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Anatomy Chapter 13 Lecture Outline: Surface Anatomy Surface Anatomy A branch of _____________ anatomy that examines _____________and markings on the surface of the body as they relate to _____________structures. Essential in locating and identifying anatomic structures _____________to studying internal _____________anatomy. Health-care personnel use __________________anatomy to help diagnose __________________conditions and to treat __________________. Surface Anatomy four ____________________________________when examining surface anatomy __________________inspection __________________observe the structure and markings of surface __________________ __________________ feeling with firm __________________or perceiving by the sense of __________________ precisely __________________and __________________anatomic features under the skin __________________ __________________sharply on specific body sites to detect resonating __________________ __________________ listen to __________________emitted from organs __________________ (cranial region or braincase) is covered by the __________________, which is composed of skin and ____________________________________tissue. Cranium can be subdivided into __________________regions, each having prominent surface anatomy features. the __________________region of the cranium is the __________________ covering the frontal region is the __________________muscle, which overlies the frontal __________ the frontal region terminates at the ____________________________________arches Cranium Face – The ____________________________________Region Composed of the visible surface structures of the __________________as well as the ear’s __________________organs, which function in hearing and maintaining __________________. __________________, or __________________, is the fleshy part of the external __________________. Within the auricle is a tubular opening into the middle ear called the _______________________________. The __________________process is posterior and inferior to the __________________. The Face – Orbital (or Ocular) Region Includes the __________________and associated structures. Surface features __________________the eye. ____________________________________protect against sunlight and potential mechanical __________. Eyelids close ____________________________________to protect against objects moving near the eye. __________________prevent airborne particles from contacting the __________________. The superior palpebral __________________or upper eyelid __________________. __________________do not have a superior palpebral fissure The Face – Nasal Region Contains the __________________. the __________________; it is formed by the union of the __________________bones The fleshy part of the nose is called the ____________________________________. The tip of the nose is called the __________________. __________________, or external __________________, are the paired openings into the nose. __________________ (wing of the nose) forms the flared lateral margin of each __________________. The Face – Oral Region __________________to the __________________region. Includes the __________________ (cheek) region, the fleshy upper and lower lips (__________________), and the structures of the __________________cavity (mouth) that can be observed when the mouth is open. The vertical depression between your nose and upper lip is called the __________________. The Face – __________________Region The __________________region contains the mentum, or __________________. The mentum tends to be __________________and almost triangular in females. Males tend to have a “____________________________________” mentum. Triangles of the Neck Neck/__________________region/cervix is a complex region that connects the head to the ____________. Spinal cord, nerves, trachea, esophagus, and major vessels traverse this highly flexible area. Neck contains other organs and several important __________________. Neck can be subdivided into ______________________________________________________. The Anterior Region of the Neck Has several palpable ________________________, including the larynx, trachea, and ________________. The __________________. found in the middle of the __________________ composed of multiple __________________ __________________cartilage “__________________apple” Inferior to the larynx are the __________________cartilage and __________________. Terminates at the __________________ (jugular) notch of the ____________________________________and the left and right clavicles. The __________________Region The __________________neck region. Houses the __________________cord, cervical __________________, and associated structures. The bump at the lower boundary of this region is the vertebra __________________. Superiorly along the midline of the neck, is the ____________________________________nuchae, a thick ligament that runs from C7 to the __________________lines of the skull. Left and Right Lateral Portions of the Neck Contain the ____________________________________muscles which partitions the neck into two clinically important triangles, an __________________triangle and a __________________triangle. Each triangle houses __________________structures that run through the neck. Triangles are further __________________into smaller triangles. __________________triangle lies anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and inferior to the _________. subdivided into __________________smaller triangles the ________________________________________________________________ triangles Thorax The __________________portion of the trunk sandwiched between the neck __________________and the abdomen __________________. Consists of the chest and the “__________________back.” On the __________________surface of the chest are the two dominating surface features of the thorax. the __________________and the __________________ The Clavicles Paired clavicles and the __________________ (jugular) notch represent the border between the __________________and the __________________. On the __________________anterior surface where they extend between the base of the neck on the right and left sides __________________to the shoulders. Left and right __________________margins of the rib cage form the inferior boundary of the ___________. __________________angle (costal arch) is where the costal margins join to form an __________________V at the __________________process. On a thin person, many of the __________________can be seen. Most of the ribs (with the exception of the __________________one) can be __________________. The Sternum __________________readily as the __________________bony structure in the thorax. The ____________________, the body, and the __________________process may also be palpated. Sternal angle can be felt as an __________________between the manubrium and the __________________. Sternal angle is __________________important because it is at the level of the __________________cartilage of the second rib. it is often used as a __________________for counting the __________________ The Abdomen On the __________________surface of the abdomen, the __________________ (navel) is the prominent depression or projection in the midline of the __________________wall. In the __________________of the abdominal anterior surface is the __________________alba, a tendinous structure that extends inferiorly from the __________________process to the pubic symphysis. The left and right rectus __________________muscles and their tendinous insertions are referred to as “__________________ abs.” The superior aspect of the ilium (iliac __________________) terminates anteriorly at the anterior superior iliac __________________. Attached to the anterior superior iliac spine is the __________________ligament, which forms the lower boundary of the __________________wall. Shoulder and Upper Limb Region Clinically important because of frequent __________________to these body regions. __________________of the upper limb are often used as __________________sites and as sites for drawing __________________, providing nutrients and fluids, and administering __________________. Shoulder The __________________, __________________, and proximal part of the humerus collectively form the __________________. The __________________is the bump on your anterior shoulder. The rounded curve of the shoulder is formed by the thick __________________muscle, which is a frequent site for ____________________________________injections. Axilla Commonly called the __________________, is clinically important because of the __________________, axillary __________________vessels, and lymph nodes located there. The ______________________major forms the fleshy anterior axillary fold, which acts as the anterior border of the __________________. The __________________dorsi and __________________major muscles form the fleshy posterior axillary fold, which is the posterior border of the axilla. Arm The __________________which extends from the shoulder to the elbow on the upper limb. On the __________________side of the arm, the __________________vein is evident in muscular individuals as it traverses along the __________________border of the entire upper limb. This vein ________________________in a small surface depression, bordered by the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles, called the ____________________________________triangle. Arm The __________________vein is sometimes evident along the __________________side of the upper limb. __________________artery becomes ____________________________________along the medial side of the brachium, and its __________________may be detected here. Clinically important in measuring __________________pressure. The Arm and Elbow The _________________________ brachii muscle becomes prominent when the elbow is _____________. Located on the _________________________surface of the elbow region, the cubital fossa is a depression within which the median cubital vein connects the basilic and _________________________veins. The _________________________fossa is a common site for venipuncture (removal of _________________________from a vein). The Arm and Elbow The bulk of the _________________________surface of the _________________________is formed by the _________________________brachii muscle. Three bony _________________________are readily identified in the distal region of the _________________________near the elbow. The lateral _________________________of the _________________________is a rounded lateral projection at the distal end of the humerus. The _________________________of the ulna is _________________________easily along the posterior aspect of the elbow. The medial _________________________of the humerus is more prominent and may be easily palpated. Forearm The _________________________, and the muscles that control hand movements form the forearm, or _________________________. ______________________part of the forearm is bulkier, due to the fleshy bellies of the forearm muscles. ______________________, the forearm becomes thinner as you are palpating the tendons of these muscles. The _________________________processes of the radius and ulna are readily palpable as the lateral and medial bumps along the wrist, respectively. The Forearm Tendons of the _________________________pollicis brevis, _________________________pollicis longus, and _________________________pollicis longus muscles mark the boundary of the triangular anatomic snuffbox. Palpate the pulse of the _________________________artery here. Palpate the _________________________bone in this region. Gluteal Region The inferior border of the gluteus _________________________muscle forms the gluteal ___________. The gluteal (________________) cleft extends vertically to separate the buttocks into two prominences. In the inferior portion of each buttock, an ________________tuberosity can be palpated; these tuberosities support body ________________while seated. The gluteus maximus muscle forms most of the ________________________ “fleshy” part of the buttock. The gluteus medius muscle may be palpated only in the ________________________________portion of each buttock. The Thigh Many ________________and ________________features are readily identified in the thigh, which extends between the hip and the knee on each lower limb. An extremely important element of thigh surface anatomy is a region called the ________________triangle. The ________________triangle is a depression inferior to the groove that overlies the ________________ligament on the ________________________surface in the superior portion of the thigh. The ________________artery, vein, and nerve travel through this region, making it an important arterial ________________point for controlling lower limb ________________________________. Thigh and Knee On the distal part of the anterior thigh, are the three parts of the ________________femoris as they approach the ________________. Still on the anterior side of the thigh, three obvious skeletal features can be observed and palpated: (1) The greater ________________is palpated on the superior lateral surface of the thigh; (2) the ________________is located easily within the patellar tendon; and (3) the lateral and medial ________________of both the femur and ________________are identified and palpated at each knee. Foot and Toes The phalanges, ________________________________________________joints, PIP (______________________) and DIP (__________________________) joints, and toenails are obvious surface landmarks readily observed when viewing either the lateral side or the dorsum of the foot. The ________________surface of the foot clearly illustrates the high, arched medial ________________________________arch. At the distal end of the medial ________________________________arch, the head of metatarsal I appears as a prominent ________________. Review Questions; 1. What is the branch of gross anatomy that examines shapes and markings on the surface of the body as they relate to deeper structures? 2. What people use surface anatomy to help diagnose medical conditions and to treat patients? 3. Which of the following is not one of the four techniques when examining surface anatomy 4. What term means to tap sharply on specific body sites to detect resonating vibrations? 5. What term means to listen to sounds emitted from organs 6. What region is covered by the scalp? 7. Which of the following is not one of the regions of the cranium? 8. What is the scientific name for the region of the face that includes the eyes? 9. What is composed of the visible surface structures of the ear as well as the ear’s internal organs 10. What is the function of the ear and the ear’s internal organs? 11. What is the fleshy part of the external ear? 12. Within the auricle is a tubular opening into the middle ear called; 13. What is the scientific term for the face 14. The surface features of the face protect what? 15. What activity occurs to protect against objects moving near the eye? 16. What structurs prevent airborne particles from contacting the eyeball. 17. What is the term for the upper eyelid crease? 18. Asians have a superior palpebral fissure; True (A) or False (B) 19. The bridge of the nose is formed by the union of; 20. The fleshy part of the nose is called; 21. The tip of the nose is called; 22. What are the paired openings into the nose? 23. What forms the flared lateral margin of each nostril? 24. The vertical depression between your nose and upper lip is called; 25. The mental region contains the mentum, or; 26. The mentum tends to be pointed and almost triangular in what gender? 27. Males tend to have what type of mentum? 28. Neck can be subdivided into what three regions? 29. What part of the neck has several palpable landmarks, including the larynx, trachea, and sternal notch? 30. What is found in the middle of the neck that is composed of multiple cartilages? 31. What cartilage is known as the “Adam’s apple” 32. Inferior to the larynx are the; 33. What is the posterior neck region called? 34. The bump at the lower boundary of this region is the; 35. What muscle partitions the neck into two clinically important triangles, an anterior triangle and a posterior triangle. 36. What is the superior portion of the trunk sandwiched between the neck superiorly and the abdomen inferiorly? 37. On the anterior surface of the chest are what two dominating surface features of the thorax. 38. Paired clavicles and the sternal (jugular) notch represent the border between; 39. On the anterior surface of the abdomen, what is the prominent depression or projection in the midline of the abdominal wall? 40. In the midline of the abdominal anterior surface is what tendinous structure that extends inferiorly from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis? 41. The left and right rectus abdominis muscles and their tendinous insertions are referred to as; 42. The superior aspect of what structure terminates anteriorly at the anterior superior iliac spine. 43. Attached to the anterior superior iliac spine is the inguinal ligament, which forms the lower boundary of the abdominal wall. 44. Shoulder and Upper Limb Region are clinically important because of; 45. Vessels of the upper limb are often used for what medical procedures? 46. The scapula, clavicle, and proximal part of the humerus collectively form what structure? 47. The rounded curve of the shoulder is formed by what muscle, a frequent site for intramuscular injections. 48. What is commonly called the armpit? 49. Why is the arm pit clinically important? 50. What is the scientific name for the arm? 51. What vessel is sometimes evident along the medial side of the upper limb? 52. Brachial artery is clinically important for what medical procedure? 53. The biceps brachii muscle becomes prominent when the elbow is flexed. 54. Located on the anterior surface of the elbow region, what is the depression within which the median cubital vein connects the basilic and cephalic veins? 55. The cubital fossa is a common site for what? 56. The bulk of the posterior surface of the brachium is formed by; 57. Which of the following is not one of the bony prominences readily identified in the distal region of the brachium near the elbow; 58. The radius, the ulna, and the muscles that control hand movements form the; 59. Proximal part of the forearm is bulkier, due to; 60. The inferior border of the gluteus maximus muscle forms what fold? 61. What cleft extends vertically to separate the buttocks into two prominences? 62. What muscle forms most of the inferolateral “fleshy” part of the buttock? 63. An extremely important element of thigh surface anatomy is a region called the; 64. What is a depression inferior to the groove that overlies the inguinal ligament on the anteromedial surface in the superior portion of the thigh? 65. What structures travel through the femoral triangle?
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