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Managing The Talent

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					Leadership Actions for
Managing The Talent
     Narendra M Agrawal
Indian Institute of Management
           Bangalore
    agrawal@iimb.ernet.in


       Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   1
               IIM Bangalore
   Structure of the Presentation
• Context of Talent Management.
• Characteristics of Knowledge Workers and
  their values.
• Selection of Talent.
• Induction of the Talent.



              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   2
                      IIM Bangalore
   Structure of the Presentation
• Leading the Talent.
• Identify and Nurture the Talent.
• Organizational Justice, Equity and Talent
  Management.
• Organizational Brand Building.
• Summer Internship.
• Facilitate the Talent to know oneself.
               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   3
                       IIM Bangalore
                       Talent
• A person having unique knowledge, skills and
  competencies which are relevant for the mission
  and goals of an organization.
• Further, those competencies and capabilities are in
  short supply and not easily available in the
  market.
• It requires time and efforts to develop and acquire
  those competencies.
• ‘Knowledge Workers’ are normally referred as
  talent.

                 Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/    4
                         IIM Bangalore
  Improving Effort- Performance Linkage
            Using Knowledge

Source of                                         Source of
  Tacit       Knowledge Worker                     Explicit
Knowledge                                         Knowledge


                    Knowledge


   Effort                                       Performance



              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/             5
                      IIM Bangalore
           KNOWLEDGE ORGANISATION AND
                 ENVIRONMENT
                         Customers
                                                                Competitors

Reference Group                                                               Customers
                                Knowledge Organisation
                               Vision, Mission and Values

                  Structure                                     Technology
                        Psychological Contract & Managing Expectations

                                Knowledge Worker
                          Concept-of-Self, Vision and Values

                   Systems           Knowledge                   Processes
 Sources of
 Technology                   Organisational Culture
                  Customers                                                  Competitors
                                   Reference Group
                              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/                        6
                                      IIM Bangalore
 Characteristics of Knowledge Workers

• Knowledge workers invest substantial time,
  efforts and resources to acquire relevant and
  valid knowledge. Overtime, the knowledge
  acquired by them becomes part of their self-
  concept.
• Knowledge workers like to use their
  existing knowledge and prefer to work in
  areas which provide opportunities for
  knowledge usage and generation.
               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   7
                       IIM Bangalore
 Characteristics of Knowledge Workers

• Knowledge workers tend to be high
  achievers and hence they expect periodical
  and tangible feed back and recognition for
  their performance.
• Knowledge workers tend to be more
  committed to their profession than the
  organisation they work for.


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   8
                       IIM Bangalore
 Characteristics of Knowledge Workers

• Due to existing demand and supply
  situation, knowledge workers are able to
  move from their existing organisations to
  new organisations in any part of the world
  rather fast.




               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   9
                       IIM Bangalore
Values of A Knowledge Worker
• Learning
• Autonomy
• Professionalism




              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   10
                      IIM Bangalore
      Talent – What do they value!
   Knowledge                                       Professionalism
   Generation               Role                 & Being Treated as A
  Acquisition &                                      Professional
     Usage

   Access to
Technology and                                         Reference
                         Talent
   Resources                                            Group



  Learning                                             Autonomy
                  Value Creation and
                            Contribution
                  Makingthe Talent/ NMAgrawal/
                   Managing                                     11
                           IIM Bangalore
Selection of Talent




   Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   12
           IIM Bangalore
 PERSONALITY, ROLE AND PERFORMANCE



               Personality



Competencies                 Behaviour         Performance



                  Role


                                   Copyright: Narendra M Agrawal
          Selection of Talent
• Use competencies to assess the suitability
  for a role.
• Look for ability to learn.
• Examine for congruence in values of a
  knowledge worker and organizational
  values.


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   14
                       IIM Bangalore
              Competencies

• Cluster of related knowledge, attitudes,
  and skills.
• Correlated with performance on the job.
• Can be measured against well-accepted
  standards.
• Can be improved via training and
  development.
               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   15
                       IIM Bangalore
   Advantages of Competency Approach

• The best way to understand performance is to
  observe what people actually do to be
  successful.
• Competencies can be learned and developed
  over time.
• Competencies can be made visible and
  accessible to people to understand and develop
  the required level of performance.

                 Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   16
                         IIM Bangalore
         Selection of Talent
• Active involvement of managers during the
  interview to share the excitement of
  working for the organization.
• Use the opportunity to build a realistic
  psychological contract.



              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   17
                      IIM Bangalore
          Selection of Talent
• Do not over promise at the time of
  selection.
• Interviewers should be trained in
  interviewing skills.




               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   18
                       IIM Bangalore
Linkages between Vision, Values, Concept-of-self,
 Organisational and Individual Learning Needs


   Organisational                                    Knowledge
   Vision, Mission                                     Worker’s
                                                   Vision, Values &
       & Goals                                     Concept-of-self



   Organisational                                        Individual
   Knowledge and                                       Knowledge and
   Learning Needs                                      Learning Needs

                     Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/                    19
                             IIM Bangalore
Induction of Talent




   Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   20
           IIM Bangalore
          Induction of Talent
• Help him to learn organizational knowledge –
  both tacit and explicit knowledge.
• Introduce him to individuals/groups with
  whom one could learn.
• Facilitate him to internalize one’s role-script.



                Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   21
                        IIM Bangalore
         Explicit and tacit knowledge
• Explicit knowledge can be expressed in words and
  numbers and stored as data specifications and
  manuals.
• It can be easily transmitted between individuals
  formally and systematically.
• Tacit knowledge is highly personal and hard to
  formalise, making it difficult to communicate or
  share with others.
• Subjective insights, intuitions and hunches are part
  of tacit knowledge.
                  Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/    22
                          IIM Bangalore
       Explicit and tacit knowledge

• Technical dimension of tacit knowledge
  encompasses informal personal skills or crafts
  which are referred as ‘know- how’.
• Cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge consists
  of beliefs, ideas, values and mental models. It
  shapes the way we perceive the world.




                 Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/    23
                         IIM Bangalore
                                                            Tacit knowledge      Tacit knowledge
                                                                Socialization    Externalization




                                                                                                            Explicit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge
                                      Tacit Knowledge

                                                                                       i
                                                                                               i
                                                                                  i
                                                                                       g
Ref.: Ikujiro Nonaka & Noboru Konno




                                                                i       i
                                                                                               i
                                                                                   i
                                                                                           i
                                          Tacit Knowledge




                                                                                           g
                                                                            o
                                                                    g              g       o       g
                                                               i
                                                                                           g

                                                            Internalization       Combination          24
                                                            Explicit Knowledge   Explicit Knowledge
        Induction of A Talent
• Provide a mentor and a coach who are best
  in their respective field – Socialization
• Create opportunities for them to know other
  talents of organizations. – Externalization
  and Dialogue – Create Social Capital and
  Communities of Practices


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   25
                       IIM Bangalore
        Induction of A Talent
• Introduce them to organizational knowledge
  resources. Access to LAN and Knowledge
  Depositories – Combination.
• Provide slack time for internalization of
  knowledge – Reflection and internalization.



               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   26
                       IIM Bangalore
        Induction of A Talent
• Help them get in touch with organizational
  values and organizational culture.
• Facilitate them to imbibe organizational
  values.
• Make them feel valued.



               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   27
                       IIM Bangalore
    Defining Role for A Talent
• Give big responsibilities soon in the career.
• Help the talent to understand the importance
  of one’s role and responsibilities in context
  of organizational mission and goals.
• Make the talent to understand the
  importance of one’s role for growth in the
  organization.
• Clearly define the performance matrix.
               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   28
                       IIM Bangalore
 Role of A Knowledge Worker

Superior          Customer          Colleagues




 Reference                           Family
               Knowledge Worker      Members
 Group




Subordinates         Self         Work Culture
        Dimensions of Role Efficacy
Role Making Vs. Role Taking
 Self-Role Integration
 Proactivity
 Creativity
 Confrontation
Role Centering Vs. Role Entering
 Centrality
 Influence
 Growth
Role Linkage Vs. Role Isolation
 Linkages
 Giving and Receiving Help
 Superordination
                                   Ref: Uday Pareek: Improving
                                   Role Efficacy
Leading the Talent




   Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   31
           IIM Bangalore
          Leading the Talent
• Treat them as professionals and as equals.
• Have confidence in their capabilities to
  deliver the performance.
• Give them big roles early in their career.




               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   32
                       IIM Bangalore
          Leading the Talent
• Give them autonomy – define the
  performance matrix and the time frame.
• Be available for discussions/clarification
  and support.
• Make them aware of the network resources
  so that they can use them effectively.


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   33
                       IIM Bangalore
          Leading the Talent
• Encourage them to learn. Provide time and
  resources for learning.
• Show concern for their growth and career.
  Get in touch with their career aspiration.
• Job rotate them and enrich their jobs.
• Involve them in special projects.


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   34
                       IIM Bangalore
          Leading the Talent
• Provide support so that they can achieve
  their career aspirations.
• Give regular, authentic, data based feedback
  in a supportive environment.
• Recognize and reward their unique
  contributions.


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   35
                       IIM Bangalore
Creating Culture for Teamwork and
  Cross-Functional Involvement
• Outbound training for knowledge workers.
• 360 degrees performance appraisal.
• Big team rewards.




              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   36
                      IIM Bangalore
Identify and Nurture the Talent




         Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   37
                 IIM Bangalore
          Identify the Talent
• Leaders should use organizational systems
  and processes to identify talent on a
  continuous basis.
• Use performance in existing roles as a
  starting point for talent identification.
• Use Development and Assessment Centers
  for talent identification.

              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   38
                      IIM Bangalore
       Identification of Talent
• Ensure that all ‘A’ Class employees are
  given big enough roles much earlier in their
  career when they are 60-70 percent ready.
• Ensure that ‘B’ Class employees do not feel
  neglected in the organization. They tend to
  be much more loyal employees.
• Use Pygmalion Effect with all the
  employees.
               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   39
                       IIM Bangalore
       Identification of Talent
• Facilitate ‘C’ Class employees to grow to
  ‘B’ Class employees. Job rotate them,
  change their work environment – facilitate
  them to succeed.
• If no changes in behavior and performance
  are noticed, facilitate them to move out of
  organization.

               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   40
                       IIM Bangalore
          Identify the Talent
• Ensure that ‘C’ Class employees do not
  occupy strategic leadership position. They
  can adversely affect the morale and
  motivation of talented employees.




               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   41
                       IIM Bangalore
      Nurturing the Talent for
         Leadership Role
• Career-linked leadership training
  programmes.
• Business games, simulations and role-plays.
• Job rotations, special assignments.
• Regular and relevant feedback.



               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   42
                       IIM Bangalore
      Nurturing the Talent for
         Leadership Role
• 360 degree feedback.
• Executive coaching and mentoring.
• Personal growth programmes – sensitivity
  training.
• Self-guided learning.



              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   43
                      IIM Bangalore
Organizational Justice, Equity in
Context of Rewards Allocation
   and Talent Management




          Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   44
                  IIM Bangalore
    Equity/ Distributive Justice
• Adam (1965) defined equity as the perceived fairness
  of the outcomes one receives from a social exchange
  or interaction.
• People compare their input/output ration to some
  referent standards, internally and/or externally to
  determine whether the outcomes they have received
  for their efforts are fair.
• People tend to define equity in terms of past
  performance, tenure with in an organization or rank.
                 Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   45
                         IIM Bangalore
    Equity/ Distributive Justice
• People tend to argue for the allocation rule
  that favours them over others. (Babcock et.
  Al., 1995).
• Beyond equity, rewards are awarded based
  on the equality and need based.
• Need can be business need or personal
  need.

               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   46
                       IIM Bangalore
   Reward/Resource Allocation
• Salary increase / bonus – Past Performance
  (Equity).
• Travel and support budgets – Equality.
• Office space and positioning of office –
  Rank
• Past performance (equity) and random draw
  (equality) are seen as more fair.

              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   47
                      IIM Bangalore
           Procedural Justice
• Original work was done in context of legal
  procedures.
• It refers to the fairness of the process used
  to arrive at decisions. (Thibaut and Walker,
  1975).



                Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   48
                        IIM Bangalore
         Procedural Justice in
            Organization
• Decisions should be based on accurate
  information.
• The procedure should be temporally and
  interpersonally consistent.
• Procedure should be ethical and should
  confirm to the prevailing standards of ethics
  and morality.

               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   49
                       IIM Bangalore
        Procedural Justice in
           Organization
• The process should include mechanisms to
  correct bad decisions.
• Process should be bias free.
• All affected parties should have opportunity
  to share their concerns and opinions.
Reference: Leventhal (1980).


               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   50
                       IIM Bangalore
          Interactional Justice
• Interpersonal Justice – It focuses on the
  sensitivity, politeness and respect people are
  shown by authority figures during procedures.
• Informational Justice – Explanations offered by
  decision makers why certain procedures were
  followed. Ensuring use of information which is
  thorough, reasonable, truthful, candid and timely.
Reference: Greenberg (1993)

                 Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/       51
                         IIM Bangalore
       Organizational Justice and
       Organizational Outcomes
• Distributive justice had strong correlations
  with outcome satisfaction, job satisfaction,
  organizational commitment, trust and
  withdrawal.
• Procedural justice had strong correlations
  with outcome satisfaction, trust, job
  satisfaction and organizational commitment.
• Reference: Colquitt et. Al. (2001).

                        Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   52
                                IIM Bangalore
       Organizational Justice and
       Organizational Outcomes
• Interactional justice had strong correlations
  with job satisfaction and evaluation of
  authority.

• Reference: Colquitt et. Al. (2001).




                        Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   53
                                IIM Bangalore
Organizational Brand Building




         Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   54
                 IIM Bangalore
  Organizational Brand Building
• Work towards being known in the industry
  for some unique products and services.
• Be known as a professional organization.
• Practice excellent HR practices.
• Ensure that the organization is known for its
  world class learning opportunities.
• Encourage your employees to participates in
  activities which are good for society.
               Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   55
                       IIM Bangalore
 Organizational Brand Building
• Highly professional and open work culture
• People being treated with respect
• Organisational vision, mission and values
  are defined and shared across the
  organisation




              Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   56
                      IIM Bangalore
Summer Internship




   Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   57
           IIM Bangalore
          Phases of Internship
•   Pre Placement Talks
•   Induction
•   Internship
•   Post Internship




                Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   58
                        IIM Bangalore
Facilitate the Talent to know
            Oneself




        Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   59
                IIM Bangalore
Modern man lives under the
illusion that he knows what he
wants, while he actually wants
what he is supposed to want
- Erich Fromm



          Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   60
                  IIM Bangalore
        Multiple Expectations Creating Pressures and Pulls on
                        Knowledge Worker

                  Self Expectations
                  •Continuous learning
                  •Being a leader in the chosen field
                  •Tangible and immediate feedback
                  •Equity in rewards


                                                    Peers Expectations
Family Expectations
                                                    •Work with technologies
•Big Money              Knowledge Worker             and software using
•Big Title
                                                     latest platforms
•Visits abroad
                                                    •No. of visits Abroad

                    Organisational Expectations
                    •Work on assignments and
                     technologies required
                     by customers
                                                                     61
“What no husband or wife of a
 knowledge worker can ever
  understand is that (s)he is
working when (s)he is staring
     out of the window”
   -Adopted from Burton Rascoe

                             62

				
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