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Managing The Talent


  • pg 1
									Leadership Actions for
Managing The Talent
     Narendra M Agrawal
Indian Institute of Management

       Managing the Talent/ NMAgrawal/   1
               IIM Bangalore
   Structure of the Presentation
• Context of Talent Management.
• Characteristics of Knowledge Workers and
  their values.
• Selection of Talent.
• Induction of the Talent.

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   Structure of the Presentation
• Leading the Talent.
• Identify and Nurture the Talent.
• Organizational Justice, Equity and Talent
• Organizational Brand Building.
• Summer Internship.
• Facilitate the Talent to know oneself.
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• A person having unique knowledge, skills and
  competencies which are relevant for the mission
  and goals of an organization.
• Further, those competencies and capabilities are in
  short supply and not easily available in the
• It requires time and efforts to develop and acquire
  those competencies.
• ‘Knowledge Workers’ are normally referred as

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                         IIM Bangalore
  Improving Effort- Performance Linkage
            Using Knowledge

Source of                                         Source of
  Tacit       Knowledge Worker                     Explicit
Knowledge                                         Knowledge


   Effort                                       Performance

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Reference Group                                                               Customers
                                Knowledge Organisation
                               Vision, Mission and Values

                  Structure                                     Technology
                        Psychological Contract & Managing Expectations

                                Knowledge Worker
                          Concept-of-Self, Vision and Values

                   Systems           Knowledge                   Processes
 Sources of
 Technology                   Organisational Culture
                  Customers                                                  Competitors
                                   Reference Group
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                                      IIM Bangalore
 Characteristics of Knowledge Workers

• Knowledge workers invest substantial time,
  efforts and resources to acquire relevant and
  valid knowledge. Overtime, the knowledge
  acquired by them becomes part of their self-
• Knowledge workers like to use their
  existing knowledge and prefer to work in
  areas which provide opportunities for
  knowledge usage and generation.
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 Characteristics of Knowledge Workers

• Knowledge workers tend to be high
  achievers and hence they expect periodical
  and tangible feed back and recognition for
  their performance.
• Knowledge workers tend to be more
  committed to their profession than the
  organisation they work for.

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 Characteristics of Knowledge Workers

• Due to existing demand and supply
  situation, knowledge workers are able to
  move from their existing organisations to
  new organisations in any part of the world
  rather fast.

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Values of A Knowledge Worker
• Learning
• Autonomy
• Professionalism

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      Talent – What do they value!
   Knowledge                                       Professionalism
   Generation               Role                 & Being Treated as A
  Acquisition &                                      Professional

   Access to
Technology and                                         Reference
   Resources                                            Group

  Learning                                             Autonomy
                  Value Creation and
                  Makingthe Talent/ NMAgrawal/
                   Managing                                     11
                           IIM Bangalore
Selection of Talent

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Competencies                 Behaviour         Performance


                                   Copyright: Narendra M Agrawal
          Selection of Talent
• Use competencies to assess the suitability
  for a role.
• Look for ability to learn.
• Examine for congruence in values of a
  knowledge worker and organizational

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• Cluster of related knowledge, attitudes,
  and skills.
• Correlated with performance on the job.
• Can be measured against well-accepted
• Can be improved via training and
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   Advantages of Competency Approach

• The best way to understand performance is to
  observe what people actually do to be
• Competencies can be learned and developed
  over time.
• Competencies can be made visible and
  accessible to people to understand and develop
  the required level of performance.

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                         IIM Bangalore
         Selection of Talent
• Active involvement of managers during the
  interview to share the excitement of
  working for the organization.
• Use the opportunity to build a realistic
  psychological contract.

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          Selection of Talent
• Do not over promise at the time of
• Interviewers should be trained in
  interviewing skills.

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Linkages between Vision, Values, Concept-of-self,
 Organisational and Individual Learning Needs

   Organisational                                    Knowledge
   Vision, Mission                                     Worker’s
                                                   Vision, Values &
       & Goals                                     Concept-of-self

   Organisational                                        Individual
   Knowledge and                                       Knowledge and
   Learning Needs                                      Learning Needs

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Induction of Talent

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          Induction of Talent
• Help him to learn organizational knowledge –
  both tacit and explicit knowledge.
• Introduce him to individuals/groups with
  whom one could learn.
• Facilitate him to internalize one’s role-script.

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         Explicit and tacit knowledge
• Explicit knowledge can be expressed in words and
  numbers and stored as data specifications and
• It can be easily transmitted between individuals
  formally and systematically.
• Tacit knowledge is highly personal and hard to
  formalise, making it difficult to communicate or
  share with others.
• Subjective insights, intuitions and hunches are part
  of tacit knowledge.
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       Explicit and tacit knowledge

• Technical dimension of tacit knowledge
  encompasses informal personal skills or crafts
  which are referred as ‘know- how’.
• Cognitive dimension of tacit knowledge consists
  of beliefs, ideas, values and mental models. It
  shapes the way we perceive the world.

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                                                            Tacit knowledge      Tacit knowledge
                                                                Socialization    Externalization

                                                                                                            Explicit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge
                                      Tacit Knowledge

Ref.: Ikujiro Nonaka & Noboru Konno

                                                                i       i
                                          Tacit Knowledge

                                                                    g              g       o       g

                                                            Internalization       Combination          24
                                                            Explicit Knowledge   Explicit Knowledge
        Induction of A Talent
• Provide a mentor and a coach who are best
  in their respective field – Socialization
• Create opportunities for them to know other
  talents of organizations. – Externalization
  and Dialogue – Create Social Capital and
  Communities of Practices

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        Induction of A Talent
• Introduce them to organizational knowledge
  resources. Access to LAN and Knowledge
  Depositories – Combination.
• Provide slack time for internalization of
  knowledge – Reflection and internalization.

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        Induction of A Talent
• Help them get in touch with organizational
  values and organizational culture.
• Facilitate them to imbibe organizational
• Make them feel valued.

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    Defining Role for A Talent
• Give big responsibilities soon in the career.
• Help the talent to understand the importance
  of one’s role and responsibilities in context
  of organizational mission and goals.
• Make the talent to understand the
  importance of one’s role for growth in the
• Clearly define the performance matrix.
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 Role of A Knowledge Worker

Superior          Customer          Colleagues

 Reference                           Family
               Knowledge Worker      Members

Subordinates         Self         Work Culture
        Dimensions of Role Efficacy
Role Making Vs. Role Taking
 Self-Role Integration
 Proactivity
 Creativity
 Confrontation
Role Centering Vs. Role Entering
 Centrality
 Influence
 Growth
Role Linkage Vs. Role Isolation
 Linkages
 Giving and Receiving Help
 Superordination
                                   Ref: Uday Pareek: Improving
                                   Role Efficacy
Leading the Talent

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          Leading the Talent
• Treat them as professionals and as equals.
• Have confidence in their capabilities to
  deliver the performance.
• Give them big roles early in their career.

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          Leading the Talent
• Give them autonomy – define the
  performance matrix and the time frame.
• Be available for discussions/clarification
  and support.
• Make them aware of the network resources
  so that they can use them effectively.

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          Leading the Talent
• Encourage them to learn. Provide time and
  resources for learning.
• Show concern for their growth and career.
  Get in touch with their career aspiration.
• Job rotate them and enrich their jobs.
• Involve them in special projects.

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          Leading the Talent
• Provide support so that they can achieve
  their career aspirations.
• Give regular, authentic, data based feedback
  in a supportive environment.
• Recognize and reward their unique

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Creating Culture for Teamwork and
  Cross-Functional Involvement
• Outbound training for knowledge workers.
• 360 degrees performance appraisal.
• Big team rewards.

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Identify and Nurture the Talent

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          Identify the Talent
• Leaders should use organizational systems
  and processes to identify talent on a
  continuous basis.
• Use performance in existing roles as a
  starting point for talent identification.
• Use Development and Assessment Centers
  for talent identification.

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       Identification of Talent
• Ensure that all ‘A’ Class employees are
  given big enough roles much earlier in their
  career when they are 60-70 percent ready.
• Ensure that ‘B’ Class employees do not feel
  neglected in the organization. They tend to
  be much more loyal employees.
• Use Pygmalion Effect with all the
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       Identification of Talent
• Facilitate ‘C’ Class employees to grow to
  ‘B’ Class employees. Job rotate them,
  change their work environment – facilitate
  them to succeed.
• If no changes in behavior and performance
  are noticed, facilitate them to move out of

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          Identify the Talent
• Ensure that ‘C’ Class employees do not
  occupy strategic leadership position. They
  can adversely affect the morale and
  motivation of talented employees.

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      Nurturing the Talent for
         Leadership Role
• Career-linked leadership training
• Business games, simulations and role-plays.
• Job rotations, special assignments.
• Regular and relevant feedback.

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      Nurturing the Talent for
         Leadership Role
• 360 degree feedback.
• Executive coaching and mentoring.
• Personal growth programmes – sensitivity
• Self-guided learning.

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Organizational Justice, Equity in
Context of Rewards Allocation
   and Talent Management

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    Equity/ Distributive Justice
• Adam (1965) defined equity as the perceived fairness
  of the outcomes one receives from a social exchange
  or interaction.
• People compare their input/output ration to some
  referent standards, internally and/or externally to
  determine whether the outcomes they have received
  for their efforts are fair.
• People tend to define equity in terms of past
  performance, tenure with in an organization or rank.
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                         IIM Bangalore
    Equity/ Distributive Justice
• People tend to argue for the allocation rule
  that favours them over others. (Babcock et.
  Al., 1995).
• Beyond equity, rewards are awarded based
  on the equality and need based.
• Need can be business need or personal

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   Reward/Resource Allocation
• Salary increase / bonus – Past Performance
• Travel and support budgets – Equality.
• Office space and positioning of office –
• Past performance (equity) and random draw
  (equality) are seen as more fair.

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           Procedural Justice
• Original work was done in context of legal
• It refers to the fairness of the process used
  to arrive at decisions. (Thibaut and Walker,

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         Procedural Justice in
• Decisions should be based on accurate
• The procedure should be temporally and
  interpersonally consistent.
• Procedure should be ethical and should
  confirm to the prevailing standards of ethics
  and morality.

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        Procedural Justice in
• The process should include mechanisms to
  correct bad decisions.
• Process should be bias free.
• All affected parties should have opportunity
  to share their concerns and opinions.
Reference: Leventhal (1980).

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          Interactional Justice
• Interpersonal Justice – It focuses on the
  sensitivity, politeness and respect people are
  shown by authority figures during procedures.
• Informational Justice – Explanations offered by
  decision makers why certain procedures were
  followed. Ensuring use of information which is
  thorough, reasonable, truthful, candid and timely.
Reference: Greenberg (1993)

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       Organizational Justice and
       Organizational Outcomes
• Distributive justice had strong correlations
  with outcome satisfaction, job satisfaction,
  organizational commitment, trust and
• Procedural justice had strong correlations
  with outcome satisfaction, trust, job
  satisfaction and organizational commitment.
• Reference: Colquitt et. Al. (2001).

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       Organizational Justice and
       Organizational Outcomes
• Interactional justice had strong correlations
  with job satisfaction and evaluation of

• Reference: Colquitt et. Al. (2001).

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Organizational Brand Building

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  Organizational Brand Building
• Work towards being known in the industry
  for some unique products and services.
• Be known as a professional organization.
• Practice excellent HR practices.
• Ensure that the organization is known for its
  world class learning opportunities.
• Encourage your employees to participates in
  activities which are good for society.
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 Organizational Brand Building
• Highly professional and open work culture
• People being treated with respect
• Organisational vision, mission and values
  are defined and shared across the

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Summer Internship

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          Phases of Internship
•   Pre Placement Talks
•   Induction
•   Internship
•   Post Internship

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Facilitate the Talent to know

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Modern man lives under the
illusion that he knows what he
wants, while he actually wants
what he is supposed to want
- Erich Fromm

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        Multiple Expectations Creating Pressures and Pulls on
                        Knowledge Worker

                  Self Expectations
                  •Continuous learning
                  •Being a leader in the chosen field
                  •Tangible and immediate feedback
                  •Equity in rewards

                                                    Peers Expectations
Family Expectations
                                                    •Work with technologies
•Big Money              Knowledge Worker             and software using
•Big Title
                                                     latest platforms
•Visits abroad
                                                    •No. of visits Abroad

                    Organisational Expectations
                    •Work on assignments and
                     technologies required
                     by customers
“What no husband or wife of a
 knowledge worker can ever
  understand is that (s)he is
working when (s)he is staring
     out of the window”
   -Adopted from Burton Rascoe


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