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					          Chapter 9

Sherie Loika          Vickie Engel
Eyrin Book           Laure Owens
          Kande Bahlman
Learners Who Are
Deaf or Hard of Hearing

         Sherie Loika
Physiological Perspective

  Measurable degree of hearing loss
  Decibels - units of relative loudness of
                    sounds
  Deaf = hearing loss greater than 90 dB
  Hard   of Hearing = hearing loss less
                           than 90 dB
Educational Perspective

  How much is the hearing loss likely to
   affect the child’s ability to speak and
   develop language?
  At what age was the onset of hearing
   loss?
Terms Associated with Deafness

  Congenitally deaf - deafness present at birth
  Adventitiously deaf - deafness that occurs
   through illness or accident in an individual
   born with normal hearing
  Prelingual deafness - deafness that occurs
   before the development of spoken language,
   usually at birth
  Postlingual deafness - deafness occurring
   after the development of speech and language
Hearing Threshold Classification

  Mild               26-54 dB
  Moderate           55-69 dB
  Severe             70-89 dB
  Profound       90dB & above

              Decibel Table
Prevalence

        Demographic Aspects of
          Hearing Impairment
          Gallaudet Research

  http://www.odc.state.or.us/tadoc/dmisc1.htm
Anatomy and Physiology


  Movie clip
  Ear Diagram Quiz
Microtia Grade III (Little Ear)




     Deformity of the Outer Ear
Atresia




  No Middle Ear, Ear Canal, or Ear Drum
Measurement of Hearing Ability

            Eyrin Book
Screening Tests

  At birth in hospitals
  Periodically in public schools
      Grade Pre-K, K, 1,3,5,7, and 9
      Called a pure tone sweep check done with
       the use of an audiometer.
      Can also be screened upon request or new
       or re-eval special education students.
Pure Tone Audiometry

  Hertz - unit of measurement of the
   frequency of sound; refers to the
   highness or lowness of a sound.
  Audiometric zero - lowest level at
   which people with normal hearing can
   hear. Also known as the zero hearing
   threshold.
Speech Audiometry

  Tests a person’s detection and
   understanding of speech, rather than
   using pure tones to detect hearing loss
  Speech reception threshold (SRT) is the
   decibel level at which a person can
   understand speech.
Other Tests - Play Audiometry

  Uses a game like format to test hearing
   of young and hard to test children.
  The examiner teaches the child to do
   various activities when they hear a signal
Other Tests - Tympanometry

  A method of measuring the middle ear’s
   response to pressure and sound.
  A rubber tipped robe is inserted into the
   child’s ear, sealing the ear canal, and the
   effects of pressure and sound are then
   measured to assess the functioning of
   the middle ear.
Other Tests –
Evoked Response Audiometry
 Technique involving electroencephalograph
  (EEG) measurement of changes in brain-
  wave activity in response to sounds.
 Method has become more popular with the
  development of more sophisticated
  computers.
 Can be done while the child is sleeping.
Psychological & Behavioral
Characteristics
           Vickie Engel
QUESTION…

   If you were forced to
    choose, which would
       you rather be…
     blind or deaf?
English Language & Speech Disorders

   75% of children who are profoundly deaf have
    non-intelligible speech.
   Children born deaf, are unable to hear
    themselves and adults’ responses to them.
   Deaf children are handicapped in learning to
    associate the sensations they receive when
    they move their jaws, mouths, and tongues
    with auditory sounds these movements
    produce.
   Another way the speech is impaired, is the
    lack of hearing adult speech.
Intellectual Ability

   Myth - Hearing impaired people have a
             lower conceptual intelligence.

     Do not assume that the IQ level of
      hearing impaired is lower than hearing
      people strictly because their language is
      not as developed.
Academic Achievement

  Most children with hearing loss have extreme
   deficits in academic achievement.
  Reading ability is most affected.
  It is not unusual for graduating students who
   are deaf to be able to read at no more than a
   fourth-grade level.
  Math is their best academic subject, but they
   are usually far behind hearing students.
Interesting Fact…

    Deaf children with deaf parents have a
     higher reading achievement and better
     language skills than do those who have
     hearing parents.


                  Why?
     Positive influence of sign language
Social Adjustment

  Studies show that students who are deaf
   are at risk for loneliness.
  Two factors to that may contribute to the
   isolation of deaf students:
      Inclusion
      Hearing status of the parents
Deaf Culture

 Factors that define the Deaf community
            as a true culture…
  linguistic differentiation
  attitudinal deafness
  behavioral norms
  endogamous marital patterns
  historical awareness
  voluntary organizational networks
Erosion of the Deaf Culture

  Inclusion
  Deaf   clubs
Deaf Activism

  Cochlear   implants
Educational Considerations

          Laure Owens
Approaches to Educating Deaf

    Oralism-manualism debate
      Verbal communication
      Manual communication

                   Currently…
    Total Communication Approach
        Used by most educational programs
    Bicultural-Bilingual Approach
        Advocated by Deaf community
Total Communication

 Speech
 Signing English system
     Signing Exact English      Simultaneous
     Signed English                 Use
     Seeing Essential English

     Finger spelling
Bicultural-Bilingual Approach

  American Sign Language (ASL)--primary
  English—secondary
  Curriculum consists of instruction in Deaf
   culture
  Curriculum & instruction developed by
   deaf individuals
      ASL naturally before teaching English
      Exposure to ASL & English simultaneously
Debate

    Deaf Community argues…
      Use of signing English systems criticized
      Argue word order is not critical element in
       teaching English
      Slow, awkward

    Total Communication Defenders argue…
        Correspondence of word order benefits
         learning of English language.
Service Delivery Models

    Placement varies based on severity of
     hearing loss
        Residential schools
           Profoundly deaf
           Students of deaf parents

           Older students

      80% of deaf students in local schools
      39% in general education classrooms
Success in an Integrated Setting

  Time to learn & plan
  Commitment to the model of education
  Support services
  Clarity of program design
  Parent participation
  Direct instruction by teachers of the deaf
   within the regular classroom
Technological Advances

  Hearing Aids
  Television, Video, & Movie Captioning
  Telephone Adaptations
  Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
Early Intervention

          Kande Bahlman
Early Intervention
    Permanent hearing loss
     affects 24,000 infants in
     USA annually.

    20-30% of hearing loss in
     children occurs during
     infancy and early
     childhood.

    Most critical period of
     development of hearing
     and speech is first 6
     months of life.
        Time is of the Essence


 First six years of life
 First three years most critical
 American Academy of Pediatrics
 National Institute of Health
 Screened before hospital discharge
 Continuance of hearing screenings
Identification

Average Age of Identification
  in U.S. is 2½ to 3 years.

 Early diagnosis and intervention can mean
   the difference between toddlers entering
  school with severe language and concept
        delays versus children with age
      appropriate language and concept
                 development.
Research Indicates…

Children whose hearing losses
  are identified in the first 6
         months of life
              AND
   who receive intervention
 services, develop language
   within the normal range.
Deaf Children of Deaf Parents
  Babies develop ASL at a rate similar
   to rate that hearing babies of hearing
   parents develop English
  Day to day interaction of moms and
   babies are more facilitative and
   natural
  Parents who sign with their deaf
   children develop cohesive families
   with high degrees of bonding and
   sharing of interests
  Parents are better prepared to cope
   with infant’s deafness
Deaf Children of Hearing Parents

     Slow development of English and
      ASL
     Interactions unrelated to child’s
      activity or interest
     Lack of language model
     High degree of parental stress
     Unprepared parents
     Lack of understanding of visual
      modality in communication
     Struggle with appropriate sign
      language delivery
Communication Decisions
 Preschool intervention projects teaching basics of sign
  language to parents and to children
 Providing native signers as models
 Development of the IFSP and IEP
 Researching the different communication approaches
 Choice based on child’s needs, family situation, and
  program availability in family’s area
 Learning the program and giving it a fair chance
 Re-evaluating and changing approach when appropriate.
Communication

                “The one need all deaf
                  and hearing children
                have in common is the
                    need for effective
                    communication of
                meaningful information,
                  including information
                 that says ‘I love you’.”
Transition to Adulthood



  Unemployment
  Underemployment
  College education
Postsecondary Education

   Before mid-1960’s
   Traditional colleges/universities
   Federal funding
   Over 100 postsecondary
    education institutions in U.S.
    and Canada
   Some still choose traditional
    schools
   Traditional schools providing
    special programs
Interpreters



   Transliteration
   ASL
Family Issues

            95% of deaf adults choose deaf
             spouses
            90% of offspring from these
             marriages have normal hearing
            Hearing children often serve as
             interpreters for deaf parents
            Deaf face greater obstacles when
             entering work force due to lack of
             unskilled and semi-skilled trades
            Brighter outlook

				
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posted:3/27/2012
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