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External Examiner Training Pack

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 43

									 UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTS LONDON




EXTERNAL EXAMINER
STAFF GUIDANCE
PACK




                         January 2007
                     External Examiner Staff Guidance Pack

Contents

Section                                                                        Page

1.    Introduction                                                               3

2.    Key aspects of External Examining at the University of the Arts London     4

3.    Information External Examiners need to know                                7

4.    Detailed guidance on Moderation                                            9

5.    Detailed guidance on Sampling                                              11


Appendix 1   External Examining at the University of the Arts                    14
             Procedures, Regulations and Guidance

Appendix 2   External Examiner Handbook                                          29

Appendix 3   External Examiner Frequently Asked Questions                        42




                                                                                      2
1.   Introduction

     This pack of information is aimed at all staff, both academic and
     administrative, who have interaction with external examiners. It particularly
     aimed at staff with responsibility for briefing external examiners on their role
     and responsibilities during their tenure at the University.

     In the UK's system of higher education, institutions are responsible for the
     quality of the education they provide and the academic standards of the
     awards they offer. External examining provides one of the principal means for
     maintaining nationally comparable standards within autonomous higher
     education institutions, the external examiner being one of a number of
     independent and impartial advisers used by them.

     In 2004 the University’s Academic Standards and Development Committee
     set up an External Examining Working Party that included current external
     examiners, to review the purpose and practice of external examining at the
     University of the Arts London and to ensure that practices were compatible
     with section four of the QAA’s code of practice on external examining. A
     knowledge sharing conference was also organised in March 2005 at which
     colleagues from a wide range of disciplines from across all the colleges were
     represented, as well as members of the Working Party and administrative
     staff.

     The Working Party produced a report proposing a number of
     recommendations, the key principle being that the role and responsibility of the
     external examiner is to ensure that the academic standards appropriate to the
     award in question are maintained, that justice is done to the students, and
     that in the processes of assessment students are treated fairly and equitably
     according to the University’s policies and regulations. The University
     concluded that the role of the external examiner should be clearly
     differentiated from that of Internal examiner. An external examiner is not
     involved in the assessment of students directly but is involved in ensuring that
     assessment decisions have been made fairly and appropriately, and in
     accordance with the University’s regulations.

     Precept two of the code of practice on external examining states that ,
     “Institutions should state clearly and communicate to all concerned the
     various roles, powers and responsibilities assigned to their external
     examiners…..” Academic Affairs contact all external examiners on
     appointment in writing, and provide them with clear guidance on their
     responsibilities during their tenure at the University. In addition all external
     examiners receive an annual letter informing them of any changes to
     procedures or regulations that are relevant to their role. The Dean or his/her
     representative are responsible for providing all new External Examiners with a
     full briefing/induction session . It is expected that External Examiners will also
     receive annual briefings from relevant staff during their interim visits to the
     University, usually in the Spring term.




                                                                                        3
2.    Key Aspects Of External Examining At The University Of The Arts
      London

2.1   Introduction
      Set out below is a summary of external examining at the University of the Arts
      London. Staff should familiarise themselves with these key features and refer
      to the additional documentation in the training pack if they require more detail
      on any specific area of external examining at the University. If staff require
      further clarification they are asked to contact either Sarah Baber ext 6492 or
      John Lally 6059 in Academic Affairs.

2.2   Role of External Examiners
      The role of the external examiner is to ensure that the academic standards
      appropriate to the award in question are maintained, that justice is done to the
      students, and that in the processes of assessment students are treated fairly
      and equitably according to the University’s policies and regulations. The
      external examiner provides an independent commentary on the conduct of
      the assessment process and, by reporting to the University’s Academic
      Standards and Development Committee (ASDC), assures the University that
      the procedures and regulations governing academic standards, quality and
      assessment were followed.

      Staff should be clear that the role of the external examiner is very different to
      that of Internal Examiner. An external examiner is not involved in the
      assessment of students directly but is involved in ensuring that
      assessment decisions have been made fairly and appropriately, and in
      accordance with the University’s regulations. Therefore external examiners
      do not mark work, nor can change individual students’ marks, although they
      may recommend to the Examination Board an overall adjustment to the range
      of marks based on their moderation of the internal marking.

      External Moderation (see guidance note for further detail)
      To make a judgment about the standard of marking externals read or view a
      sample of student work. External moderation is a final check, by external
      subject experts, that the marking is at the right level for the type and level of
      course. External moderation may lead to a decision to change marks. Again
      it is important to emphasise that external examiners do not have the right to
      adjust individual student marks. Only internal examiners or the full exam
      board can make a decision to adjust an individual student’s mark.

      The choice of sample must meet the formal regulations and should take
      account of the advice in the sampling guidance note that is part of the training
      pack; however if there is any doubt then consideration of the basic principle of
      sampling should be enough to resolve the issue. External examiners need to
      see enough student work to be able to make a judgement about the standard of
      marking undertaken by the internal examiners and therefore be able to confirm
      that the marking is in line with that of similar courses elsewhere or, where
      necessary, to exercise their right to moderate marks.

      External examiners’ do not have a right to request a viva voce examination
      as it is against the University regulations for them to assess individual




                                                                                          4
        students. Viva voce examinations may still be conducted by Internal
        Examiners.

        External examiners are not restricted from meeting students to form a
        general impression of the student experience. However the purpose of these
        meetings should be defined in that way, and not be part of the examination of
        an individual student.

2.3     Administration of External Examiner System

2.3.1   Nominations
        Nominations should be made 12 months in advance of the expiry of the
        tenure of the existing Examiner, or on the approval of a new course by ASDC.

        Nominations will be scrutinised by Academic Affairs and passed to the Pro-
        Rector, Academic Development and Quality for endorsement. Nominations
        that receive the endorsement of the Pro-Rector will have evidently met the
        criteria for nomination and will therefore be recommended to ASDC for
        approval.

        If the new external examiner has insufficient external examining experience
        they should be allocated a mentor in the first year of their appointment. A
        mentor will be an experienced External Examiner at the University on the
        course concerned, or on a cognate course. (guidance on the Academic
        Affairs website)

        The Regulations require that external examiners will be appointed for four
        consecutive academic years.

2.3.2   Induction and Briefing
        On appointment, Academic Affairs will supply Examiners with information
        about the University and its external examiner processes: Colleges are
        responsible for supplying Examiners with the College and course specific
        information. (see section 3.1, ‘Documents’)

        Academic Affairs will send an annual briefing letter. The Dean/his/her
        representative/Course Teams are responsible for providing updated editions
        of all the documents / revised information provided on initial appointment.

        It is recommended that there should be an emphasis on the induction and
        briefing of external examiners during the Interim Visit as this is an opportunity
        for the Dean and Course Teams to reinforce the guidance and instructions
        given by the University in the appointment letter. In particular it is
        recommended that the interim visit should be used as an opportunity to brief
        new external examiners. (see section 3.2, ‘External Examiner Briefing’)

2.4     Reports
        All External Examiners are required to submit an annual report electronically
        (examiners@arts.ac.uk) to the Pro-Rector, Academic Development and
        Quality, on the University’s pro forma for this purpose.

        Copies of External Examiners’ reports will be forwarded electronically to the
        Course Director, the Dean and the Head of College on receipt.




                                                                                        5
      External Examiners are required to submit no later than one month after the
      Exam Board. Failure to submit within three months of the Exam Board could
      lead to termination of tenure.

2.5   Fees and Expenses
      In the case of final assessment visits, fees and expenses are paid on receipt
      of the External Examiner’s report (submitted electronically) and claim form
      (submitted in hard-copy).




                                                                                      6
 3.    Information external examiners need to know

       This document should be used as a checklist for the briefing of external
       examiners so that they are fully aware of their role and responsibilities during
       their tenure at the University.

 3.1   Documents

       On appointment, Academic Affairs will send appointment letter and pack to
       the external examiner. The College is expected to supply a College
       appointment pack.

       University Appointment Letter

          Confirmation of appointment
          Course title
          Tenure start and end dates
          Number of days allocated
          Procedures for submission of reports
          Fee and expenses, arrangements for payment
          Academic Affairs external examiner web site

       University Appointment Pack (sent with appointment letter)

          The University of the Arts External Examiners Handbook
          Link to the University of the Arts London External Examiner Procedures,
           Regulations and Guidance for Higher Education Courses
          Link to the External Examiner Report Template

       College Appointment Pack (to be sent directly to external examiner)

          Course Handbook
          Current College prospectus
          Annual Course Monitoring report
          Last two years External Examiner Reports
          College contacts (academic and administrative)
          Proposed timescales for visits to the University
          Details of mentor if applicable


       The Dean and Course Teams are responsible for providing updated
       editions of all documents/revised information to Examiners who are
       continuing their appointment

3.2    External Examiner Briefing

       The interim visit should be used as an induction and briefing visit reinforcing
       the role of the external examiner and providing them with all appropriate
       information regarding University and College regulations and processes.
       Staff responsible for providing briefings to external examiners should use the
       following checklist in delivering their induction.


                                                                                         7
      External Examiner Induction/Briefing Checklist

         Introduction to relevant academic and administration colleagues. Tour of
          the College/School and Department

         Brief overview of the University of the Arts London including;
          (Management Structure, Committee structure, central and College
          responsibilities)

         Principles of external examining (including reference to QAA Code of
          Practice, Quality Assurance, Quality Enhancement and the Academic
          Infrastructure). Particularly important for non-academic appointees.

         External examining at the University of the Arts London
                 o Role of the external examiner (section 2.2 above)
                 o Moderation and sampling (sections 4 and 5 below)
                 o Relationship with students (section 2.2 above)
                 o Mentoring if appropriate (Academic Affairs website)

         Overview of the University Credit Framework and Course Structures
          Framework (Chapter 9 Academic Affairs Handbook
          http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/handbook/chapter9/c9index.htm )

         University Assessment Policy (including, assessment briefs, marking,
          internal moderation, extenuating circumstances, plagiarism,
          accommodated assessment) see Chapter 6 of the Academic Affairs
          Handbook http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/indextext.htm

         Role and responsibilities of Exam Boards (decision making and the role of
          the external examiner including the of signing conferment sheets. see
          Chapters 6 and 8 of the Academic Affairs Handbook
          http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/indextext.htm )

         Course information including regulations, learning outcomes, assessment
          strategies/briefs (course handbook)

         Administrative arrangements
            o Arrangements for moderation of student work
            o Submission of annual report (timescale, template )
            o Fees and expenses (requirements) see external examiner
                handbook.


3.3   Changes to Regulations and Procedures

         Updates on University procedures and regulations effecting External
          Examiners are included in the Annual Briefing letter, sent to all External
          Examiners in the Spring Term by Academic Affairs.




                                                                                       8
4.    Guidance Note on External Moderation


4.1   Introduction

      The University of the Arts external examiner regulations cover external
      moderation under section 2.2. on the role, responsibilities and rights of external
      examiners (para 2.2.2.7) where it states that external examiners have the right
      “ to have the right to moderate the marks of the student cohort awarded
      by internal examiners (note: this is moderation of the entire cohort; there
      is no right to change individual marks)”. This note gives further guidance on
      external moderation. It is intended to help both course directors and external
      examiners.

4.2   What is External Moderation?

      Through its approach to assessment the university seeks to ensure that
      students are assessed against the learning outcomes of the unit and course
      and given a mark that reflects their performance based on the University’s
      classification descriptors. Marking is expected to be in line with sector norms
      and fair to all students in a cohort and over time. All courses operate systems
      of internal moderation which allow for some adjustment of marks to ensure
      this parity and accurate marking. External moderation is a final check, by
      external subject experts, that the marking is at the right level for the type and
      level of course. External moderation may lead to a decision to change marks.

4.3   Information Needed to Decide on Moderation

      The Sample - To make a judgment about the standard of marking externals
      read or view a sample of student work. A separate University of the Arts
      guidance note covers the selection and size of the sample. However the
      basic principle is that external examiners need to see enough student work to
      be able to make a judgment about the standard of marking undertaken by the
      internal examiners.

      The Standards - Externals are making a judgement about marking against
      the standards set for that course and unit as defined in the learning
      outcomes. Generally externals will be referring here to the course handbook
      but may also need to take account of specific assessment briefs which they
      should already have seen.
      The Marking - Externals need to understand how internal examiners arrived
      at the marks. This will normally be through discussions with the course team.

4.4   Exercising the Right to Moderate

      Although discussion about external moderation should take place with internal
      staff before the exam board the final decision on moderation should only take
      place at the exam board itself. External moderation can take a number of
      forms:

            Adding or subtracting a set percentage to or from all student marks, eg
             + 4% to all students in a particular unit;


                                                                                      9
            Adding or subtracting a set percentage to all student marks within a
             grade. This may have the effect of moving some students up or down
             a grade for that unit and therefore knock on changes to their overall
             grade;

            Moving a grade boundary, eg deciding that all students close to a
             boundary should be moved up or down. Where this is the likely
             decision externals will normally need to look at an additional sample of
             the work of students on the boundary in question. The degree of
             “closeness” must also be agreed, eg all students within 2% (or
             whatever agreed) of the boundary.

4.5   Moderation of Cohort

      External examiners moderate a cohort of students rather than individual
      students. In exercising any of the methods outlined above the result will
      normally be changed marks for some students and no change for others: this
      is moderation of the cohort. External examiners do not have the right to
      adjust individual student marks. Only internal examiners or the full exam
      board can make a decision to adjust an individual student’s mark. Where
      externals disagree with the internal mark for any particular student they have
      sampled that may lead the externals to investigate further whether the cohort
      marks need to be changed under external moderation.




                                                                                   10
5.    Guidance Note on Sampling


5.1   Introduction

      The University of the Arts external examiner regulations cover sampling under
      section 2.2 on the role, responsibilities and rights of external examiners (para
      2.2.2.6) where it states that external examiners have the right “to normally see
      the work of all students proposed for the highest available category of the
      award, and for failure, and samples of the work of students proposed for
      each category of the award”. This note gives further guidance on the extent of
      the sample, upper and lower limits of the sample size, and other matters. It is
      intended to help both course directors and external examiners.

5.2   What is the sample for?

      The choice of sample must meet the formal regulations and should take account
      of the advice in this guidance note; however if there is any doubt then
      consideration of the basic principle of sampling should be enough to resolve the
      issue. External examiners need to see enough student work to be able to
      make a judgement about the standard of marking undertaken by the internal
      examiners and therefore be able to confirm that the marking is in line with that of
      similar courses elsewhere or, where necessary, to exercise their right to
      moderate marks.

5.3   Who chooses the sample?

      The Course Director should choose the sample which should be based on the
      placement of a particular student within the range of marks on the full mark
      sheet rather than on the nature of their work.

5.4   Final Year Only

      For BA and FdA courses external examiners should sample final year work only.
      This is not to say that external examiners are forbidden from seeing the work of
      students on earlier years on a studio tour at interim or final visits. However it
      should be made clear that any viewing of work of earlier years is for general
      briefing and to help external examiners get a feel for the course and is not
      sampling. For Grad Cert, Grad Dip and for postgraduate courses structures
      vary and the sample will be drawn from the units that contribute to the
      calculation of distinction on the particular award in question.

5.5   Sample on Unitised Courses

      All UAL courses are now unitised though for undergraduate courses at Chelsea
      and CSM these courses are running in and will there will be no unitised final
      year until 2007/08. On unitised courses all units that contribute to the final
      award must be externally examined. Where there is a team of external
      examiners it is acceptable for individual units to be externally examined by just
      one examiner. However the final major project unit or equivalent should be
      examined by all examiners from the relevant specialism. On non unitised
      courses each element that contributes to the final award should be externally
      examined, this is generally studio and theory work.


                                                                                      11
5.6   Size of Sample

      All fails should be included in the sample for all courses. All firsts or distinctions
      should be included in the sample for most courses. However on a large course
      it is permissable to provide a sample of the first/distinction category. This would
      generally be true where a cohort has more than 60 students or where there are
      more than 6 firsts or distinctions. For the other categories the sample should be
      taken from the top, middle and bottom of the band so will be at least 3 and
      would not normally need to be higher than 6 for each band. For courses that
      award a pass or distinction only the whole pass category counts as one band.
      From this general guidance it can be seen that no matter what the size of the
      cohort the sample size will generally be between 12 and 30 for undergraduate
      courses and between 6 and 12 for other courses. For cohorts of 12 or fewer
      students at undergraduate or 6 or fewer on Grad Cert/Dip or postgraduate
      courses this may mean external examiners are seeing the work of all students
      and this is permissable.



      Number of Students         Under 12             12 - 60             60+
      in Cohort                  Students
      BA and FdA
      1st/Dist                   all                  all                 6-10
      2.2/Merit Plus             all                  3-5                 6
      2.1/Merit                  all                  3-5                 6
      3rd/Pass                   all                  3-5                 6
      Fail                       all                  all                 All
      Total Size of Sample       Up to 12             12-25               Up to 30



5.7   Adding to the Sample

      External examiners should be given the full mark sheet for the entire cohort
      along with the sample work or when they are viewing work. External
      examiners may, if they wish, ask to see more samples of work. This may be
      needed when the examiner feels unable to come to a conclusion on the
      standards of the course from the original sample and will generally be needed
      if there is the possibility of external moderation.

5.8   Sampling on Text Based Units/Courses

      The sample should be sent to the External Examiner(s) in advance together
      with the full mark sheet for the cohort for that unit or the whole course. It is
      good practice to anonymise the mark sheet by using only the numeric part of
      the student ID code.


5.9   Sampling on Studio Based Units/Courses

      Sampling on studio based courses varies depending on the specific nature of
      the discipline. Generally the external examining is carried out in the same



                                                                                         12
way as internal examining and this is normally by each examiner viewing the
work and coming to their own view on a mark followed by collective
discussion and agreement of a mark. Whatever method is used the following
outlines generally accepted practice. Internal examiners should view alone,
mark and then discuss collectively to arrive at a final mark for each student
before external examination takes place and this should include any process
of internal moderation that is used. A sample of students should be identified.
External examiners should be given the full mark sheet for the cohort with the
sample students identified. External examiners should view the sample work,
without the internal examiners initially, and then should have an opportunity
for dialogue with the internal examiners about how they arrived at the mark.

External examiners sometimes meet with the students whose work they are
viewing (again generally reflecting the practice of internal examination); while
this is acceptable University rules no longer allow this to be called a viva
voce, only internal examiners may carry out a viva voce, that is use the
information given by the student to help them arrive at a mark. Where
external examiners meet with a student in the sample it is to help them
understand the work in question. Where the work of all students is displayed
it is normal for external examiners to want to view the whole show and this is
of course acceptable to get a general feeling for the cohort; however a full
discussion about individual students should be limited to the sample chosen
by the course director and any extended sample requested by the external
examiners.




                                                                              13
                  Appendix 1

External Examining at the University of the Arts
    Procedures, Regulations and Guidance




                                               14
External Examining at the University of the Arts

Procedures, Regulations and Guidance

Contents
1.    External Examiner Procedures and Guidance

1.1   Summary of the Role of External Examiners
1.2   Nomination and Approval
1.3   Appointment
1.4   Induction and Briefing
1.5   Reports, including Teaching Quality Information / Quality Information
1.6   Fees and Expenses
1.7   Termination of Appointment Before Normal Expiry of Tenure
1.8   Scrutiny and Overview

2.    External Examining Regulations and Guidance

2.1   Criteria for Nomination and Appointment
2.2   Role, Responsibilities and Rights of External Examiners




The Procedures, Regulations and Guidance should be read in
conjunction with the University of the Arts Assessment Policy which is
contained within the Academic Affairs Handbook.




                                                                              15
1.      External Examiner Procedures
1.1     Summary of the Role of External Examiners

1.1.1   The general role of the External Examiner is to ensure that the academic
        standards appropriate to the award in question are maintained, that justice is
        done to the students, and that in the processes of assessment students are
        treated fairly and equitably according to the University’s policies and
        regulations. The External Examiner provides an independent commentary on
        the conduct of the assessment process and, by reporting to the University’s
        Academic Standards and Development Committee (ASDC), assures the
        University that the procedures and regulations governing academic
        standards, quality and assessment were followed. The University provides full
        briefing and induction for External Examiners to enable them to understand
        the nature and ethos of the institution and the structure and organisation of
        course in question. Briefing is provided by the University through
        documentation and, at the interim visit and other times if necessary, by
        Course Directors.

1.1.2   On some courses an External Examiner will be appointed from a relevant
        industry or profession. If necessary, these External Examiners will be briefed
        on the role and duties required, but will also be asked to comment upon
        whether the course and its assessment, and the standards achieved by the
        students, are of the type and at a level appropriate to the expectations of the
        profession in question. In some cases the Academic Standards Committee
        will ask that, in addition to the briefing and induction given to all Examiners,
        an External Examiner from industry / the professions works closely with
        another External Examiner from a higher education institution or equivalent,
        as well as with the Course Director. This may be a fellow Examiner on the
        team, the outgoing Examiner, or one from another course. This is to enable
        all new, inexperienced, Examiners to understand the particular responsibilities
        of the role and the educational context of it.

1.1.3   The Regulations make a clear distinction between the role of the University
        staff who are involved in the teaching, delivery and internal assessment of the
        course, and that of the External Examiner. The External Examiner is not
        involved in the learning, teaching or internal examining process as a
        participant, but rather takes an external perspective on those processes,
        independently advising the course team and, ultimately, the University.

        Guidance:
        The role of the External Examiner is very different to that of Internal
        Examiner. An External Examiner is not involved in the assessment of
        students directly but is involved in ensuring that assessment decisions have
        been made fairly and appropriately, and in accordance with the University’s
        regulations. Therefore External Examiners do not mark work, nor can change
        individual students’ marks, although they may recommend to the Examination
        Board an overall adjustment to the range of marks based on their moderation
        of the internal marking.




                                                                                     16
1.2     Nomination and Approval

1.2.1   The process of nominating External Examiners is the formal responsibility of
        the Dean, but the Dean will work in close concert with the relevant Course
        Director. Academic Affairs will inform the Dean when a new External
        Examiner is required. This will be 12 months in advance of the expiry of the
        tenure of the existing Examiner, or on the approval of a new course by ASDC.

        Guidance:
        It may be necessary to approach a number of potential External Examiners
        before one agrees in principle to accept the post. It is important, therefore,
        that Course Directors begin the process of approaching potential Examiners
        well in advance of the expiry of the tenure of the existing incumbent. For new
        courses, Course Directors are advised to have some potential Examiners in
        mind during the validation stages.


1.2.2   Course Directors should approach potential External Examiners informally in
        the first instance. They should be provided with enough information on the
        University and the course to enable them to make an informed decision
        whether to accept nomination. Course Directors should be aware of the
        Criteria for Appointment as set out in the External Examining Regulations
        before approaching potential Examiners. Members of course teams and the
        Dean / School Board might be consulted informally if desired, but it is not
        necessary for proposed nominations to be considered at full Course
        Committee or School Board meetings.

        Guidance:
        Course Directors may supply the External Examiner with the criteria for
        appointment in advance to avoid a situation whereby an Examiner agrees to
        act but is later discovered to be ineligible.


1.2.3   Approval of nominations is the responsibility of the College Academic
        Committee (CAC) and ASDC. Academic Affairs provides professional advice.
        After having obtained an agreement to act in principle from the proposed
        External Examiner, Course Directors should initiate the formal nomination and
        approval process. This is by completing in full the University’s External
        Examiner Nomination Form and returning it to CAC. A CV from the proposed
        Examiner may be desirable to accompany the pro forma. The pro forma must
        be sent to a full meeting of the CAC signed by the Head of College, before
        being submitted to Academic Affairs.

        Guidance:
        The External Examiner Nomination Form can be obtained from the Academic
        Affairs website. The Examiner’s CV, if provided, can often provide much of
        the information required to complete the form. It is important nominations
        receive the endorsement of the CAC as the nomination process will not
        progress without it. A nomination must be discussed by a meeting of the
        CAC, or a sub-committee of it.


1.2.4   Nominations will then be scrutinised by Academic Affairs. Any possible issues
        surrounding the nomination will be highlighted before it is passed to the Pro-



                                                                                    17
        Rector, Academic Development and Quality for endorsement. Nominations
        that receive the endorsement of the Pro-Rector will have evidently met the
        criteria for nomination and will therefore be recommended to ASDC for
        approval.

1.2.5   In some cases the Pro-Rector will ask that additional information or expert
        advice is sought before recommending the nomination for approval by ASDC.

        Guidance:
        In the majority of cases the Pro-Rector will endorse nominations without the
        need for further information or expert advice. It is similarly the case that most
        nominations will be approved by ASDC through Chair’s Action. In a small
        number of cases, normally where issues of policy or principle are concerned,
        or where queries persist, say over conflict of interest or qualification, the
        nomination will be referred to a full meeting of ASDC for consideration.

        Therefore the stages of nomination are:

               (a)     The Course Director seeks out potential nominees, in
                       conjunction with the Course Team and with the Dean / School
                       Board if desired;

               (b)     nomination signed by the Dean and sent to CAC;

               (c)     consideration by Chair of ASDC, or a full meeting of ASDC,
                       with advice from Academic Affairs.

1.3     Appointment

1.3.1   The Regulations require that External Examiners will be appointed for four
        consecutive academic years. A formal letter of appointment is sent by Pro-
        Rector, Academic Development and Quality. A copy will be sent to the
        Course Director and the Dean. In exceptional cases tenure may be extended
        for a further academic year providing a rationale found acceptable to the CAC
        and ASDC is supplied by the Dean. The Regulations require that a request
        for a second extension of tenure would not normally be approved, except in
        wholly exceptional and compelling cases. Such requests will automatically be
        forwarded to a full meeting of ASDC for discussion.

        Guidance:
        The tenure is for four consecutive academic years, even if there is one
        academic year / session where no students are enrolled or where the
        Examiner was unable to attend the Examination Board(s) for whatever
        reason. Examples of circumstances where one year extensions to tenure will
        be considered could be if there is a particular shortage of Examiners in a
        small subject area, or the Examiner has been asked to mentor an
        inexperienced new Examiner. Further extensions will be wholly exceptional,
        for example if a course is terminating and there is one remaining cohort of
        students to be assessed and it would clearly not be sensible to appoint a new
        Examiner.

1.3.2   External Examiners will be required to provide the University with verification
        of their eligibility to work in the United Kingdom and of their registration for
        Income Tax deductions. This is a requirement under the Asylum and



                                                                                       18
        Immigration Act 1996 and the Inland Revenue (Categorisation of Earners) Act
        1978. Information on the requirements is provided for External Examiners in
        the External Examiner Handbook.

        Guidance:
        The University will not make payment to External Examiners unless the
        necessary documentation to verify eligibility to work in the UK is supplied.
        This information is kept securely within the HR Department. Course Directors
        are asked to brief External Examiners on the necessity of having this
        documentation to comply with legislation, and that the documents will be kept
        confidentially and securely by HR under defined procedures that are in place
        for all personnel records.

1.4     Induction and Briefing

1.4.1   On appointment, Academic Affairs will supply Examiners with the following
        briefing information about the University and its External Examiner processes:

              a formal appointment letter setting out the course and pathways for
               which the appointee is responsible;

              a link to these Procedures, Regulations and Guidance for Higher
               Education Courses;

              a link to the External Examiner Report Form

              a copy of the External Examiner Expenses Claim Form, together with
               appropriate guidance on the payment of fees and expenses

              the University of the Arts External Examiner Handbook, which
               provides practical information and summarises key procedures for
               External Examiners in a convenient format.

1.4.2   On appointment, Colleges are responsible for supplying Examiners with the
        following briefing information:

              current college prospectus;

              current Course Handbook;

              the last Annual Course Monitoring report; and including, where
               appropriate, the last two year’s External Examiner reports;

              details of relevant college contacts for liaison over practicalities and
               for any administrative enquiries.

1.4.3   For Examiners continuing in their appointment, Academic Affairs will send an
        annual briefing letter which will contain information on any new policy
        developments that have taken place over the last academic year, together
        with updated editions of the documents provided on initial appointment.

1.4.4   For Examiners continuing in the appointment, The Dean and Course Teams
        are responsible for providing updated editions of all the documents / revised
        information provided on initial appointment.


                                                                                          19
        Guidance:
        All the information and documents provided by Academic Affairs are provided
        on the Academic Affairs website to which Examiners’ attention will be drawn
        in the appointment / annual briefing letter issues by Academic Affairs. The
        University expects External Examiners to access information electronically,
        which is in line with the policy for electronic submission of reports. The
        External Examiner Handbook, however, will continue to be provided in hard
        copy.

1.4.5. In some cases, a new External Examiner who, in the opinion of the CAC or
       ASDC, has insufficient external examining experience, will be allocated a
       Mentor in the first year of their appointment. The Mentor will be an
       experienced External Examiner at the University on the course concerned, or
       on a cognate course. The Mentor will provide, in addition to the Course
       Director, advice and opinion on external examining practice drawn from their
       experience of examining within the University.

1.4.6. The Dean or his/her representative is responsible for inducting new
       Examiners and the annual briefing of ones continuing in their appointment.
       The briefing should take place at the Interim Visit and draw on reference
       materials such as the Course Handbook, the External Examiner regulations,
       the Annual Course Monitoring Report, and include such other information
       applicable to the External Examiners’ duties (e.g. an introduction to relevant
       academic and administrative colleagues, the dates of examination boards, the
       local practices for Internal Moderation, information on the size of the student
       cohort, a tour of the College/School and Department). External Examiners
       should also be made aware that their reports will appear on the University’s
       Quality Information intranet site.

        Guidance:
        The dates of the Interim Visit and the Examination Board should be set well in
        advance and the External Examiner’s availability ascertained and
        commitment to attend confirmed.

1.5     Reports

1.5.1   All External Examiners are required to submit an annual report to the Pro-
        Rector, Academic Development and Quality, on the University’s pro forma for
        this purpose. The University requires reports to be submitted electronically to
        the e-mail address given in the appointment letter and in the External
        Examiner Handbook.

        Guidance:
        It is imperative that External Examiners submit their reports electronically, and
        Examiners should be reminded of this at Interim Visit and at the Examination
        Board. Academic Affairs can provide the pro forma by e-mail attachment on
        request should the External Examiner have difficulty downloading the on-line
        version.

1.5.2   Copies of External Examiners’ reports will be forwarded electronically to the
        Course Director, the Dean and the Head of College on receipt. The
        expectation is that External Examiners’ reports will be responded to in full
        through the Annual Course Monitoring process. However, in exceptional



                                                                                      20
        cases where, in the opinion of the Pro-Rector Academic Development and
        Quality, the Examiner raises urgent and serious issues, the Dean of the
        school / college concerned will be asked for comments in advance of Annual
        Course Monitoring.

1.5.3   Exceptionally, If the External Examiner wishes to raise a matter of particular
        sensitivity, a confidential report may be submitted to the Pro-Rector.

        Guidance:
        It is expected that External Examiners will only raise, in the opinion of the Pro-
        Rector, serious and urgent issues, or raise matters of particular sensitivity,
        very rarely. In the normal course of events the Annual Course Monitoring
        exercise will deal with the points raised.

1.5.4   HEFCE requires that full External Examiner reports are made available
        internally within institutions. The University of the Arts does this electronically
        through a process entitled ‘Quality information’, a section on the Academic
        Affairs intranet site
        (http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/qualityinformation/menuqualityinformation.
        php). The full reports may also be requested by members of the public under
        the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act 2000. It is important,
        therefore, that both Course Directors and External Examiners are aware of
        the audience the report will reach, and be particularly careful not identify
        individual members of staff or students.


        Guidance:

        External Examiner reports will not be made available on the QI Intranet site
        without the Annual Course Monitoring report, thereby providing readers with a
        balanced view of the course from both the External Examiner’s and the
        Course Team’s perspective.

1.6     Fees and Expenses

1.6.1   External Examiners are paid a fee calculated on a daily basis. The number of
        Visit Days will determine the overall fee; allocations of Visit Days will be
        agreed on an annual basis between the Dean of the college / school
        concerned. Academic Affairs will contact all Deans at the beginning of each
        academic year to ascertain the number of visit days planned for each course.
        External Examiners’ fees are subject to Income Tax. The fee covers all
        aspects of the external examining responsibility.

        Guidance:
        The University will not make payment to External Examiner unless the
        documentation and the documentation to verify eligibility to work is supplied.
        This information is kept securely within the HR Department and Course
        Directors are asked to brief External Examiners on the necessity of this
        documentation and that it will be kept confidentially and securely under
        defined procedures that are in place for all personnel records.

1.6.2   Academic Affairs will arrange with the Payroll Department for payment to be
        made by BACS direct credit transfer to a bank account named by the External
        Examiner. Fees will only be paid on the receipt of the report, and expenses



                                                                                        21
        only if the claim is made in accordance with the notified guidance and limits,
        and is supported by receipts.


1.7     Termination Before Normal Expiry of Tenure

1.7.1   The Regulations state that ASDC may terminate an External Examiner’s
        appointment before the normal expiry of tenure for reasons of non-fulfilment,
        or failure to fulfil appropriately, the responsibilities of the role as set out in the
        External Examiner Regulations. Where an External Examiner has not fulfilled,
        or has not fulfilled appropriately, the responsibilities of the role, a satisfactory
        resolution will be attempted by Academic Affairs, the Dean of the college or
        school concerned, and /or the Pro-Rector Academic Development and
        Quality. If this proves impossible a formal recommendation, with supporting
        evidence, will be presented to ASDC which will decide whether or not to
        terminate the appointment.

        Guidance:
        The situation of recommending a termination of appointment occurs only very
        rarely. In the majority of cases of non-fulfilment, or failure to fulfil
        appropriately, the responsibilities of the role as set out in the External
        Examiner Regulations, an amicable and satisfactory conclusion is quickly
        reached.

1.8     Scrutiny and Overview

1.8.1   The operation of the External Examiner system is scrutinised on an annual
        basis by ASDC. The outcome is documented in a formal report from ASDC to
        Academic Board, which will be available on the Academic Affairs intranet site.




                                                                                           22
2.       External Examiner Regulations and Guidance
2.1      Criteria for Nomination and Appointment

Qualifications of External Examiners

2.1.1    External Examiners’ academic and or professional qualifications should, in the
         opinion of the CAC and ASDC, be appropriate to the course to be examined.
         Both the level and the subject of the Examiner's qualifications should generally
         match what is to be examined in the course.

      Expertise/standing

2.1.2    External Examiners should in the opinion of the CAC and ASDC have
         appropriate standing, expertise and experience to maintain comparability of
         standards. Standing, expertise and breadth of experience may be indicated by:

               the present (or, if retired, last) post and place of work;

               the range and scope of experience across higher education /
                professions;

               current and recent active involvement in research /scholarly /
                professional activities in the field of study concerned.

2.1.3    Proposed External Examiners who have retired from higher education or from
         the profession concerned must show evidence which, in the opinion of the CAC
         and ASDC, demonstrates that they are likely to maintain a currency of
         knowledge in the field of study concerned throughout their tenure.

Examining experience

2.1.4    External Examiners should have sufficient recent external examining, or in the
         opinion of the CAC and ASDC, comparable related experience to indicate
         competence to in the subject area and ensure that the academic standards
         appropriate to the award in question are maintained, that justice is done to the
         students, and that in the processes of assessment students are treated fairly
         and equitably according to the University’s policies and regulations.

2.1.5    Proposed Examiners without, in the opinion of the CAC and ASDC, sufficient
         recent external examining experience must, where possible, join an experienced
         External Examining team. Where there is only one External Examiner, the new
         appointee must initially work alongside an experienced currently-appointed
         External from a related course, and in the University’s systems, who will act as
         Mentor.

Fresh perspectives

2.1.6    External Examiners should be drawn from a wide variety of institutional /
         professional contexts.

         Normally, there should not be:




                                                                                        23
                        more than one Examiner from the same institution in the team of
                         External Examiners;

                        reciprocal external examining between courses or departments
                         in two institutions;

                        replacement of an External Examiner by another from the same
                         institution or organisation;

                        appointment of an External Examiner from an institution which
                         has been the source of Examiners for the course in the recent
                         past (normally three years);

Concurrent appointments held by Examiners

2.1.7     External Examiners should be able to undertake the role and discharge
          adequately the required duties at the time(s) necessary.

          Guidance:
          External Examiners should not hold more than the equivalent of two substantial
          undergraduate external examiner appointments concurrently. If the Examiner
          appears to exceed this norm, arguments supporting the nomination must be
          provided to the CAC and ASDC; for example, that the phasing of examinations
          alleviates the workload during an academic session.

Tenure

2.1.8     External Examiners may serve at the University for a maximum of four
          consecutive academic years.

2.1.8.1     Exceptionally, the tenure of an External Examiner may be extended for a
            further academic year / cohort providing there is a rationale found
            acceptable to the CAC and ASDC.

2.1.8.2     A second extension of tenure would not normally be approved, except in
            wholly exceptional and compelling cases, and then only by approval at a
            full meeting of ASDC.

Numbers of Examiners and balance in the external examining team

2.1.9     There should be an External Examiner appointed to each course and, where
          there is more than one Examiner, an appropriate balance and expertise in the
          team of External Examiners:

                        there must be at least one External Examiner appointed to each
                         course;

                        proposed new Examiners should complement the existing
                         external examining team in terms of expertise and examining
                         experience;

                        there should be an appropriate balance between academic and
                         professional practitioners;




                                                                                         24
                     new appointments to the team should be phased so as to ensure
                      continuity.

       Guidance:
       The Regulations require that there must be at least one External Examiner
       appointed to each course, but do not stipulate the number over and above that.
       The number of Examiners is a matter of academic judgement which should take
       into account the particular characteristics of the course in question, and practical
       judgement over the volume of nature of the work required of an Examiner(s) to
       undertake the roles and responsibilities of the position.


Impartiality of Judgement

2.1.10 External Examiners should be impartial in judgement and should not have
       previous close involvement with the University which might compromise that
       objectivity.

       Normally, over the last three years, the proposed Examiner should not have
       been:

                     a member of staff, governor, supplier, or student at the
                      University, nor a near relative of a member of staff for the course;
                      or

                     an External Examiner on a cognate course in the same college
                      of the University must not normally examine more than three
                      courses concurrently.

       Guidance:
       For example, it might be felt appropriate and economical for an Examiner to
       examine an FdA, BA and MA in the same area.

       External Examiners should not:

                     be personally associated with the sponsorship of students;

                     be involved with students' placements or training in the
                      Examiner's organisation; or

                     have been an examiner on the course more than once before.

Termination of appointment before normal expiry of tenure

2.1.11 The University may terminate an External Examiner’s appointment before the
       normal expiry of tenure for reasons of non-fulfilment, or failure to fulfil
       appropriately, the responsibilities of the role as set out in the Regulations.




                                                                                        25
2.2       Role, Responsibilities and Rights of External Examiners

2.2.1     The role and responsibility of the External Examiner is to ensure that the
          academic standards appropriate to the award in question are maintained, that
          justice is done to the students, and that in the processes of assessment
          students are treated fairly and equitably according to the University’s policies
          and regulations.

2.2.2     In order to meet the responsibilities of the role, the University has the following
          expectations which provide External Examiners with the following rights:

2.2.2.1          to be able to make judgements on the assessment of each cohort of
                 students impartially on the basis of the work submitted for assessment,
                 without being influenced by previous association with the course, the staff,
                 or any of the students;

2.2.2.2          to be able to compare the performance of a cohort of students with that of
                 their peers on comparable courses elsewhere and, where appropriate, to
                 skills relevant to the profession / area of practice concerned;

2.2.2.3          to approve the form and content of proposed examination papers, or
                 briefs, and other assessments that count towards the award, in order to
                 ensure that all students will be assessed fairly in relation to the course
                 syllabus and regulations and in such a way that External Examiners will
                 be able to judge whether they have fulfilled the objectives of the
                 programme and reached the required standard;

2.2.2.4          to be consulted about, and agree to, any proposed changes to the
                 approved assessment regulations which will directly affect students
                 currently on the course;

2.2.2.5          to attend any Examiners' meetings and have reasonable access, on
                 request, to further evidence of achievement, including evidence about a
                 students’ performance on placement where this is an assessed part of a
                 programme;

2.2.2.6          to normally see the work of all students proposed for the highest available
                 category of the award, and for failure, and samples of the work of students
                 proposed for each category of the award;

2.2.2.7          to have the right to moderate the marks of the student cohort awarded by
                 internal examiners (note: this moderation of the entire cohort,; there is no
                 right to change individual marks);

2.2.2.8          to ensure that the assessments are conducted fairly, in accordance with
                 the approved programme regulations, and that the processes for
                 assessment, examination and the determination of awards are
                 appropriate;

2.2.2.9          recommendations for award are made and ensure that those
                 recommendations have been reached by means according with the
                 University’s requirements and normal practice in higher education;




                                                                                        26
2.2.2.10   to sign the conferments sheet at the end of the Examination Board
           signifying agreement to the awards recommended to be conferred;

2.2.2.11   to make a full report, according to the rubric set out on the University’s pro
           forma for this purpose, that will be made available internally, and on
           request externally in accordance with the University’s Freedom of
           Information Act Publication Scheme, on whether the standards set are
           appropriate for the University awards.

2.2.3      The role of the External Examiner does not include the right to
           participate in decisions relating to cases of suspected/proven
           cheating/assessment offences by students. These cases are covered
           by specific University regulations. However, External Examiners may
           be invited to participate in such decisions, or to offer advice under the
           relevant regulations.




                                                                                    27
       Appendix 2

External Examiner Handbook




                             28
UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTS LONDON
Handbook
GUIDANCE FOR EXTERNAL EXAMINERS




                                  January 2007




                                           29
Contents

3          Role of External Examiner

3          Responsibilities and Rights

5          The External Examining Process: Timeline

6          External Examiner Reports

6          Fees and Expenses

7          Inland Revenue, National Insurance and Asylum & Immigration Act
           1996 Requirements

8          University Race Equality Policy

9          Guidance note on Moderation

10         Guidance note on Sampling

13         Frequently Asked Questions

14         Useful Contacts




                                                                             30
Role of External Examiner

The general role of the External Examiner is to ensure that the academic standards
appropriate to the award in question are maintained, that justice is done to the
students, and that in the processes of assessment students are treated fairly and
equitably according to the University’s policies and regulations. The External
Examiner provides an independent commentary on the conduct of the assessment
process and, by reporting to the University’s Academic Standards and Development
Committee (ASDC), assures the University that the procedures and regulations
governing academic standards, quality and assessment were followed. The
University provides full briefing and induction for External Examiners to enable them
to understand the nature and ethos of the institution and the structure and
organisation of the course in question. Briefing is provided by the University through
documentation and, at the interim visit and other times if necessary, by Course
Directors.

The Regulations make a clear distinction between the role of the University staff who
are involved in the teaching, delivery and internal assessment of the course, and that
of the External Examiner. The External Examiner is not involved in the learning,
teaching or internal examining process as a participant, but rather takes an external
perspective on those processes, independently advising the course team and,
ultimately, the University.


Responsibilities and Rights of the External Examiner

In order to meet the responsibilities of the role, the University has the following
expectations which provide External Examiners with the following rights:

      to be able to make judgements on the assessment of each cohort of students
       impartially on the basis of the work submitted for assessment, without being
       influenced by previous association with the course, the staff, or any of the
       students;

      to be able to compare the performance of a cohort of students with that of their
       peers on comparable courses elsewhere and, where appropriate, to skills
       relevant to the profession / area of practice concerned;

      to approve the form and content of proposed examination papers, or briefs, and
       other assessments that count towards the award, in order to ensure that all
       students will be assessed fairly in relation to the course syllabus and regulations
       and in such a way that External Examiners will be able to judge whether they
       have fulfilled the objectives of the programme and reached the required standard;

      to be consulted about, and agree to, any proposed changes to the approved
       assessment regulations which will directly affect students currently on the course;

      to attend any Examiners' meetings and have reasonable access, on request,
       to further evidence of achievement, including evidence about a students’
       performance on placement where this is an assessed part of a programme;




                                                                                      31
   to normally see the work of all students proposed for the highest available
    category of the award, and for failure, and samples of the work of students
    proposed for each category of the award;

   to have the right to moderate the marks of the student cohort awarded by
    internal examiners (note: this is moderation of the entire cohort, there is no
    right to change individual marks);

   to ensure that the assessments are conducted fairly, in accordance with the
    approved programme regulations, and that the processes for assessment,
    examination and the determination of awards are appropriate;

   recommendations for award are made, and ensure that those recommendations
    have been reached by means according with the University’s requirements and
    normal practice in higher education;

   to sign the conferment sheet at the end of the Examination Board signifying
    agreement to the awards recommended to be conferred;

   to make a full report, according to the rubric set out on the University’s pro forma
    for this purpose, that will be made available internally, and on request externally in
    accordance with the University’s Freedom of Information Act Publication Scheme,
    on whether the standards set are appropriate for the University awards.

   The role of the External Examiner does not include the right to participate in
    decisions relating to cases of suspected/proven cheating/assessment
    offences by students. These cases are covered by specific University
    regulations. However, External Examiners may be invited to participate in
    such decisions, or to offer advice under the relevant regulations.




                                                                                     32
The External Examining Process: Timeline

Appointment and Initial Briefing

Appointment Letter

Following approval of the nomination by the Academic Standards and Development
Committee (ASDC), a letter of appointment is issued by Academic Affairs setting out the
period of tenure, the course to be examined, the number of visit days allocated, and the fee to
be paid. All logistical arrangements, such as the timing of the visits and the dates, are decided
in consultation with the Course Director and the Dean or his/her representative.


University of the Arts Annual Briefing Letter
Academic Affairs sends all Examiners an annual briefing letter
during May. The letter provides an opportunity to communicate any changes to the Examiners
role or duties.

Course Briefing Provided By The Dean or his/her representative

The Dean or his/her representative are responsible for ensuring that you receive a full
briefing/induction session as a new External Examiner at the University. In addition to this, a
member of the Course Team (usually the Course Director though practice differs within the
Schools) will send each new Examiner the current course handbook, the previous year’s
External Examiner Report(s), the Annual Course Monitoring Report (AMCR), and the details
of any other External Examiners appointed to the course.

Dates Agreed For Interim Visit And Final Visit(s)

The Dean or Course Director (or representative) contacts the Examiners to arrange visit
dates. Interim visits in respect of the majority of studio-based courses are made in Spring.



    Final Visit(s)

Moderation of Student work

External Examiners attend, and external moderation takes place (see guidance on
moderation and sampling pp. 9-12)

Secretary To Board Of Examiners Asks For Formal Agreement On Results

At the end of the Board of Examiners meeting, the Secretary asks the External Examiner(s) to
signify agreement to the awards conferred by signing the cover sheet
to the conferment list. Additional report pro formas and expenses claim forms can be provided
by the Secretary if necessary, or downloaded from the Academic Affairs website
(http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/menuexternalexaminers.php)

Report Sent To Pro Rector, Academic Development and Quality

External Examiners should e-mail their full report to the Pro-Rector, Academic Development
and Quality at: examiners@arts.ac.uk as soon as possible, and always within one month of
the Board of Examiners. Payment of fees and expenses is made upon receipt of the report.




                                                                                               33
Report Considered As Part Of Course Monitoring

External Examiner reports are responded to as part of Annual Course Monitoring. If serious
issues are raised in a report the Pro Rector, Academic Development and Quality writes to the
relevant Dean asking for an immediate response and details of action planned.

Response To College committees And External Examiners

Responses and actions are considered and agreed by Boards of Studies. The monitoring of
the implementation of action is the responsibility of the Course Director.
The responses are provided to External Examiners. The report is made available
internally on the University intranet.




External Examiner Reports

External Examiners are required to write a full report following the final assessment
visit. This should be submitted on the pro forma which is available on the Academic
Affairs External Examiner website at:
http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/menuexternalexaminers.php .The report should be
addressed to the Pro Rector, Academic Development and Quality, and e-mailed to
the following address: examiners@arts.ac.uk

External Examiners reports form a crucial element of the University’s quality
assurance system. Course teams are asked to respond to the Examiners’ reports in
the Annual Course Monitoring process. Therefore in order for the comments in the
report to be included and addressed, reports must be returned within one month of
the final Board of Examiners.

Exceptionally, if the External Examiner wishes to raise matters of particular
sensitivity, a confidential report might be sent to the Pro Rector, Academic
Development and Quality.

There is no prescribed length for reports, however External Examiners are asked to
provide reports which are as full and as detailed as possible. They should be
comprehensive, frank and informative.


FEES AND EXPENSES

External Examiners are paid a gross fee per day of attendance. The number of days
that an External Examiner is asked to attend will vary from course to course and is
agreed annually between Academic Affairs and Deans of Schools. The normal
pattern of attendance for External Examiners is one day for an interim visit and two
days for the final assessment. Fees and expenses for interim visits are paid on
receipt of the External Examiner Claim Form. In the case of final assessment visits,
fees and expenses are paid on receipt of the External Examiner’s report (submitted
electronically) and claim form (submitted in hard-copy). Also, please note section
below on other documentation to be submitted for newly appointed examiners.

The University will reimburse External Examiners for reasonable expenses in relation
to interim and final assessment visits. Receipts for expenditure must be attached.




                                                                                          34
Travel

It is expected that rail fares will normally be standard class. Air fares at economy
class (when alternative methods of travel are not available) should be paid for by the
Examiner and the cost will then be reimbursed. Car mileage is reimbursed at the rate
of 30p per mile; taxi fares incurred will also be reimbursed when accompanied by
receipts.

Subsistence

The college normally provides lunch for External Examiners.

Hotel Accommodation

Where hotel accommodation is required the External Examiner has two options.
Examiners may either book their own accommodation and then claim for
reimbursement on the fee/expense claim form. The University will pay for
accommodation up to a maximum of £120 per night (including VAT and breakfast).
Alternatively the External Examiner can contact the relevant School Office (contact
details at the back of this Handbook). The University has account facilities at a
number of hotels in central London. Each school office has a list of these hotels and
will book accommodation once dates for visits are agreed.


INLAND REVENUE, TAX AND NATIONAL INSURANCE, ASYLUM AND
IMMIGRATION ACT 1996, AND THE ELIGIBILITY TO WORK (PROOF OF
NATIONAL INSURANCE) REQUIREMENTS

The University employs External Examiners as individuals; it does not contract
external examining services from their university or employer. The University is
therefore bound by statute, as a Schedule ‘E’ employer, to operate the PAYE
scheme, which means that Income Tax and National Insurance contributions will be
deducted from Examiners’ gross fees at source, through payroll.

However, individuals who have a substantial business or profession relating to their
engagement as an expert External Examiner may apply to be assessed for another
tax status such as ‘Self-employed’. Please note, this only relates to Tax; you are
deemed to be an employee for National Insurance, and all payments will be subject
to ‘Class 1’ deductions, as appropriate, without exception.

This is not a matter of personal choice, but is determined by the terms and conditions
of a particular engagement. There are specific guidelines relating to External
Examiners.

If you consider that another status may apply to you for this employment, more
information, and the required forms, are available on the External Examiner section
of the Academic Affairs website at:
http://intranet.arts.ac.uk/quality/aa/menuexternalexaminers.php

Inland Revenue – Tax

All Examiners will need, on appointment, to read, complete and sign the form P46
which will be supplied. It is essential that you securely attach the completed P46 to
the other forms you return to the Academic Affairs office as we cannot process your
payment without it.


                                                                                    35
Inland Revenue – National Insurance

The Inspector for National Insurance Contributions responsible for the University
has ruled that the contracting arrangements for External Examiners deems
individuals as employees covered by Inland Revenue (Previously Social Security)
(Categorisation of Earners) Regulation 1978 and gross payment will therefore be
subject to deduction of Class 1 contributions at source, through Payroll; this is
irrelevant of any other status examiners may hold personally, or any other
contributions you may make due to other income (i.e. those registered as self-
employed paying Class 2 and possible Class 4 contributions).

However, if an Examiner is already working for another Schedule E employer and
paying the maximum Class 1 contributions in that employment, you may be able to
obtain from your Inland Revenue (Formerly DSS) Contributions Agency branch office
a Deferment of Contributions Order (Form CA2700 or equivalent) which must be
renewed annually at the responsibility of the examiner.

If you obtain this exception order, please send the form with your other documents to
Academic Affairs. Payroll Services will operate a noncontributory status, and refund
any previous deducted contributions within the dates specified on the deferment
order, or the whole tax year, as appropriate.

Asylum & Immigration Act 1996 – Section 8(5)

Under this Act, the University needs to verify evidence of your right to work in the
United Kingdom before you commence your employment. Therefore we ask that
copies of either a passport, visa or British birth certificate be sent on appointment.

The University also requires proof of your National Insurance number; a copy of
either a National Insurance Card, a P45, a P60, a payslip, or an officially marked tax
letter displaying your NI number, will suffice. If you live outside the UK and/or do not
hold a British National Insurance number please contact the Academic Affairs office
to discuss the documentation needed.

Unfortunately, without these documents we cannot process your payment. If you
have any queries about the above information, please contact Louise Vickers on 020
7514 6057 or l.vickers@arts.ac.uk

University Race Equality Policy

The University has a Race Equality Policy to which External Examiners’ attention is
drawn. The Policy is provided to all Examiners on appointment and can be found on
the University’s website at: http://www.arts.ac.uk/5446.htm

The document specifies that ‘student assessment, achievement and progression’ is a
key area of the University’s activities to which the Policy applies and therefore
External Examiners have an important role in monitoring its implementation and
application in this area. In particular, the University invites External Examiners to
comment on any relevant issues that might be perceived. Examiners are reminded
that if they wish to raise a matter of particular sensitivity on this, or any other aspect
of examination or assessment, a confidential report may be submitted to the Pro
Rector, Academic Development and Quality.




                                                                                         36
Guidance Note on External Moderation

Introduction

The University of the Arts external examiner regulations cover external moderation
under section 2.2. on the role, responsibilities and rights of external examiners (para
2.2.2.7) where it states that external examiners have the right “ to have the right to
moderate the marks of the student cohort awarded by internal examiners (note:
this is moderation of the entire cohort; there is no right to change individual
marks)”. This note gives further guidance on external moderation. It is intended to
help both course directors and external examiners.

What is External Moderation?

Through its approach to assessment the university seeks to ensure that students are
assessed against the learning outcomes of the unit and course and given a mark that
reflects their performance based on the University’s classification descriptors.
Marking is expected to be in line with sector norms and fair to all students in a cohort
and over time. All courses operate systems of internal moderation which allow for
some adjustment of marks to ensure this parity and accurate marking. External
moderation is a final check, by external subject experts, that the marking is at the
right level for the type and level of course. External moderation may lead to a
decision to change marks.

Information Needed to Decide on Moderation

The Sample - To make a judgment about the standard of marking externals read or
view a sample of student work. A separate University of the Arts guidance note
covers the selection and size of the sample. However the basic principle is that
external examiners need to see enough student work to be able to make a judgment
about the standard of marking undertaken by the internal examiners.

The Standards - Externals are making a judgement about marking against the
standards set for that course and unit as defined in the learning outcomes. Generally
externals will be referring here to the course handbook but may also need to take
account of specific assessment briefs which they should already have seen.

The Marking - Externals need to understand how internal examiners arrived at the
marks. This will normally be through discussions with the course team.

Exercising the Right to Moderate

Although discussion about external moderation should take place with internal staff
before the exam board the final decision on moderation should only take place at the
exam board itself. External moderation can take a number of forms:

              Adding or subtracting a set percentage to or from all student marks,
               e.g. + 4% to all students in a particular unit;
              Adding or subtracting a set percentage to all student marks within a
               grade. This may have the effect of moving some students up or down
               a grade for that unit and therefore knock on changes to their overall
               grade;




                                                                                      37
              Moving a grade boundary, eg deciding that all students close to a
               boundary should be moved up or down. Where this is the likely
               decision externals will normally need to look at an additional sample of
               the work of students on the boundary in question. The degree of
               “closeness” must also be agreed, eg all students within 2% (or
               whatever agreed) of the boundary.

Moderation of Cohort

       External examiners moderate a cohort of students rather than individual
       students. In exercising any of the methods outlined above the result will
       normally be changed marks for some students and no change for others: this
       is moderation of the cohort. External examiners do not have the right to
       adjust individual student marks. Only internal examiners or the full exam
       board can make a decision to adjust an individual student’s mark. Where
       externals disagree with the internal mark for any particular student they have
       sampled that may lead the externals to investigate further whether the cohort
       marks need to be changed under external moderation.


Guidance Note on Sampling

Introduction

The University of the Arts external examiner regulations cover sampling under
section 2.2 on the role, responsibilities and rights of external examiners (para 2.2.2.6)
where it states that external examiners have the right “to normally see the work of all
students proposed for the highest available category of the award, and for failure,
and samples of the work of students proposed for each category of the award”.
This note gives further guidance on the extent of the sample, upper and lower limits of
the sample size, and other matters. It is intended to help both course directors and
external examiners.

What is the sample for?

The choice of sample must meet the formal regulations and should take account of the
advice in this guidance note; however if there is any doubt then consideration of the
basic principle of sampling should be enough to resolve the issue. External examiners
need to see enough student work to be able to make a judgement about the standard of
marking undertaken by the internal examiners and therefore be able to confirm that the
marking is in line with that of similar courses elsewhere or, where necessary, to
exercise their right to moderate marks.

Who chooses the sample?

The Course Director should choose the sample which should be based on the
placement of a particular student within the range of marks on the full mark sheet rather
than on the nature of their work.

Final Year Only

For BA and FdA courses external examiners should sample final year work only. This
is not to say that external examiners are forbidden from seeing the work of students on
earlier years on a studio tour at interim or final visits. However it should be made clear
that any viewing of work of earlier years is for general briefing and to help external


                                                                                        38
examiners get a feel for the course and is not sampling. For Grad Cert, Grad Dip and
for postgraduate courses structures vary and the sample will be drawn from the units
that contribute to the calculation of distinction on the particular award in question.

Sample on Unitised Courses

All UAL courses are now unitised though for undergraduate courses at Chelsea and
CSM these courses are running in and will there will be no unitised final year until
2007/08. On unitised courses all units that contribute to the final award must be
externally examined. Where there is a team of external examiners it is acceptable for
individual units to be externally examined by just one examiner. However the final
major project unit or equivalent should be examined by all examiners from the relevant
specialism. On non unitised courses each element that contributes to the final award
should be externally examined, this is generally studio and theory work.

Size of Sample

All fails should be included in the sample for all courses. All firsts or distinctions should
be included in the sample for most courses. However on a large course it is
permissable to provide a sample of the first/distinction category. This would generally
be true where a cohort has more than 60 students or where there are more than 6 firsts
or distinctions. For the other categories the sample should be taken from the top,
middle and bottom of the band so will be at least 3 and would not normally need to be
higher than 6 for each band. For courses that award a pass or distinction only the whole
pass category counts as one band. From this general guidance it can be seen that no
matter what the size of the cohort the sample size will generally be between 12 and 30
for undergraduate courses and between 6 and 12 for other courses. For cohorts of 12
or fewer students at undergraduate or 6 or fewer on Grad Cert/Dip or postgraduate
courses this may mean external examiners are seeing the work of all students and this
is permissable.


       Number of Students          Under 12            12 - 60             60+
       in Cohort                   Students
       BA and FdA
       1st/Dist                    all                 all                 6-10
       2.2/Merit Plus              all                 3-5                 6
       2.1/Merit                   all                 3-5                 6
       3rd/Pass                    all                 3-5                 6
       Fail                        all                 all                 All
       Total Size of Sample        Up to 12            12-25               Up to 30



Adding to the Sample

External examiners should be given the full mark sheet for the entire cohort along
with the sample work or when they are viewing work. External examiners may, if
they wish, ask to see more samples of work. This may be needed when the
examiner feels unable to come to a conclusion on the standards of the course from
the original sample and will generally be needed if there is the possibility of external
moderation.




                                                                                          39
Sampling on Text Based Units/Courses

The sample should be sent to the External Examiner(s) in advance together with the
full mark sheet for the cohort for that unit or the whole course. It is good practice to
anonymise the mark sheet by using only the numeric part of the student ID code.

Sampling on Studio Based Units/Courses

Sampling on studio based courses varies depending on the specific nature of the
discipline. Generally the external examining is carried out in the same way as
internal examining and this is normally by each examiner viewing the work and
coming to their own view on a mark followed by collective discussion and agreement
of a mark. Whatever method is used the following outlines generally accepted
practice. Internal examiners should view alone, mark and then discuss collectively to
arrive at a final mark for each student before external examination takes place and
this should include any process of internal moderation that is used. A sample of
students should be identified. External examiners should be given the full mark
sheet for the cohort with the sample students identified. External examiners should
view the sample work, without the internal examiners initially, and then should have
an opportunity for dialogue with the internal examiners about how they arrived at the
mark.

External examiners sometimes meet with the students whose work they are viewing
(again generally reflecting the practice of internal examination); while this is
acceptable University rules no longer allow this to be called a viva voce, only internal
examiners may carry out a viva voce, that is use the information given by the student
to help them arrive at a mark. Where external examiners meet with a student in the
sample it is to help them understand the work in question. Where the work of all
students is displayed it is normal for external examiners to want to view the whole
show and this is of course acceptable to get a general feeling for the cohort; however
a full discussion about individual students should be limited to the sample chosen by
the course director and any extended sample requested by the external examiners.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is my role as an External Examiner at the University of The Arts London?
The role of the external examiner is to ensure that the academic standards appropriate to
the award in question are maintained, that justice is done to the students, and that in the
processes of assessment students are treated fairly and equitably according to the
University’s policies and regulations

In my role as an External Examiner can I moderate an individual student’s mark?
An external examiner is not involved in the assessment of students directly but is involved in
ensuring that assessment decisions have been made fairly and appropriately, and in
accordance with the University’s regulations. Therefore external examiners do not mark
work, nor can change individual students’ marks, although they may recommend to the
Examination Board an overall adjustment to the range of marks based on their moderation
of the internal marking. (please refer to guidance on moderation)

In my role as an External Examiner can I converse with the students?
External examiners are not restricted from meeting students to form a general impression
of the student experience. However the purpose of these meetings should be defined in that
way, and not be part of the examination of an individual student.




                                                                                      40
I haven’t been contacted yet regarding when I should make my first visit. Who
should I call?
Practice differs within the schools. The Dean or Course Director should normally let
you know these dates. If you have not heard you should contact the Dean.

I shall be travelling from far away. Can hotel accommodation be arranged?
Yes, you can either arrange the accommodation yourself or claim reimbursement
(maximum of £120 inc VAT and breakfast per night) or you can contact the relevant
school office who will book a room for you which will be settled by account.

The percentage criteria for a First/Distinction is very high. Why is this?
All degree courses conform to University of the Arts London regulations which define
the criteria for the award of different degree classifications. These written definitions
are found in each course handbook and are the benchmarks against which the
student achievement is judged. Assessment is a process of judgement, not
computation and the numerical indicators (% grades) are aides to this process.
Percentage grades have been associated with degree classifications in equal
bandings to encourage the use of the full spectrum of marks above the pass mark of
40%.

Due to an emergency, I cannot attend the Examination Board. What should I
do?
Contact the Dean of School immediately by telephone, fax or e-mail.

What if I disagree with the internal markers?
Where students’ achievements have been evaluated against course-specific
outcomes, and the Board of Examiners has had a full discussion, it is rare for internal
and External Examiners to reach an impasse with regard to a decision. The minutes
of the Board of Examiners will record the debate and reasons for the decision.

I haven’t yet been paid for my visit. Who should I contact?
You should call Louise Vickers in Academic Affairs who holds a record of all reports
and claims received. Fees and expenses for final assessment visits are paid upon
receipt of the report. Non-receipt of the report, or non-submission of certain
documentation, are the most common reasons for payment not having been
received.

What feedback should I expect from my report?
External Examiner reports are considered as part of the Annual Course Monitoring
exercise which takes place in the summer and autumn of each year. Issues raised in
the reports will be responded to as part of this report; you should also receive
personal feedback from the Course Director or Dean.




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Useful Contact Numbers

Academic Affairs
020 7514 6492         Sarah Baber                          s.baber@arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6057         Louise Vickers (Fees & Expenses)     l.vickers@arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6060         Jane Berry, PA to Elizabeth Rouse     j.berry@arts.ac.uk
                      Pro Rector Academic Development and Quality

Camberwell, Chelsea, Wimbledon

020 7514 7753         Dean of Academic Development          l.drew@chelsea.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6066         Head of Quality                             f.purdue@arts.ac.uk

Camberwell College of Arts

020 7514 6471         Quality Administrator   s.hetherington@camberwell.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6394         Dean                            n.brett@camberwell.arts.ac.uk

Chelsea College of Art and Design

020 7514 7969         Quality Administrator

Wimbledon School of Arts

020 7514 9671         Quality Office
020 7514 9676         Academic Dean              g.blacklock@wimbledon.arts.ac.uk


Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design

020 7514 7670      Head of Academic Services                 d.killick@csm.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 7118      Quality Assurance Manager                w.school@csm.arts.ac.uk

020 7514 7165      School of Art
020 7514 7201      Dean of Art                              m.dunhill@csm.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 7200      Associate Dean                           a.lumley@csm.arts.ac.uk

020 7514 7153      School of Fashion and Textile Design
020 7514 7074      Dean of Fashion and Textile Design       a.e.smith@csm.arts.ac.uk

020 7514 7303      School of Graphic and Industrial Design
020 7514 7300      Dean of Graphic and Industrial Design j.barratt@csm.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 7645      Associate Dean                          a.bright@csm.arts.ac.uk

Drama Centre London
020 7514 8760  School Administrator                       m.wilkinson@csm.arts.ac.uk

Byam Shaw School of Art
020 7521 4111 Principal                                    a.warman@csm.arts.ac.uk
020 7821 4111 School Administrator                         j.osullivan@csm.arts.ac.uk

London Studio Centre
020 7 837 7741 Director of Studies Robert.Penman@london-studio-centre.co.uk




                                                                                   42
London College of Fashion

020 7514 7494   Senior Administrator                   j.melton@fashion.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 7670   Dean of Academic Development
                and Quality Assurance               h.j.grainger@fashion.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 7687   Quality Assurance Coordinator            e.elvin@fashion.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6019   Postgraduate Quality Assurance
                Coordinator                          k.askham@fashion.arts.ac.uk

London College of Communication

020 7514 6653   School of Graphic Design
020 7514 6674   Dean of Graphic Design                 m.bradshaw@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6688   Quality Manager                         t.pritchard@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6937   The School of Creative Enterprise
020 7514 6950   Dean of Creative Enterprise              d.m.hayes@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6649   Quality Manager                            d.lavelle@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6809   School of Media
020 7514 6843   Dean of Media                            j.rodriguez@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6960   Associate Dean                              g.naylor@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6717   School of Printing and Publishing
020 7514 6701   Dean of Printing and Publishing            s.pandit@lcc.arts.ac.uk
020 7514 6733   Quality Manager                          m.brunwin@lcc.arts.ac.uk




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