-void ratio curve




     S i l t grain            Sand g r a i n          Gravel g r a i n
f i n e ] med.1 c o a r s e f i n e ] med.]coarse f i n e ) med.1
                                                        /




                                     Kornd.urchmezser   in rnm
                                     Grain d i a m e t e r i n mm
            Fig.   7 Kornungsband von ~ e ~ e l ( 1 ) u n dKies(I1)
                     Kornverteilung vom L 6 R
                     Grading zones of
                     Grading curves of
                                                                                                             Months, J u l y      ' 73-June   '74

                                                                                                             Grouting, deep open c u t


                                                                                                            Groutin& t e r t i a r y , E s t
                                                                                                                                        $u be
                                                                                                            Sealing off switchin
                                                                                                                                       sgaft

P i l e excavation
switching s h a f t e a s t
        Vienna d a t u m               [WN = Wiener Null = 156,68m       uber   NN i M r m l l       156, 68 m above Standard sea
                              Fig. 8      Canelinie    -   Trrti5rfrundwasser
                                                                                                     leve1 ( A d r i a t i c )
                                          Tertiary    roundw water   l e v e l curve




                                                  Cathedral
                                                                                       ------
                                                                         L----J


                                                    SCHUTZW~~D        P r o t e c t i v e wall
                                  WEST      OSt                                                  8




                                                                     0     10   2 0 X ) U )          50M


                                                                                                            Settlement during
                                                                                                            c o n s t r u c t i o n of e a s t tube
                                                              SETZUNG      AHR REND DES      M I
                                                                                              US            S e t t l e m e n t d u r i n con-
                                                              DER    WES~RO~RE                              s t r u c t i o n of wesf t u b e
                                                              G~~~~~~~~



                                                           2, E
                                                              DER
                                                                  . M ~ , ~ ~ ~ G
                                                                     WESTROHRE
                                                                                 -
                                                                                 HW FERTIGSTELLUWG


                                                                                        n a l r n r u u o
                                                                                                            Total q t t l e m e n t a f t e r
                                                                                                            completion of e a s t t u b e



                              Fig. 9     Setzuneslinie i m        Vest-Ost S c h n i t t
                                         6 m n6rdlich der         Domachse
                                         Settlement c u r v e     i n west-enst s e c t i o n ,
                                         6    north of the        axis of the cathedral
                -   / ~ e t ~ u n n m Settlement i n mm
                                l g

              F ~ F .10                               e
                          J a h r e s ~ a n ~ l i n id e r Setzuncen-Siidturm
                          S e t t l e m e n t curve 7950-       1975,
                          ~outhtower




F i g . I 1 Setzungen d e s n 6 r d l i c h e n Heidenturmes, Westfassade
            S e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e northern Heidenturm, western-facade
                                         a    2   NACH FERTlGSIELLUNG     After completion of
                                                  DER SCHUIZWAND          protective wall
                                         b : VOR AUFFAHREN                Before driving of
                                                  DER   STATIONSROHREN    station tubes
                                         c:       NACH AUFFAHREN          After driving of
                                                  ~    ~ STATIONSROHREN
                                                          f i             station tubes

Fig. 12 S e t z u n g s i s o h y p s e n ,           Dom,    Abstand i n m m
             S e t t l e m e n t isohypsen,             d i s t o n c e in mm,
             cathedral

								
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