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Genetics of Immunity Sunne Woo and Naoko Charity Table of Contents 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF CELL SURFACES • Pathogens • Genetic Control of Immunity • Blood Groups • The Human Leukocyte Antigens(HLA) 2. THE HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM • Physical Barriers And The Innate Immune Response • The Adaptive Immune Response 3. ABNORMAL IMMUNITY • Inherited Immune Deficiencies • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV) • Autoimmunity • Allergies 4. ALTERING IMMUNE FUNCTION • Vaccines • Immunotherapy • Transplants 5. A GENOMIC VIEW OF IMMUNITY- THE PATHOGENS PERSPECIVE • Crowd diseases • Bioweapons Introduction The Immune System is more than just cells attacking foreign bodies to prevent getting sick. The Immune System is a powerful tool that consists of about 2 trillion cells and biochemicals. Click here It’s attacking actions are highly coordinated And multipronged with both general and specific responses. Basic logic of the immune system = Recognize “foreign” or “non-self” surfaces. When the Immune system shuts down (death), the body starts decomposition. Overview of the Immune System Immune response and cell signaling by amino acid sequence (LTL): 1. Diapedesis occurs. 2. Cell membrane begins to surround its target 3. Two calcium waves begin to circulate around the cell. 4. When the target is completely surrounded, one wave splits in two, with the second wave encircling the phagosome (sac). 5. This second wave allows the digestive enzymes to enter the phagosome and destroy the target. Diapedesis The Importance of Cell Surface Pathogens Bacteria Virus Prions Non-membrane Single and Double Infectious bonded prokaryotic stranded DNA or Proteins. cell treated by RNA. Not recognized antibiotics Reproduce by by the Immune entering and using System. the host cell. Not treatable. Can not be treated (e.g.. Mad cow by antibiotics disease) Attacked by Immune system. Genetic Control of Immunity Genes oversee immunity by encoding Antibodies, Cytokins, and Antigen. Antibodies (protein) – respond to antigen Antigen (protein or carbohydrates molecule) -mark the cell surface as “self” Cytokines (protein) - released by immune cells to act as intercellular mediators in an immune response. Mutation of gene = impair immune function •Immune deficiencies - Inherited or not inherited. Missing or defective Immune System (e.g. Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (boy-in-the- bubble disease)). •Autoimmune disorders - Attack of own tissue. The genes contribute to the susceptibility for developing an autoimmune disease. Maybe triggered by outer factor (e.g. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus). •Allergies •Cancer Inheritance of abnormal genes X - linked recessive (sex chromosome. No disease are inherited through Y). Female (XX) = carrier or affected. Male (XY) = affected. Autosomal (non-sex chromosomes). Recessive = abnormal chromosomes from both parents are required to cause disease. Dominant = only one abnormal chromosome is required to cause disease. Blood Groups (ABO Group) I gene alleles encode enzymes to place antigens A, B, Both or Neither on red blood cells. Clumping-agglutination RH factor Blood A B O AB (another blood group antigen) Type No A/B Antigens • RH+ produces RH-antibodies B A A, B • RH- produces RH+ Antibody antibodies against AB AB AB • ABO group is one of the A B A, B AB OK to major 26 Blood groups donate to AB AB O, AB Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) Cell surfaces have proteins that are encoded by genes that are part of Chromosome 6, called Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Class I & II genes encode Human Leukocyte MHC Antigens (HLA). 3 classes Class III genes encode proteins in blood plasma. Phagocytosis (eating of an invader) by Macrophage cell (HLA) 1. The Antigen attaches to MHC. 2. MHC proteins and Antigens are displayed on the macrophage surface. 3. Helper T cells recognize both and bind to the Macrophage macrophage to initiate the immune events. The Human Immune System The immune system consists The adaptive immune of 2 defensive barriers that response has to be block pathogens. stimulated into action. The immune response has 3 They are the innate barrier characteristics that are: which is generally immediate diverse because it defeats to phagocytes, collectins, many different types of and cytokines. Inflammation pathogens. It is specific is part of the innate immune because it can distinguish response. This process the certain cells and engulfs and destroys certain molecules that are pathogens around the injury. dangerous to cause “Inflammaton at the site of an diseases from the harmless injury can prevent infection” ones. And it remembers so (Lewis, 2007). it can respond faster than the first time with a foreign antigen. • The humoral immune response is part of the Adaptive Immune Response. It is where the B-cells are stimulated and then divided into plasma and memory cells. The • Plasma cells secrete a bunch of antibodies Humoral of a single type. • Antibodies are of Y-shaped polypeptides, Immune that consist of 2 heavy chains and 2 light Response– chains. “Each of these chains consists of a constant and a variable region, and the tips of the Y form and antigen binding site with a B-cells & specific idiotype” (Lewis, 2007). Antibodies The T-cells give cellular immune response In the picture below, it shows a because the cells travel to where they need to death of a cancer cell… the act. T-cells are unlike B-cells because they cytotoxic T-cells binds to the cancer don’t secrete antibodies in the blood stream. to inject perforin.* The cell then The bone marrow lets the T-cells descend from dies and leaves debris that each stem cell to travel to the thymus gland. microphages come to clear away. “T” in T- cells refer to the thymus!! *Perforin is a protein that punctures the cancer cell’s plasma membrane. Altering Immune Functions This sections contains different areas of possible cures to bacteria and viruses. They are vaccines, immunotherapy, and transplants. Vaccines are drugs that “trick the immune system into acting early” (Lewis, 2007). Immunotherapy increases and redirects the immune response. This is done by monoclonal antibody technology (MAb), and cytokines that boost cellular immunity. Transplants are done after suppressing the immune system in order to accept the organs from another person, self, or animal. The Abnormal Immunity There are more than 20 types of inherited immune deficiencies. Possible causes • Abnormal Phagocyte cells Thymus gland • No thymus or natural killer cells • Deficiencies of T cells, B cells, and Neutrophils Neutrophils Acquired Immune Deficiency Aids Virus Immune cells being attacked by HIV virus HIV enters Macrophages Encountering HIV virus HIV sticks to the primary receptor "CD4 The lack of CCR5 HIV sticks to a second receptor ”CCR5” receptor by gene defect prevents CCR5 ensures HIV to dock at a CD4 helper T cell for infection to CCR5 HIV infection. occur. Quick replication + Fast mutation + Able to hide = No Cure Human Immunodeficiency Virus From RNA to DNA (Reverse transcriptase) Transcription of the viral DNA begins with the activation of lymphocyte, resulting in the Enzyme"integrase" multiple copies of viral RNA(codes) to incorporates the viral DNA produce new proteins and to be packaged into the host cells DNA. later as new viruses. The integrated DNA is called a provirus. Viral RNA is translated into Finally, viral RNA and chain of proteins with proteins are packaged and polypeptide sequence released from the (reverse transcriptase, lymphocyte surface with a HIV enzyme "reverse protease, integrase). Later, membrane containing viral transcriptase" Viral protease cuts the surface proteins. These transcribes the sequence chain into its individual proteins will bind to the into a complementary enzyme components to receptors on other immune DNA sequence. facilitate the production of cells and infect other cells. new viruses. Is there a cure for But, You can slow the disease by AIDS? combining drugs with different actions, such as inhibiting reverse transcritase, “ NO ” stopping the cutting action of viral proteins that assemble to make new viral particles, and blocking the virus’s ability to bind and fuse with the plasma membrane. 1. Inhibiting reverse transcritase 2. Stopping the cutting action HIV + since 1991 (Recoding of RNA to DNA). Of Protease. I am on HAART or Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy that 3. Blocking the entry. targets multiple HIV life cycles. New Therapy for the future: Structured treatment interruption (STI) = the practice of alternating time spent on antiretroviral drugs with time spent off drugs. Vaccines • Vaccines technology was first started in China back in the 11th century. • Vaccines are a pathogen that stimulate the B-cells in the immune system to produce antibodies against the disease. • Vaccines against several different illnesses can be combined into only one injection– so you don’t need more than one shot per vaccine!! • A popular vaccine was made for the smallpox disease. When people in China observed the recovery of smallpox, and that the person never had it again… people started crushing scabs into a powder to inhale or rub onto the blistered skin. • Vaccines are still dispensed through injections, but with new technology, patients can use nasal sprays and eat genetically modified fruits and vegetables. •To the left, a collection of pictures of smallpox. The black & white picture shows Edward Jenner, the creator of the smallpox vaccine. This boy was the last known victim of smallpox. The bottom-left pictures shows the vaccine in 1798. •The picture on the right show the difference between smallpox and chickenpox. When someone has smallpox, the blisters are more on the extremities– the feet, hands, and face. Chickenpox is prominent on the abdomen with a few blisters on the arms and legs. It is important for the vaccinations to be dispensed within the whole population because of “herd immunity.” This is where the unvaccinated population is rare, and that the pathogens may resurface; when it does, the disease won’t spread because the people will have been exposed to it and be protected. But, when there are pockets of people that haven’t been vaccinated, and the diseases resurfaces… the pathogen will have its way and be spread throughout. MAbs The process was mentioned on the previous page. Today MAbs are used in research, veterinary health and human health care. It can also be used in agriculture, forestry, and the forensics fields. It can be used to diagnose everything spanning from strep throat to turf grass disease. MAbs can actually be used in home pregnancy tests also! It binds with the pregnancy hormone hCG on the paper strip of the home pregnancy applicator. You will know you are pregnant when the color changes from the MAb hits the target. Cytokines Boost Cellular Immunity Cytokines can be used to treat different conditions. These cells have short periods of activity. If they don’t go to where they are needed right away, then overdose or side effects can happen. They can kill cancer cells! Timeline of Transplantation 1899- the 1st allograft transplant, a kidney from dog to dog 1905- the 1st corneal allograft transplant, an eye from a boy to man 1906- the 1st kidney transplant in a human body fails 1954- success of the 1st isograft transplant… kidney from a monozygotic twin 1967- the 1st heart transplant leaves patient living for an extra 14 days 1984- a xenograft heart transplant from a baboon was transferred into “Baby Fae” whom was born with ½ a heart. She lived for 20 days before her body rejected the xenograft. 1998- scientists start transplanting hands and forearms 2003- DNA gene expression microarrays are likely to tell doctors which patients will have rejection toward kidney transplants Future- using stem cells from patients, embryos, or animals may replace transplantation Baboons and Pigs can transplant different organs into the human body 4 Different types of transplants These are the different parts of the body that can have transplants done. Some of the most well known parts of the body that can be transplanted are the heart, cornea of the eye, kidney, liver, blood, bone marrow, and skin. Rejection Reactions– Or Acceptance In allograft transplants, the tissue in the recipients body can reject the newly transplanted part of the body. Xenograft transplants can cause hyperacute rejection. In hyperacute rejection, the blood vessels blacken and cut off the blood supply within minutes of the transplantation. In bone marrow transplants, the recipient can reject to the new bone marrow tissue. This can be deadly. According to Lewis, “Graft versus Host Disease develops sometimes when bone marrow transplants are used to correct certain blood deficienceies and cancers” (2007). According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, “the bodily condition results when cells from a tissue or organ transplant mount an immunological attack against the cells or tissues of the host .” Rejection Reactions – Or Acceptance cont. When the recipient is in need of a transplant, the doctors need to match the HLA as closely as they can. If this doesn’t happen, then the recipient will reject the donor’s tissue. But, if the HLA is matched too closely, there could be a chance that the disease will come back again because the same cell surfaces that it had earlier will be equally unable to fight the cancer. “The donor bone marrow should be different enough to control the cancer, but no so different that rejection occors” (Lewis, 2007). Side effects of GVHD Bone Marrow Transplants Bone marrow transplants are for patients that have a deficiency of blood because the bone marrow doesn’t produces enough blood cells. These cells are the red and white blood cells, and platelets. Some examples of the diseases affected by the lack of the bone marrow working are: Leukemia, Anemia (along with some forms of anemia, for example– Aplastic Anemia), Hemophilia, etc. Allogenic transplants are only available to a minority of patients because 70% lack a suitablity of a sibling donor. Survival rates for transplantation is as high as 90% from a single experienced institution performing the procedure. 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