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Taxonomy Classification of Living Things Taxonomy Organizing the Diversity

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Taxonomy Classification of Living Things Taxonomy Organizing the Diversity Powered By Docstoc
					Classification of Living Things
    Taxonomy: Organizing the Diversity of Life
What’s in a name?
           ENGLISH: dog
           FRENCH: chein
           JAPANESE: inu
           HINDI: kutta
           GUJARATI: kutto
           SOLALI: eey
           ZULU: inja
           GERMAN: hund
           HEBREW: kelev
           And hundreds more!!!
           SCIENTIFIC NAME:
           Canis familiaris
 What’s in a name?
                 A species can even
My Personal is
  Mountain
                 have several different
  Screamer       names within the
                 same language.
          What’s in a name?
 Very different species can also have very similar names.




                         None of these creatures are
                         actually fish!!!
          What’s in a name?
 If an animal is known by so many different names, how
  would anyone know if they were talking about the same
  thing?
Bill



Buffalo   Cosby
  Clinton Murray                           Nye
                                         Gates
                TAXONOMY
 Taxonomy is the science of naming organisms and
  assigning them to these groups.

 Taxa (sl. taxon) = “groups”
  Why is classification system
          necessary?
 There are 250 different species of shark, almost 1000
  different species of ant and 1.0 x 106 species of
  bacteria.

• We need a system that can distinguish between all the
  different known species so that we can classify new
  species as they arise.

• Yes, that’s right -- new species are always forming due
  to adaptations. E.g. SARS, Avian Bird flu, H1N1 (a.k.a
  swine flu)
      TAXONOMY: A History

 There are an estimated 30- 100 million organisms on the
  planet, but biologists have only accounted for ~ 1.75
  million.



 Since early in history, people have tried to name and
  organize species.




                                              ~ = approximately
TAXONOMY: A History
    Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
     Identified ~1000 species &
      grouped them according to
      kingdoms — Plantae and
      Animalia

     Identified them based on
      their “complexity”

     He called this scala naturae
      or “ladder of nature”
      TAXONOMY: A History

• THEN, he grouped animals according to habitat (land,
  air, water)

                    How can you see this
                    classification system being a
                    problem?
      TAXONOMY: A History
St. Augustine (3rd century CE)
• classified animals as being useful, harmful, or
  superfluous (useless).

• Middle Ages—herbalists classified plants according to
  what they produced (i.e. fruit, vegetables, wood)



How can you see this classification system as being
  useful at the time?
      TAXONOMY: A History
 In the 1400’s – 1500’s, European explorers returned
  from their journeys with new species that no Europeans
  have ever seen before.
      TAXONOMY: A History
John Ray (mid- 17th century)
 set out to catalogue all organisms in the world.
 was the first to use the term species
 classified over 19 000 species of birds, fish & four-
  footed animals
                     TAXONOMY
 Species – Organisms that can interbreed and produce
  a fertile offspring.




Horse & Donkey = different species because ...
TAXONOMY: A History
      Carl Linnaeus
        Swedish naturalist from the 18th
         century
        devised a system based on an
         organism’s physical and structural
         features
        the more features organisms have in
         common, the closer their relationship
        The conventions that we use to name
         species today is largely based on
         Linnaeus’ system (Linnaean
         classification system)
                TAXONOMY
 Linnaeus developed the system of binomial
  nomenclature



 Binomial nomenclature: organisms are given two-part
  scientific names
   Ex. Homo sapiens (humans)
  TAXONOMY: Binomial nomenclature

                                 Genus + species
                                                                        species always
Genus Always
                         Examples:                                        lowercase
   Capital
                         1) Canis latrans (coyote)
                         2) Felis domestica (house cat)
                         3) Canis familiaris (domestic dog)
                         4) Homo sapiens (humans)
                         5) Felis concolor (mountain lion)
    * scientific name should be either italicized or underlined
Closely related species will share the same genus name but will have a different species
name.
E.g. Which of the following species in the above list are closely related to each other?
TAXONOMY
     In 2004, a new species of
      monkey was discovered in
      Bolivia.

     The scientists who
      discovered it decided to
      sell the naming rights to
      the highest bidder.

     The winner was…
                TAXONOMY




Common name: GoldenPalace.com monkey

Scientific name: Callicebus aureipalatii
(aureipalatii means “of the golden palace”)
                TAXONOMY
Organisms are classified using 8 taxa (groups), from most
                 general to most specific.

Domain                                             Dearest
KINGDOM                                            KING
PHYLUM                                             PHILIP
CLASS               A Trick to remembering this:   CAME
ORDER                                              OVER
FAMILY                                             FOR
GENUS                                              GOOD
SPECIES                                            SOUP
                TAXONOMY
 Every organism belongs to 1 of six Kingdoms.
 Organisms with similar characteristics are grouped
  together (e.g. locomotion, feeding patterns, structure,
  and way of life).
             The Six Kingdoms
 Animalia
 Plantae
 Protista
 Fungi
 Eubacteria
 Archaeabacteria
CLASSIFICATION OF HUMANS
DOMAIN                Eukarya

KINGDOM               Animalia

PHYLUM                Chordata
(sometimes referred
to as division)


CLASS                 Mammalia

ORDER                 Primate

FAMILY                Hominidae (of which we are the only living
                      specimen)

GENUS                 Homo

SPECIES               Sapeins
                   TAXONOMY
  Domain    Archaea     Bacteria                 Eukarya
KINGDOM     Archaea    Eubacteria   Protista Fungi   Plantae   Animalia
            bacteria
CELL TYPE

STRUCTURE


HABITAT

NUTRITION

LOCMOTION

EXAMPLE
Biologists recognize 2 cell types:
      1. Prokaryotic cells

      2. Eukaryotic cells
                 Prokaryotes
          Kingdom Eubacteria and Archaeabacteria
 Very small (1-10 µM)
 DNA circular
 Nucleus absent
 Membrane bound organelles absent
 Genome consists of a single chromosome
 Asexual reproduction common
 Rarely multicellular
 Many are anaerobic
                 Eubacteria

 consist of very small simple cells.
 prokaryotes - lack a nucleus and other organelles.
 able to flourish in a wide range of environments
  (land, water, air)

 most have methods of locomotion.
 Rely on surrounding environment
 e.g. E. coli
Eubacteria




             29
              Archaeabacteria

 are bacteria that live in extreme environments (e.g.
  volcanic springs, salt lakes etc…)

 consist of very small simple cells.
 prokaryotes – lack nucleus
 Rely on surrounding environment
 most have methods of locomotion.
 e.g. pyrodictium.
Archaeabacteria




                  31
                  Eukaryotes
         Kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

 Large (100-1000µ)
 Nucleus present
 Membrane bound organelles present
 Genome consists of a several chromosomes
 Sexual reproduction common
 Mostly multicellular
 Most are aerobic
                   Protista
 are neither plants nor animals.
 have characteristics of both plants and animals.
 Eukaryotes – have nucleus
 obtain food from the surrounding environment.
 most have methods of locomotion.
 Habitat: most often water
 e.g. Amoeba and Euglena
Protista




           34
                      Fungi

 do not carry out photosynthesis.
 absorb materials into their bodies.
 Eukaryotes – have nucleus
 Habitat: most often on land and other species
 usually are stationary.
 E.g. mushrooms and molds.
Fungi




        36
                    Plantae
 Eukaryotes – have nucleus
 make their own food (photosynthesis).
 usually are stationary
 Habitat: land & water
 e.g. trees and flowering plants.
Plantae




          38
                   Animalia
 Eukaryotes – have nucleus
 Habitat: land, water, air
 obtain food from the surrounding environment.
 most have methods of locomotion.
 e.g. fish, mammals, and insects.
Animalia




           40
Classify the following organisms by
              Kingdom:




                               41
                Assignment
 TB: Read Chapter 1.1
 TB: Pg. 13 # 1-6

				
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