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					NANOTECHNOLOGY

WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?
It is a technology which: • uses atoms • size is controlled at the nanometer scale • produce novel materials and devices having useful and unique properties. • Emphasizes on theoretical studies of physics and chemistry which tell us about the kinds of systems we will eventually be able to build to control the structure of matter at the nanometer scale

HISTORY
• 1959-Feynman described molecular machines building with atomic precision • 1974-Taniguchi uses term "nano -technology" in paper on ion-sputter machining • 1977-Drexler originates molecular nanotechnology concepts • 1981-First technical paper on molecular engineering built with atomic precision • 1985-Buckyball discovered

SUCCESSES
• 1981-STM invented • 1985-Buckyball discovered • 1986-AFM invented • 1989-IBM logo spelled in individual atoms

HOW IT WORKS?

Able to control individual atoms, which means able to move atoms and molecules to specific places. Done by machines called assemblers.

APPLICATIONS

VARIOUS FIELDS
MEDICAL Cancer treatment Virus detection Drug delivery CONSUMER GOODS Adhesives for cardboard packaging

POWER/ENERGY Solar cells Fuel cells Batteries

NANOPARTICLE

ENVIRONMENTAL Paints & coatings More sensitive sensors Self cleaning glass

ENGINEERING Thermal barrier coatings Spark plug Chemical sensors

ELECTRONICS High density data storage Non volatile RAMS Interconnections Fiber Optics

MOVING CLOSER TO CURE

MEDICAL

REVOLUTIONARY NANOTECHNOLOGY ILLUMINATES BRAIN CELLS AT WORK
Measure the levels of important chemicals in living brain cells Uses molecular sensors to view changes in brain chemical levels The sensors alter their 3-dimensional form upon binding with the chemical, which is then visible via a process known as fluorescence resonance energy transfer, or FRET Introduced into nerve cells to measure the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate -- the major brain chemical that increases nerve-cell activity in mammalian brains.

NANOWORK SPOTLIGHT
Self-cleaning nanotechnology stickies Nanotechnology and water treatment 'Cool' graphene - might be ideal for thermal management in nanoelectronics Nanotechnology materials to the rescue of stone monuments

WHY IT IS IMPORTANT?
– Many properties of materials electronic, thermal, mechanical, optical, chemical are often dramatically improved at the nanoscale . – Possible to achieve unusual or exceptional performance in components and devices.

ADVANTAGES
It allows us to develop : Uniform particles Medical: End of illness, Universal immunity, Body sculpting, Stop the ageing process, Painless child Birth. Social: molecular food synthesis, Superior education, reintroduction of extinct plants and animals, inexpensive and safe space travels Industrial: Self assembling computer goods, Automatic pollution control, manufacturing at almost no cost, computers a billion times faster and a million times smaller Reactive particles Unusual properties Nanostructured feaatures (tubes,balls,hooks,layers,surfaces) Directed assembly and other novel processes

“IT IS A TOOL-KIT TO ALLOW US TO MAKE IMPROVED PRODUCTS”

DISADVANTAGES
Better orthopaedic biomaterials are needed since the average lifetime of a bone biomaterial is less than 15 years. Atomic weapons more accessible and destructive. Job crisis Oil, diamonds becomes worthless Global monitory crisis The risk of inhaling this could be very dangerous, due to which it can be a cause of death.

PROGRESS

CURRENT RESEARCH

CAN NANOPARTICLE BE ECONOMIC?
Yes! Low flexible -wet chemical methods flexible plant (Cu, Ag, Ni, oxides…) Low-pressure CNT synthesis . Selective nanoparticle precipitation Deliver in a liquid vehicle when possible
Drying causes agglomeration Use water, solvent or gel.

VARIOUS ORGANISATIONS WORKING
Chalmers university of technology Joint Science And Technology Office National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Centre for NanoTechnology(CNT) NASA National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT) Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
Using Nanobiotechnology for the future of nanotechnology in orthopedic applications Nanotechnology for Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapy Enhancement of Bone Healing using Nanotechnology Use of nano-dielectrics in the electrical power industry Using it for high-performance and low-power logic transistor applications For developing nano-patterning photosensitive polymers Fabrication of carbon nanotube lateral field emitters for future integrated nano -electronic devices

THANK YOU