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					    PBIS Team Training




Module 2: Secondary Implementation
          Exceptional Children Division
       Behavior Support & Special Programs
Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
   Modules developed by
 the University of Missouri
Center for School-wide PBIS
      and revised by
 North Carolina PBIS Team
                PBIS Training Overview

Training organized around three “modules”
School responsibilities
  Complete Working Agreement
  Attend training
  Develop action plans
  Share Annual Data Requirements with NCDPI
NCDPI responsibilities
  Provide training support
  Provide limited technical assistance
  Provide networking opportunities            4
             Overview: Module 2

Review
Data : Classroom Data, Data Decision Rules,
 Evaluation
Systems: Referral Process, Intervention Team,
 and Effective Classroom Design and
 Management
Practices: Effective Classroom
 Management/lessons, Small Group Social Skills
 Instruction, Check-in/Check-out, Mentoring
Team Time
       Module 2 Accomplishments and
                 Products
At the end of these two days, teams are expected to use
the problem-solving model to:
 Assess current level of implementation & determine
  plan to address gaps
 Identify strategies to improve classroom management
 Begin planning systems to support secondary
  implementation
 Plan to collect & evaluate secondary data
 Revise and update Action Plan
Materials to Assist: slides, workbook, supplemental
resources, & Action Plan
                  Expectations
Be Responsible
  Return promptly from breaks
  Be an active participant
Be Respectful
  Silence cell phones
  Listen attentively to others
Be Kind
  Participate in activities
  Listen and respond appropriately
   to others’ ideas

                                      7
             Attention Signal

Trainer will raise
 his/her hand
Participants will raise
 their hand and wait
 quietly


                                8
  School-wide
Implementation
    Review
              What is PBIS?
“…a framework or approach
comprised of intervention practices
and organizational systems for
establishing the social culture,
learning and teaching environment,
and individual behavior supports
needed to achieve academic and
social success for all students.”
             (Sugai, et al, 2010, p. 13)
                                           10
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                      OUTCOMES


                                        Supporting
  Supporting
Staff Behavior                           Decision
                                         Making


                      PRACTICES
                                          Positive
  Resources
  Page 4                                  Behavior
                                          Intervention &
                       Supporting         Support
                    Student Behavior               11
                          School Improvement
             Academic                      Whole School
                                                                     Behavior
                              Effective                   Classroom
       Intensive, Individual Interventions     Intensive, Individual Interventions
       •Tutoring
                        School               Culturally
                                               •Functional Behavior Assessment &
                   Organization
       •Academic Remediation Plans       Responsive
                                               Behavior Intervention Planning
       •Specially Designed Instruction Instruction
                              Effective                   Struggling Students
           Culturally
    Targeted Group Interventions                           Targeted Group Interventions
           group instruction Instructional
    •Small Responsive                                   Progress
                                                           •Social Skills Individuals
                                                                          instruction
    •Focused academic help Practices
           Practices                                 Monitoring Consider- of specific skills
                                                           •Reinforcement
     sessions                                              •Group Behavioral Strategies
                                                                 action for        EC
                                             Behavioral    •Classroom Coaching
      Positive School    Universal        Group Strategies      Eligibility Related Specially
                                                        Effective
      Climate            Design/                                            Services   Designed
Universal Interventions Differentiated                Instructional Universal Interventions
                                                                                       Instruction
•Effective instructional
                                             Mental Health      FBA/BIP
                                                        Practices •School-wide rules and
                                                                                Behavior
practices                Instruction          Assistance                        Interventions
                                                                       procedures
        Effective Staff
•Recognition of                                                        Mental
                                                                     •Systematic
                              Positive              Focused            Health Services
academicDevelopment                                                  reinforcement
                              Classroom              Research-based
achievement                                                          •Social Skills Instruction
                                                         Academic Instruction
•Culturally responsive        Management                             •Culturally responsive
practices    Data Based                                              practices
•Data-based Decision
              decision-
                                       Ongoing                       •Data-based
                                                           Classroom Coaching decision-
                                                                          Resources
making           Making                Screening and                 making
                                                           and Consultation&5Community
                                                                          Page
•Parent & Community                       Assessment                 •Parent
Partnerships              Parent and                                 Partnerships
                             Community
                                      Partnerships
              Positive Behavior Intervention &
                          Support
      Framework for enhancing
      adoption & implementation of

              Continuum of evidence-based
              interventions to achieve

                   Academically & behaviorally
                   important outcomes for

                       All students              13
(Sugai, et al, 2010)
             CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

                                                   Tertiary Prevention:
                                                        Specialized
                                                      Individualized
  Secondary Prevention            ~5%            Systems for Students with
    Specialized Group                              High Risk Behavior
 Systems for Students with
     At Risk Behavior
                                  ~15%




  Primary Prevention
    School wide and
                                                          Resources
Classroom wide Systems
    for All Students,                                     Page 4
    Staff, & Settings        ~ 80% of Students
                    GOAL: 100% of students
Core                           achieve
                            at high levels

                  Tier I: Begins with clear goals:

                  1.What do we expect all students
                  to know, understand and do as a
                  result of our instruction?

                  2.How will we know if these goals
                  are met?

                  3.How will we respond when
                  students do not meet the goals
                  with initial instruction?

                  4.How will we respond when
                  some students have already met
(Batsche, 2010)
                  the goals?
                                                 15
                              Tier II

Supplemental             < 20% of students
                               Core
                                 +
                           Supplemental

                      To Achieve Benchmarks

                  1.Where are the students
                  performing now?
                  2.Where do we want them to be?
                  3.How long do we have to get
                  them there?
                  4.How much do they have to
                  grow per year/month to get there?
                  5.What resources will move them
                  at that rate?
                  6.How will we monitor the
                  growth of students receiving
                  supplemental instruction?
(Batsche, 2010)
                                              16
                                      Tier III

ve, Individualized
                                  < 5% of Students
                                       Core

                                        +
                                  Supplemental

                                        +
                          Intensive Individual Instruction
                             …to achieve benchmarks

                     1.    Where is the student
                           performing now?
                     2.    Where do we want him/her
                           to be?
                     3.    How long do we have to get
                           him/her there?
                     4.    What supports has he/she
                           received?
                     5.    What resources will move
                           him/her at that rate?
                     6.    How will we monitor and
 (Batsche, 2010)           evaluate the student’s
                           growth?                17
                            Math
       Intensive
                     Science
      Targeted
                               Spanish

                    Reading

                               Soc skills
Universal
              Soc Studies
                                      Basketball
            Label behavior…not people
                    Dec 7, 2007
                                                   18
                          PBIS
Focuses on prevention
Focuses on instruction
Uses data to make
 decisions &
 develop
 appropriate
 curriculum
Collaborative
 process
                                 19
       PBIS Training & Implementation

All PBIS
 Modules
 organized
 around
 problem-
 solving
 model
         Resources
         Pages 6-8

                                   20
                         PBIS
Teams
• Best practice in professional development
• Representative of all faculty and staff


Assessment
• Guides Intervention
• Used for problem-solving & action planning


Context
• Application of best practice to fit unique school
  environments
• Involves all staff, students, families, & community   21
                          PBIS
Effective Process
• 3-5 years
• Effective professional development
• Increase efficiency


Expectations
• Defined by building team with staff and community input
• Implemented by all faculty and staff
• Reflect behavior needs /challenges of school


Teaching
• Appropriate behavior is taught
• Positive behavior is publicly acknowledged
• Inappropriate behavior is corrected
                                                            22
            Administrators at Successful PBIS Schools

                                                             • Team members
                                       Provide                 schedules
                                    opportunities            • Time for professional
                                    for learning &             development
                                       practice



                      Participate
• Provide direction   actively in
• Attend meetings       team                         Publically support
  regularly                                             & encourage
• Knowledgeable                                        implementers
  about data &
  action plan
                               • Prioritize PBIS
                               • Acknowledge regularly                                 23
     Systems Implementation Logic
Effective   • Achieve desired outcome?
Efficient   • Doable by implementer?
Relevant    • Contextual & cultural?
Durable     • Lasting?
Scalable    • Transportable?
Logical     • Conceptually Sound?
                                                  24
                         Fixsen and Sugai, 2010
           Features of a Comprehensive
                  System of PBIS

                     Clearly defined and
   Total staff                                Clearly defined
                       communicated
 commitment to                               consequences for
                      expectations and
managing behavior                           unwanted behaviors
                             rules

                      A support plan to
  An instructional                            Procedures for
                      address the needs
   component for                              acknowledging
                       of students with
 teaching students                             appropriate
                     chronic, challenging
expected behaviors                              behavior(s)
                           behaviors

                                                           25
               PBIS Team Responsibilities

Assess the current behavior management
 practices
Examine patterns of behavior
Obtain staff commitment
Develop a school-wide plan
Obtain family and community participation and
 input
Oversee, monitor, and evaluate all planned
 objectives and activities developed by the team
                                                   26
         Activity: Audit of School-wide
                 Implementation
1. Complete the Universal section of the
   Implementation Inventory (or review your
   completed Inventory)
2. Determine if your score is above 80%
3. Address any areas of concern on your action
   plan
                                      Workbook
                                      Pages 3-5
 Why is it so critical to build School-Wide
    Interventions before implementing
Secondary and then Tertiary Interventions?
        It’s Time to Consider Secondary
          PBIS Implementation When…

Universals have been implemented but are
 not sufficient to impact specific behaviors
Students display chronic patterns
Behavior is impacting academic progress and
 “time in class”
               CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

                                                        Tertiary Prevention:
                                                             Specialized
                                                           Individualized
    Secondary Prevention               ~5%            Systems for Students with
      Specialized Group                                 High Risk Behavior
   Systems for Students with
       At Risk Behavior
                                       ~15%
Take a close look at Classroom
Management before implementing
specific secondary intervention




   Primary Prevention
    School wide and
 Classroomwide Systems
    for All Students,
    Staff, & Settings             ~ 80% of Students
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                       Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                          Develop
                 Revise
                                                         Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                  Discuss and
                       Develop and                   Select
                        Implement                  Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                      OUTCOMES


                                        Supporting
  Supporting
Staff Behavior                           Decision
                                         Making


                      PRACTICES
                                        Positive
                                        Behavior
                       Supporting       Intervention
                    Student Behavior    & Support
                                                 32
             Secondary Data

IIO at least Level 1 and SET scores at least 80%
Triangle Data
Data Collection Tool: DBR         NC PBIS Data
                                    Collection
Data decision rules                  Manual
Small Group Outcome Data
Evaluation of Secondary level of PBIS
                           Triangle of Student Referrals

 Intensive, Individual Interventions
 Individual Students                                        Students with 6+
 Assessment-based                      1-5%       07%        referrals
 Intense, durable procedures
                                                  03%     Students with 2-5
  Targeted Group Interventions                            referral
  Some Students (at-risk)               10-15%
  High Efficiency
  Rapid Response


Universal Interventions                             90%            Students with 0-1
All Settings                                                      referrals
                                       80-90%
All Students,
Preventive, proactive
N u m b e r o f R e fe rra ls p e r S tu d e n t
                                                            Referrals by Student
                                                       as a Universal Screening Tool

                                          20




                                          10




                                                   0

                                                                 Students
       Data needed to Problem-Solve

Data from “bounces,” ODR, ISS, after-school
 detention, OSS should include information
 about
  Location
  Frequency
  Problem Behavior
  Motivation
                       DBRs
                                   Resources
                                   Page 9

Daily Behavior Report = DBR
The DBR involves a brief rating of target
 behavior over a specified period of time
Additional examples at
 http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/i
 nterventions/behavior/behrptcd.php



                                                   37
                                        Level II
                  Characteristics of DBR
The DBR involves a brief rating of target
behavior over a specified period of time
 behavior(s) is specified
 rating of the behavior(s) typically occurs at least
  daily
 obtained information is shared across individuals
  (e.g., parents, teachers, students)
 the card is used to monitor
   the effects of an intervention
   as a component of an intervention
                          (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)

                                                                         38
              Potential Uses for the DBR
Increase communication
As a component of an intervention package,
 particularly in self-management
Provide “quick” assessment of behaviors,
 especially those not easily captured by other
 means
Monitor student behavior over time
Flexible          (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)
                                                              39
        A systematic DBR possesses the
           following 4 characteristics:
1. The behavior of interest must be
  operationally defined
2. The observations should be conducted
  under standardized procedures
3. The DBR should be used in a specific time,
  place, and at a predetermined frequency
4. The data must be scored and summarized in
  a consistent manner
                 (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)   40
How are DBR data summarized?




                          41
              DBR Considerations

Measures perception of behavior
“3 to 7” not “he is a 7”
No absolutes in Social Behavior
Rater Effects




                                   42
                      DBR Data
                 25


                 20
# of incidents




                 15


                 10


                 5


                 0

                                 43
Data Decision Rules
               Data Decision Rules

Can be used by teams to determine set points
 where students will be referred for additional
 support
Can be used to determine focus of
 implementation
         Data Decision Rule Examples

Any student that is absent more than 3 days in
 one month (or one 4 week period) will be
 referred for intervention
Any student who receives 2 or more ODRs
 within a 9-week period will be referred for
 intervention
Any student who fails one or more classes will
 be invited to join a small group related to
 classroom success
                Data Decision Rule Examples

                            IF...                                   FOCUS ON...

   More than 40% of students receive one or more office
    referrals                                                    School Wide System
   More than 2.5 office referrals per student
   More than 35% of office referrals come from non-
    classroom settings
   More than 15% of students referred from non-                Non-Classroom System
    classroom settings
   More than 60% of office referrals come from the
    classroom
   50% or more of office referrals come from less than           Classroom Systems
    10% of classrooms
   More than 10-15 students receive 5 or more office        Targeted Group Interventions /
    referrals                                                     Classroom Systems
   Less than 10 students with 10 or more office referrals
                                                                                       Resources
   Less than 10 students continue rate of referrals after                             Page 10
    receiving targeted group settings                         Individual Student Systems
   Small number of students destabilizing overall
    functioning of school
     Evaluate Program Effectiveness

Pre-test/post-test comparison of
 criterion for entrance into program
 (attendance, grades, suspensions, etc.)
      Activity: Secondary Data

Assess & Identify Problems
Develop Hypothesis & Solutions
Identify Action Steps



       Workbook
       Pages 6-7
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                       Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                          Develop
                 Revise
                                                         Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                  Discuss and
                       Develop and                   Select
                        Implement                  Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                      OUTCOMES


                                        Supporting
  Supporting
Staff Behavior                           Decision
                                         Making


                      PRACTICES
                                        Positive
                                        Behavior
                       Supporting       Intervention
                    Student Behavior    & Support
                                                 51
  Systems Support
for Effective Teaching
              Secondary Systems

Supporting effective classroom systems
  Brain-based learning
  Cultural Responsiveness
  Effective Teaching Plans
Secondary Team Functions
  Data Decision Rules
  How Students Access Targeted
   Interventions
Effective Classroom Systems
              Brain-Based Learning

Students are functioning from either:
  Limbic System: Fight or Flight
  Cerebral Cortex: Analytical, Logical
Brain develops from back to front
  Frontal Cortex: Self-regulation, attention,
   critical thinking
  Problem-solving, long-term planning
   develop last
Proof that impulse control…
…and judgment develop last
             Classroom Implications

Emotional responses from students = reduced
 reasoning, logic, ability to understand
 consequences
To avoid functioning in limbic mode in the
 classroom, students must feel
  Safe
  Wanted
  Successful
              Perception is Reality

What is “perceived” by the brain determines
 the chemical response
How one interprets reality when under stress is
 most reflective of one’s significant life
 experiences
  Repetitive experiences reinforce synaptic
   pathways
Activity: Johnny’s Story
        The Chemistry of Attention

Dopamine levels decrease as focused attention
 time is required or enforced
Dopamine regulates emotion, movement, and
 thought
Research suggests 8-12 minutes of maintained
 attention for grades 3-7
When learners are drowsy or “out of it,” it’s
 likely that brain chemical levels are low
             Classroom Implications
            Provide ENGAGING activities:
•Physical movement       •Drama/Storytelling
•Use humor               •Games
•Play music              •Discussions
•Change location         •Celebrations

BONUS…physical activity triggers release of
hormones that enhance neural communication,
elevates mood, and assists in long-term memory
formation!!
            Classroom Implications
          ROTATE STYLES of instruction to
               provide strong contrast
•Mini-lectures             :
                          •Individual work
•Group work               •Team time
•Peer feedback            •Computers
•Reflection               •Student-led teaching
            Classroom Implications

Use emotion to trigger attention
  Alert Students’ Senses
  Trigger Significant Memories
  Introduce a Sense of Novelty
Build in time for processing and rest so
 information has a chance to make it into long-
 term memory
      Activity: Classroom System

How can your team support all teachers in
 using effective classroom systems?




                                 Workbook
                                 Page 8
 Activity




Labels
Culturally Responsive Instruction
            Is School Discipline Fair?
                30 Years of Study

Disproportionality found based on
  race/ethnicity & gender in:
Office referrals
Suspension & expulsion events
Corporal punishment
Alternative schools
Inconsistently applied rules

                                    (Skiba, 2008)
      What Behaviors are Students
        Referred For By Race?
Of 32 infractions, only 8 significant differences:


White students referred   Black students referred
more for:                 more for:
Smoking                  Disrespect
Vandalism                Excessive Noise
Leaving w/o permission   Threat
Obscene Language         Loitering


                                            (Skiba, 2008)
             Other Cultural Factors

Students who receive free lunch are at
 increase risk for school suspension
Students whose fathers did not have a full time
 job were significantly more likely to be
 suspended
Both low and high income adolescents agreed
 that low income students were unfairly
 targeted by disciplinary practices
                         Skiba, Micheal, Nardo & Peterson, 2002
      Culturally Responsive Instruction

Acknowledge students’ differences as well as
 their commonalities
Validate students’ cultural identity in classroom
 practices and instructional materials
Educate students about the diversity of the
 world around them
Promote equity and mutual respect among
 students
Assess students’ ability and achievement validly
      Culturally Responsive Instruction

Foster a positive interrelationship among
 students, their families, the community, and
 school
Motivate students to become active
 participants in their learning
Encourage students to think critically
Challenge students to strive for excellence as
 defined by their potential
Assist students in becoming socially and
 politically conscious
      APA Recommendations: Reducing
       Disciplinary Disproportionality

School-wide:
Teacher training in classroom behavior
  management
Reducing cultural mismatch
Avoid one-size-fits-all discipline
Use data to facilitate change

                                          (Skiba, 2008)
      Activity: Cultural Responsiveness

With your team discuss the implications of
 disciplinary disproportionality within your
 school
Problem-solve for possible solutions



                                      Workbook
                                      Page 8
Effective Teaching Plans
            Effective Teaching Plans…
Are for all teachers
Become fluid, living, breathing documents
Support reflective, thoughtful, well-planned
 teaching & use of effective strategies (academic
 and social)
Provide direction for needed PBIS system
 supports
         Components of An Effective Teaching
                       Plan
Define classroom rules based on school-wide
 expectations
Outline routines (attention signal, etc)
Establish schedule for teaching routines and procedures
Decide strategies for encouraging appropriate behavior
 and discouraging problem behavior
Plan a variety of instructional
 strategies
Establish effective classroom             Resources
                                           Pages 11-13
 environment
        Effective Instruction

  Effective instruction
                                   Correct responding is
increases the likelihood          correlated with positive
   of correct student               teacher interactions
       responses




       Leading to increased academic achievement
       of students and positive behavioral exchanges
               between students and teachers

                                      Gunter, Hummel, & Venn, 1998
     Creating a Climate for Learning

Clear, Positive    Limit Setting
 Expectations       Praise
Clear Rules        Procedures &
Positive Role       Routines
 Modeling           Positive
Acceptance of       Reinforcement
 Shaping            Structured Academic
Respect for Each    Success
 Student
   Activity: Effective Teaching Plans

How can our PBIS team help all
teachers in our building utilize Best
Practice in the Classroom?


                               Workbook
                               Page 9
Secondary Team Systems
            Secondary Systems

Secondary support team processes
Referral process for students
Function based intervention
Secondary Support Team Processes
        PBIS Secondary Support Team
                 Processes
How will you structure your team?
Subcommittee of existing PBIS team?
Separate team dedicated to problem-solving
 secondary behavior concerns?
Who will be on your team now?
Counselor, Social Worker, Behavior Specialist,
 ISS coordinator, others, etc.
           What does the PBIS Secondary
                Support Team do?
For secondary levels of support:
Create data decision rules
Create referral form & flow chart for Secondary
 Support Process
Facilitate referral process for intervention & support
Oversee secondary intervention implementation
Evaluate data to determine intervention progress &
 effectiveness
         Activity: Secondary Support
               Team Processes
Discuss and outline how your
 secondary support
 team will operate



        Workbook
        Page 9
Secondary Referral Process
       Who is appropriate for Secondary
                interventions?
APPROPRIATE
 Low-level problem behavior (not severe)
 2-5 office referrals
 Behavior occurs across multiple locations
 Examples:
   talking out
   minor disruption
   work completion
             Data Decision Rules
                                                 6 or more ODRs
                                                    Tertiary Prevention:
                                                         Specialized
2-5 ODRs                                               Individualized
  Secondary Prevention             ~5%           Systems for Students with
     Specialized Group                              High Risk Behavior
 Systems for Students with
     At Risk Behavior
                                   ~15%
                                                    Other data decision rules:
                                                    -# minor incident referrals
                                                    -absences
                                                    -teacher concern
0-1 ODRs                                            -behavior screening results
  Primary Prevention
    School wide and
Classroom wide Systems
    for All Students,
    Staff, & Settings        ~ 80% of Students
                Referral Process
Simple referral process for staff (referral form
 example)
Team receives referral
Respond to teacher referral within 48 hours
Team assigns secondary intervention
Intervention begins within 10 days
Team evaluates
  Continue Intervention
  Move to next step in problem solving process
   Secondary Referral Process

               Request for
               Assistance

               Team Contact

                                       Resources
                  Team                 Page 14
               Assessment
               of Concern

  Targeted                      Targeted
Intervention     Targeted     Intervention
               Intervention
                  Critical Features

Rapid access to intervention
Very low effort by teachers
Positive System of Support
   Students agree to participate
Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school
Flexible intervention based on assessment
   Functional Assessment
Adequate resources allocated (admin, team)
Continuous monitoring for decision-making
         Activity: Secondary Referral
                    Process
Review and discuss sample Secondary Support
 System Referral Flow Chart and Referral Form
 to begin designing the system for your school




       Workbook
       Page 10
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                       Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                          Develop
                 Revise
                                                         Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                  Discuss and
                       Develop and                   Select
                        Implement                  Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
                  Social Competence &
                 Academic Achievement

                      OUTCOMES


                                        Supporting
  Supporting
Staff Behavior                           Decision
                                         Making


                      PRACTICES
                                        Positive
                                        Behavior
                       Supporting       Intervention
                    Student Behavior    & Support
                                                 95
Secondary Practices
To correctly match appropriate
    intervention practices to
 problem behaviors, teams will
rely on the science of behavior.
                Basics of Behavior

Behavior is learned
Every social interaction you have with a child
 teaches him/her something
              Functional Perspective

Every behavior serves a purpose
 (…every picture tells a story …)


Every behavior’s purpose is to meet a need
 (either real or perceived)


The “WHY” of behavior
                  Discuss

How would knowing the function of
problem behavior assist in developing
interventions?
       Brief Behavioral Assessment

Eddie’s teacher is increasingly frustrated with
his outbursts. Anytime she asks Eddie to work
independently or turn in assignments, Eddie
talks back, yells out, gets out of his seat, or
“starts something” with his classmates. Eddie’s
teacher says that she has tried repeatedly to
talk to him about this behavior to no avail.
            Behavior Interventions

Look for opportunities to:
Prevent problem behavior from occurring
Teach an acceptable alternative behavior
Reward a positive behavior
       Behavioral Interventions                    Resources
                                                   Page 15


 TRIGGER      BEHAVIOR        OUTCOME            PAY OFF

1.Teacher     1. Blurt out    1.Teacher          1. Get
Present       2. Talking      Response          Teacher
2. Staff      back            2. Talk about     attention
Directive     3. Yelling      Concern            (power
3. Indep.     4. Verbal       3. Repeat         struggle/
Work          Disrespect      4. Peers        conversation)
4. Little     5. Out of       Ignore
Attention     Seat


 TRIGGER:       BEHAVIOR       OUTCOME           PAY OFF

   Is there     What new       How can we        Is there a
  any way       Behavior        respond        different way
 to remove?   can we teach?    differently?   for the student
                                               to get his/her
                                                 need met?
    Activity: Assess Current Support

List the Student Support Programs being
 offered in your school now. Decide which
 behavioral needs are met by each program.




     Workbook
     Page 11
Common Questions Activity
                -or-

We know what you’re really thinking…
               Common Questions??
Do Problem Students Deserve
 Positive Attention?
When I Change Interactions, Am I Giving a
 Misbehaving Student Her/His Way?
Is it Appropriate to Give Even More Time and
 Attention to Students Who Misbehave?
Won’t the Students Know The Positive Attention is
 Phony?
 What Do You Do When You Just
 Don’t Like the Student?
Practices In The Classroom
      Preparing the Classroom Teacher

Rules are defined for each of the expectations
 and posted in classrooms
Routines have been established
                                       Resources
Praise is given and made priority     Page 16

Acknowledgement
Procedure for tracking discipline issues
Range of consequences are consistent
                                                   108
        Activity: Classroom Practices

Complete the classroom practices team activity




                                     Workbook
                                     Page 12

                                                109
            Tiered Lessons for Students with
                 Behavioral Challenges

                           Match to learning style and interest

                             Tiered for 2+ levels of students’
                                        readiness
                             Teach same objective with same
                                     amount of time
                               Each student should remain
                                 challenged at any level

(Northey Waterman, 2005)
        Select a Differentiated Process

Multiple Intelligences
Tiered lessons based on four learning styles
Flexible grouping (Northey Waterman, 2005)
Differentiated learning experiences
                       Multiple Intelligences 2005)
                                            (Northey,




Linguistic-skits,      Logical/Math-         Spatial-maps,
                                                                   Interpersonal
letters, speeches      database, charts,     posters, models,
                                                                   skills
                       graphic organizers    collages




Kinesthetic-skits,     Musical-songs,       Naturalist-
                       ballads,             environment, affect,   Intrapersonal
dances, videos, talk
                       commercial jingles   history, protection    skills
shows
Four Learning Styles
                  (Northey, 2005)
                Flexible Grouping

Flexible grouping helps to avoid “tracking”
 students at certain levels or learning styles.
Students can get to know more of their peers if
 they are required or inspired to become
 involved in group work with everyone in class
 at some point.
       Flexible Grouping Continuum
                 Examples
1. Foundational to transformational
2. Concrete to abstract
3. Simple to complex
4. Single facet to multiple facets
5. Small leap to great leap
6. More structured to more open
7. Less independent to more independent
8. Slow to quick
Environmental Assessment
Physical Arrangement
             Physical Arrangement

Reduce congestion in high-traffic areas
Ensure the teacher can easily see all students
Make teaching materials and student supplies
 easily accessible
Make sure students can easily observe whole
 class presentations
Devote some display space to student work
           Classroom Arrangement
                Considerations
What type of activities will students typically
 be doing?
What type of student interaction does the
 teacher want?
What arrangements will foster these activities
 and interactions?
Establish Expectations,
 Rules, and Routines
     Establish Behavioral
     Expectations and Rules
Use school-wide expectations as basis for
 classroom rules
Clearly and positively stated
State in observable terms
Posted and referred to frequently
Teach explicitly to FLUENCY
Reinforce consistently
           Establish Procedures Based on
                    Expectations

Develop a schedule
Teach an attention signal
Teach routines for repetitive
 tasks
Use precorrects
    Develop Classroom Schedule

Establish predictable schedules
  illustrate with icons, time, etc.
Schedule non-instruction time
Evaluate the variety and time for each activity.
POST
  Develop A Schedule...
Down Time Causes Problems
      Unscheduled time in a classroom
       is an open invitation to disruptive
       behavior.
      Scheduled time is one of the basic
       proactive variables that is under
       teacher control.
      At least 70% of the school day
       should be scheduled for academic
       activity
            Teach Attention Signal

Always use a simple portable cue
Avoid starting instruction until all students are
 attending
Reinforce students who attend immediately
Provide specific verbal praise to peers to redirect
 students
Consistency, consistency, consistency!
                     Routines

Used for transition times and basic activities
 that happen on a regular basis
Establish clear expectations for students and
 adults
PLAN, POST, and TEACH routines
      Effective Routines - Rationale

The number one problem in the classroom
is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures
and routines. A vast majority of the
behavior problems in the classroom are
caused by the failure of students to follow
procedures and routines.
-Harry Wong
                  Effective Routines:
            Why They Help Manage Behavior

Support for transition times and basic
 activities that happen on a regular basis
Establish predictability
  Clear Expectations
   for Student
   Behavior
  Clear Expectations
   for Adult Behavior
Encourage Expected Behavior
        Encourage Expected Behavior

Provide praise for correct academic responses and
appropriate social behavior leading to:

Increases in student correct responses
Increases in on task behavior
Decreases in disruptive behaviors

                                          (Sutherland, 2000)
          Encourage Expected Behavior:
                Verbal Feedback

Timely and accurate
Specific and descriptive
 (Tie to school-wide expectations)
Contingent
Age-appropriate
Given in a manner that fits your style
             Examples of
         Non-Verbal Feedback

Wink
Nod
Thumbs-up
Pat on the back
High-five
Hug (when and where appropriate)
               Ratio of Interactions
 4:1 ratio of positive-to-negative statements
 Each time you have a negative interaction, tell
  yourself you owe that student positive interactions
 Identify specific times you will give positive feedback
 Schedule individual conference time
 Scan the room for appropriate behaviors
 Engage in frequent positive interactions with all
  students
          Teaching Effective Rules

Tell-Show-Practice-Assess-Repeat
Give positive reinforcement for appropriate
 student use
Consider consequences for errors
  re-teach
  redirect
  time to “Cool Down”
Reflect! Are the rules working? Why or why
 not?
                      Teaching Rules


   Teach your         Monitor student            Provide feedback
  expectations           behavior                     during the
    before the         by circulating                activity and
    activity or         and visually              at the conclusion
transition begins.       scanning.                 of the activity.



                     Begin the cycle again for
                        the next activity.
            Give Precorrects

PRECORRECTS function as REMINDERS
Opportunities to practice
Prompt for expected behavior
Especially helpful before teacher
 anticipates behavior learning errors
           Precorrect Examples

“Remember to put your papers in the bin
before you quietly walk out of the room.”


“Sam, show us how to be respectful and
line up quietly for gym.”
      Increasing Positive Interactions
Focus on teaching students to get
 attention through responsible behavior
Require adults to change the ratio of adult
 to student interactions from primarily
 negative to
 primarily
 positive
      Increasing Positive Interactions

Based on the concept that most students
 want and need adult attention
Leads students to feel like valued members of
 the learning
 community
         Techniques to Improve
              Compliance
Do not use a question format
Get up close - proximity
Use a quiet voice
Make eye contact
Give them time
            Techniques to Improve
                 Compliance
Tell them only twice
Give one direction at a time
Tell students what you want them to do
 (rather than what you don’t)
Verbally reinforce compliance
Get up and move
          Increasing Opportunities to Respond:
                  Active Participation

Encourages everyone to become involved in
 learning
Increases rate of responses of all learners
Increases attainment of material presented
Allows reluctant learners a secure environment
 to practice
Decreases inappropriate or off task behavior
        Some Examples…




Whole Group
 Written Responses
          Practice Time!

Students should be reinforced at a rate of _____
 to ______.

Universal strategies used in classroom
 management are to teach rules and _________.


PBIS stands for_________________.
 Minimize and Correct
Student Behavior Errors
        Techniques to Minimize At-Risk
                 Behaviors

Surface Management
Cognitive Approaches
Sensory Strategies
Signaling Systems
       Surface Management: Proximity

Physical presence of the teacher is an external
source of control for student behavior
Allows for intervention without any “public”
 acknowledgement of the student or behavior
Teacher circulates around the room, moving closer to
 the student as behavior occurs
Proximity can range from standing nearby to placing a
 hand on the desk or shoulder
The teacher continues teaching!
                 Surface Management:
                  Antiseptic Bouncing

Allows the student to exit the setting briefly and
minimizes continuation/escalation of the
behavior
Signal student to leave while “saving face”
Travel to an arranged spot for a set time
This can be done as a “helping job”
This process should prearranged
        Surface Management: Humor

Humor can be used to effectively redirect and/or
de-escalate behavior
A good ice-breaker allows everyone to save
  face
Caution: avoid sarcasm!
Caution: If you said it, and you are the only one
  laughing, it wasn’t really funny!
       Surface Management: Ignoring

Quite simply, refusal to respond
Useful for low-intensity behaviors
No eye-contact, emotion, proximity, message
 (verbal, gesture, tone, expression)
Begins immediately upon behavior initiation
Pair with reinforcement of the correct behavior
        Cognitive Approach: Routines

Structure creates safety and comfort
Provides a sense of purpose, work guidelines
  and ability to anticipate
Structure that is universal will especially
  benefit certain students
Additional individual structure may be needed
       Cognitive Approach: Repetition

If it’s important, say it (write it, do it) again!
Natural way for the brain to determine
   importance
Ensures information will be available when it is
   ready to be processed
Can also be done through symbolic attachment
            Sensory Strategy: Music
There are specific neurons for processing
music…it may be a preferred learning style.
Specifically helpful in spatial reasoning and
  math
Useful to facilitate student transition
Impacts and helps regulate mood
Can be calming to students with anxiety….
Provides multiple reinforcement opportunities
        Sensory Strategy: Movement
Physical movement (gross and fine motor)
Associated with language development and
  problem solving
Repetitive movement can improve recall
Can increase engagement and time on task for
  those easily distracted/inattentive
Provides stress reduction
Provides multiple reinforcement opportunities
           Signaling System: Cueing

Visually/Verbally based prompts and reminders
Improve overall communication when paired
  with language
Respond to the brain’s needs during stress to
  process information & clarify perceptions
Gain student attention by signaling what is
  important
Minimize disruptions to the learning process
          Signaling Systems: VISUAL
                    CUEING
Visuals are the strongest aide in quick learning.
Vision also has dedicated neurons in the brain.
Children need gestures to make language clearer.
Stress makes the brain more dependent on visuals not
 only to hear and process, but also to establish
 perceptions.
 Use visual cues to get students’ attention, to clarify
 language, as a behavioral intervention, and to signal
 the brain as to what is important.
           Signaling Systems: Verbal Cueing
                    CATCH PHRASES
  Nike?
          Trix?
                   Burger King?
                                  Conjunction
                                       Junction?
Key Points in your lessons should be reduced
 to catch phrases.
Rules/Procedures should be reduced to catch
 phrases.
  What should be your
     first strategy
       to address
       repetitive
student behavior errors?
     Correct Student Behavior Errors

“Emotion Free” response
More effective if students have been taught
 expected behaviors
Minimize attention other than to signal an
 error has occurred
Praise for appropriate behavior
                  How does it look…
            Correct Student Behavior Errors

1.   Signal that an error has occurred
      Refer to rules: "We respect others in this room by not using
          put downs.”
2.   Ask for an alternative appropriate response
     "How can you show respect and still get your point across?"
3.   Provide an opportunity to practice the skill and provide
     verbal feedback
     "That's much better, thank you for showing respect
      toward others.”
Utilize Effective Reinforcement
            Strategies
            Effective Reinforcement
                    Strategies
 Behavior(s) are determined and taught
 Reinforcement is contingent upon appropriate
  behavior
 Be generous with reinforcers at the beginning
 Reward class when:
     Students who have not exhibited behavior in the past
      are exhibiting the behavior now.
     Students who have exhibited behaviors in the past
      continue to exhibit them.
        Verbal Praise Paired With

A system to deliver group contingencies or
 individual reinforcement
     “Yes/no” bag
     Compliance matrix
     Lottery tickets
A process for students to exchange
 token/lottery tickets
Assessing Classroom
   Environment
        Things to Consider First…

Establishment of a universal (school-wide)
 system does not guarantee individual
 teachers are implementing with high integrity
Students who appear “At-Risk” may benefit
 more from a teacher improving his/her skills
 in behavior management than in student
 participating in targeted interventions
           Practices in the Classroom

Assess physical arrangement of classroom
Establish behavioral expectations/rules
Encourage expected behavior
Minimize and correct student behavior errors
Provide effective instruction
                                   Resources
                                   Pages 16-22
Secondary Interventions
      (Practices)
        Is It Really Resistance To
               Intervention?

Before Implementing a Secondary Intervention,
               You Must Ask:


  Is the Student Receiving an Adequate
“DOSE” of the Universal Intervention?
Some Secondary Interventions…

-Small Group Social Skills Instruction
-Check In/Check Out (CICO or BEP)
 -Mentoring
Targeted Social Skills Instruction
       “Students learn
 appropriate behavior in
the same way a child who
doesn’t know how to read
 learns to read—through
   instruction, practice,
        feedback, and
     encouragement.”
         - Tim Lewis
                Teaching Behavior

Inappropriate behavior is viewed as a skill
 deficit
Social skills training teaches students a process
 or strategy to resolve problems
Teaching behavior is used when a student
 needs to replace problem behavior with a
 more desirable behavior
      Two Types of Social Skill Deficits
Skill deficits (cannot do)
  Direct teaching approach
     Coaching, modeling, behavior rehearsal
Performance deficits (will not do)
  Incentive-based management approach
     Prompting, cuing, reinforcement
     Prompted social initiations
     Home and school rewards
     Individual and group contingencies
         Assessment of Social Skills


Skill based deficit
  Provide strong incentive to observe if
   student can perform under such conditions
                Assessment of Social Skills

Performance based deficit
 Motivational deficit
    Observe if student performs skill following
     introduction of motivational strategy
     motivation=value*belief in ability*get reward promised (Vroom, 1964)
  Discrimination deficit
   Student frequently performs skill, but fails
     to perform under specific circumstances
   Oblivious to social cues or social demands
     of situation
                Social Skills Instruction

Direct instruction
   Skill based approach
Social problem solving
   Strategy based approach
Opportunistic teaching (not enough alone)
   Prompt students who have missed an opportunity to
    practice a skill
   Provide correction when skill is incorrectly or
    inappropriately demonstrated
   Debrief when student uses inappropriate behavior in place
    of appropriate social skill
      To effectively teach
social skills you must ALWAYS
  determine what you want
  the student to do INSTEAD
               Social Skill Areas

Cooperation skills
Assertion skills
Friendship skills
Empathy skills
Self-control skills
School and classroom skills
          Social Skills Instruction for
                 Small Groups
Select & group students with similar needs
Determine staff responsible
Determine best time for instruction
Select curricula & write lessons
Communicate with teacher and parents
Evaluate effectiveness
       Social Skills Instruction for
              Small Groups
Select & group students with similar
 needs
  Type of problem behavior
  Intensity of problem behavior
  Age/Developmental level
  Gender
  Develop group behavior management
   plan
       Social Skills Instruction for
              Small Groups
Determine staff responsible
  Consider size of group and type of
   problem behavior when assigning staff to
   (co)lead
Determine best time for instruction
  Lunchtime, before/after school, rotating
   schedule, intervention block
        Social Skills Instruction for
               Small Groups
Select curricula & write lessons
  Consider students’ developmental level
  Commercial curricula, online lessons, or
   custom lessons
  Materials needed
  Meeting space
                                  Resources
   requirements/limitations       Pages 23-24
           Generalization Strategies

Provide a range of useful skill variations
Teach in the targeted setting
When teaching, include peers the target
 student is likely to encounter in the problem
 setting
Use a number of adults when teaching
Continue teaching for a sufficient amount of
 time
       Social Skills Instruction for
              Small Groups
Communicate with teacher and parents
  Written parent permission best practice
  Determine how teacher(s)/parent(s) can
   encourage/participate (homework)
       Social Skills Instruction for
              Small Groups
Evaluate effectiveness
  Pre/Post Data Comparison
  Teacher/Parent Feedback
  Student Assessment
            Social Skill Example:
      Following Directions/Instructions
Discuss rationale for the critical rule
What would happen if you do or do not follow
 directions?
  If you follow directions, you may be seen as more
   responsible & cooperative which could lead to more
   privileges
  Your teacher will view you as a learner because you follow
   through
  If you don’t follow directions, an adult might think you are
   deliberately misbehaving or ignoring them
  Elicit responses from students: when, where & with whom
   they would use this skill
Activity: Teaching Skills

We need 12 volunteers
                  Following Directions
Teach/describe the skill and skill steps
 Model examples and non-examples
 Acknowledge (verbal or nonverbal)
 Decide if you need to ask any clarifying questions
 Role play/practice with feedback
 Do the task immediately
 Students and teachers observing can provide specific feedback
 Review and test:
   Identify one time when you did not follow directions
   Identify one time when you did follow directions
            Critical Components of
             Behavior Instruction
Teach the skill
Demonstrate the skill
Provide multiple opportunities for practice
 with feedback
Reinforce and encourage when students
 demonstrate the skill
                    Key Points

It’s not what they know, it’s what they do
Behavior can be taught
Students need multiple opportunities to
 practice behavioral skill deficits
Teachers need to reinforce students when they
 demonstrate targeted skills
Research-Based SS Curricula




                   Resources
                   Page 25
     Second Step
       Videos
   Pre-K
     K-1
     2-3
     4-5
Middle School
       Activity: Social Skills Groups

 Using your ODR data determine which social
  skills lessons and groups are most needed at
  your school, list:
  When will lessons be taught
  How will team ensure               Workbook
                                      Page 13
     instruction is occurring
  Evidence of lessons
  Possible reinforcers for participation
Check-In Check-Out
  (CICO, aka BEP)
                      CICO

Research-based intervention effective
 with 75% of students who participate
Check-in & check-out daily with an adult at
 school
Daily performance data used to evaluate
 progress
Behavior
Education
 Program
   DVD
       10 Critical Features of CICO/BEP

1. Linked directly to school-wide expectations and/or
   academic goals
2. Continuously available for student participation
3. Implemented within 3 school days of team
   determination
4. Can be modified based on assessment and/or
   outcome data
5. Includes structured prompts for ‘what to do’ in
   relevant situations
                       (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004)
       10 Critical Features of CICO/BEP
                  continued…
6. Student receives positive feedback from staff
7. Includes a school-home communication exchange
    system at least weekly
8. Orientation materials provide information for a
    student to get started on the intervention
9. Orientation materials provide information for staff/
    subs./ volunteers who have students using the
    intervention
10. Opportunities to practice new skills are provided
    daily
                        (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004)
          Why does CICO work?

 Improved structure
 Increase in contingent feedback
 Elevated reward for appropriate
  behavior
 Linking school and home support
 Organized to morph into a self-
  management system
             Is My School Ready to
           Implement a CICO System?

• School-wide system of behavior support in
  place (SET Score 80% or higher)
• Staff buy-in for implementation of the CICO
• Administrative support
• No major changes in school climate data
• CICO implementation a top priority
        How Do You Build Student and Staff
             “buy-in” for the CICO?

Give CICO program a high profile in your
 school
Promote CICO as positive support not
 punishment
Collaboratively involve referring teachers in
 CICO process
Provide regular feedback to staff, students,
 and families
                  CICO/Behavior Education Program –
                                 Referral Flow Chart
   Teacher(s), Vice Principal and/or Pupil Personnel Worker refer student to Grade Level
                                            Team


                                                                        Team decides that the student is
Team decides that student is        Grade Level Team                     a potential candidate for BEP –
not a potential candidate for          discusses                        Recommends student to SST and
 BEP – Recommends actions
                                                                             initiates Baseline Data
        for teacher(s)             concerns and makes a
                                         decision
SST recommends and develops
 alternative action plan – IEP           Student Studies Team meets to review student data –
  Process, Tri-County Youth                    Recommends BEP or alternative action
  Counseling Services, Small
    Group Counseling, etc.



                                                                                                Resources
                                                 Behavior Education Program                     Pages 26-32

Guidance Counselors, Pupil
                                     1. Vice Principal contacts parents to initiate Behavior
   Personnel Worker or
                                                       Education Program
   School Psychologist
implement SST action plan
                                    2. Grade Level BEP Coordinator meets with student to
                                        instruct on process and procedures of program
         Activity: Check-in/Check-out

Use your ODR discipline data to identify
 students with similar behavioral needs to
 consider for CICO
Document steps for implementing CICO



                                       Workbook
                                       Page 13
Mentoring
                 Mentoring

Part of a systems approach to providing
critical intervention for students who:
Lack a role model
Experience academic failure
Maintain behavior with adult attention
          Implementation/Program
          Development Mentoring…
Essential components of mentoring programs
  Involve personnel who have contact with students
  Select program staff
  Determine program goals and objectives
  Define target population
  Develop activities and procedures
   Activity: Secondary Practices

Use your workbook to begin planning for Social
Skills and CICO implementation



     Workbook
     Pages 14
Implementation Evaluation &
      Action Planning
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                       Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                          Develop
                 Revise
                                                         Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                  Discuss and
                       Develop and                   Select
                        Implement                  Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
 Using the Referrals by Student
 report at the Secondary Level

 Use the data to
identify groups of
   students for
    secondary
  interventions.
What?
Where?
When?
When?
Why?
Do we have a problem?
Team Initiated
Problem Solving                       Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                          Develop
                 Revise
                                                         Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                  Discuss and
                       Develop and                   Select
                        Implement                  Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
              Problem Statements

Write a “problem statement” that specifies the
 precise nature of the problem
The more Ws (what, when, where, who, why)
 you incorporate into the problem statement,
 the more precise the problem statement will
 be
The more precise the problem statement, the
 easier it will be to generate a solution that
 “fits” the problem
                                   Problem-Solving Action Plan

                                                                       Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,        Solution Actions (e.g.,                        Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data        Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,           Reward, Correction,                 When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                    Extinction, Safety)


We have 8 students with 2-5
ODRs from Sept. to Nov. for         Re-teach
       Write your Precise                                       SS         11/1/10 JM will earn 80% of
primarily disrespectful             Responsibility lessons
       Problem Statement            Implement CICO                                 his daily points on his
behaviors in the morning                                                           daily progress report
reading classhere.afternoon
               and                  Reinforce on-task           JA         11/3/10
                                                                                   per day for 4/5 days per
social studies class in order to    behaviors with DPR
                                                                All        11/3/10 week by 12/18/10
access peer and adult                                           teachers
attention.
Team Initiated                                                       Quick
Problem Solving                                                      Review
                                      Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                         Develop
                 Revise
                                                        Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                 Discuss and
                       Develop and                  Select
                        Implement                 Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
       Solutions – Generic Strategies

Prevent
Define & Teach
Reward/reinforce
Withhold reward/reinforcement – “Extinction”
Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective
 consequences
Safety may need to be considered
Problem statement: We have 8 students with 2-5 ODRs from Sept. to Nov. for primarily
disrespectful behaviors n the morning reading class and afternoon social studies
class in order to access peer and adult attention.

Prevent “Trigger”


Define & Teach           Reteach Respect lessons
                         Implement CICO to provide more frequent feedback and instruction
                         about respectful behaviors.
Reward/Reinforce         Reward students earning 80% of points on DPR

Withhold Reward

Corrective consequence

Other



Safety
                             Problem-Solving Action Plan
                                                                     Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,      Solution Actions (e.g.,                        Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data      Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,         Reward, Correction,                 When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                  Extinction, Safety)


JM has received 2 ODRs
during the first grading period   Re-teach Respect
                                                              SS         11/1/10 JM will earn 80% of
for disruptive behaviors in the       Write
                                  lessons Solutions
                                  Implement CICO                                 his daily points on his
classroom during reading                   here.
                                  Reinforce respectful        JA         11/3/10
                                                                                 daily progress report
possibly motivated by                                                            per day for 4/5 days per
attention.                        behaviors with DPR
                                                              All        11/3/10 week by 12/18/10
                                                              teachers
Team Initiated                                                       Quick
Problem Solving                                                      Review
                                      Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                         Develop
                 Revise
                                                        Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                 Discuss and
                       Develop and                  Select
                        Implement                 Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
          Problem-Solving Action Plan

                                                                       Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,      Solution Actions (e.g.,                            Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data      Prevent, Teach, Prompt,        Who?        By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,         Reward, Correction,                     When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                  Extinction, Safety)


JM has received 2 ODRs
during the first grading period   Re-teach
                                                                SS           11/1/10   students will
                                                                                 All 8 Document earn
for disruptive behaviors in the   Responsibility lessons
                                  Implement CICO                                 80% of daily points on
classroom during reading                                                               Goal here.
                                  Reinforce on-task             JA       11/3/10
                                                                                 their daily progress
possibly motivated by                                                            report per day for 4/5
attention.                        behaviors with DPR            Document
                                                                (CICO)
                                                                         11/3/10 days per week by
                                                              Implementation
                                                                All              12/18/10
                                                                     here.
                                                                teachers
Team Initiated                                                       Quick
Problem Solving                                                      Review
                                      Identify
(TIPS) Model                         Problems




              Evaluate and
                                                         Develop
                 Revise
                                                        Hypothesis
               Action Plan
                   .

                                      Collect
                                      and Use
                                       Data




                                                 Discuss and
                       Develop and                  Select
                        Implement                 Solutions
                       Action Plan

                                  Problem Solving
                                 Meeting Foundations
      CICO Avg. Points Per Day
100

 90

 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20

 10

  0

      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8
                  Problem-Solving Action Plan
                                                                     Implementation and Evaluation

    Precise Problem Statement,      Solution Actions (e.g.,                        Goal with Timeline,
      based on review of data      Prevent, Teach, Prompt,     Who?       By       Fidelity & Outcome
    (What, When, Where, Who,         Reward, Correction,                 When?     Measures, & Updates
               Why)                  Extinction, Safety)


JM has received 2 ODRs
during the first grading period   Re-teach
                                                              SS         11/1/10
for disruptive behaviors in the   Responsibility lessons
classroom during reading          Implement CICO
possibly motivated by             Reinforce on-task           JA         11/3/10
attention.                        behaviors with DPR                                Evaluate here.
                                                              All        11/3/10
                                                              teachers
           Activity: Action Planning

Use your disciplinary data & action steps you
 have been creating to apply the problem-
 solving model
Use the TIPS problem solving worksheet to
 assist you with the process

                                      Workbook
                                      Page 15
         Practical Suggestions

Keep in mind the importance of
 communication, especially listening
Remember your purpose
Get parents/community involved
Continue ongoing assessment of program
 effectiveness
    Evaluate Program Effectiveness
Increase in…              Decrease in…
  Student attendance       Meetings with
  Work                      counselor
   completion/grades
                            Office referrals
  Academic performance
  Completion of            Time outs
   homework                 Suspension
  Parental/teacher         Detention
   involvement
  Positive student-
   teacher interactions
       Activity: Action Items for Next
                  Meeting
Using the Team Planning form in the back of
 your workbook identify your next steps (action
 plan) regarding secondary interventions
Evaluations
Have a safe trip home!              Workbook
                                     Pages 16-17


Additional Resources:
www.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/
www.pbis.org

				
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