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Perception and Attribution

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									Organizational Behavior and Management




     Leadership
             Chapter 11




          MGMT 3140
            Prof. T. A. Sgritta
             Organizational Behavior and Management


                   Leadership

•   Basic leadership theories
•   Situational leadership considerations
•   Attribution in leadership
•   Transactional and Transformational
    leadership
             Organizational Behavior and Management


       Individual Considerations

•   Type A personalities
•   Type B personalities
•   Theory X, Y
•   Autocratic, democratic
           Organizational Behavior and Management


                    Leaders

• Leaders are individuals who exert influence
  to help meet group goals
  –
  –
• Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a
  leader actually does help
        Organizational Behavior and Management


Early Approaches to Leadership

 • Leader Trait Approach
 • Behavior Approach
            Organizational Behavior and Management



  Early Approaches to Leadership
• The trait approach
  seeks to identify
  personal characteristics
  that effective leaders
  possess.
• The behavior approach
  focuses on the
  behaviors that effective
  leaders engage in.
             Organizational Behavior and Management


    The Leader Trait Approach
        (also known as the great person approach)

• Intelligence/cognitive         •   Energy/activity levels
  ability                        •   Tolerance for stress
• Task-relevant                  •   Integrity and honesty
  knowledge                      •   Emotional maturity
• Dominance (pro-social          •   Achievement
  power motivation )                 orientation
• Self-confidence
      Organizational Behavior and Management


The Leader Behavior Approach
        Organizational Behavior and Management


The Leadership or Management Grid
          Organizational Behavior and Management

Leader-Member Exchange Theory
 A theory that describes the different kinds
 of relationships that may develop between a
 leader and a follower.
 Leader-follower Dyad-.
 In-group-
 Out-group-
           Organizational Behavior and Management


   Trait and Behavior Approach
              Misses
• Trait = what leaders are like
• Behavior = what leaders do
• Both ignore the situation
            Organizational Behavior and Management


   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of
              Leadership
• Leadership effectiveness determined by
  – The characteristic of individuals
  – The situations in which they find themselves
• Distinct leader styles
  – Relationship-oriented
  – Task-oriented
           Organizational Behavior and Management


 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of
            Leadership
Relationship-oriented          Task-oriented
• Wants to be liked by         • Wants high
  and to get along well          performance and
  with subordinates              accomplishment of
• Getting job done is            all tasks
  second priority              • Getting job done is
                                 first priority
           Organizational Behavior and Management


      Measuring Leader Style

• Least preferred co-employee scale
  – High LPC leaders = relationship-oriented
  – Low LPC leaders = task-oriented
          Organizational Behavior and Management


    Situational Characteristics

• Leader-Member Relations
• Task Structure
• Position Power
    Organizational Behavior and Management


Situational Characteristics
              Organizational Behavior and Management


            Advice to Managers
• Do not expect leaders to change their leader style from
  task-oriented to relationship-oriented or vice versa.
• Assign task-oriented leaders to very unfavorable or to
  very favorable situations. Assign relationship-
  oriented leaders to moderately favorable situations.
• If you or one of your subordinates is a relationship-
  oriented leader in a very unfavorable situation, try to
  increase the favorability of the situation by improving
  leader-member relations, increasing task structure by
  clarifying goals or ways to achieve goals, or raising
  levels of position power.
         Organizational Behavior and Management



        Path-Goal Theory
A theory which
describes how leaders
can motivate their
followers to achieve
group and
organizational goals
and the kinds of
behaviors leaders can
engage in to motivate
followers.
           Organizational Behavior and Management


Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory

• Determine what outcomes subordinates are
  trying to obtain in the workplace
• Reward subordinates for performing at a
  high level or achieving their work goals by
  giving them desired outcomes
• Make sure subordinates believe that they
  can obtain their work goals and perform at a
  high level
            Organizational Behavior and Management


           Path-Goal Theory:
           Types of Behaviors
•   Directive behavior
•   Supportive behavior
•   Participative behavior
•   Achievement-oriented behavior
    Organizational Behavior and Management


Vroom and Yetton Model


 Autocratic               Consultative


  Group                    Delegated
                       Organizational Behavior and Management



           Group Problems and Decisions
   Least        AI.    Leader solves the problem or makes the decision using information
Participative          available at the time. No outside input.

                AII.   The leader obtains the necessary information from subordinates.
                       The leader makes the decision.

                CI.    The leader shares the problem with the relevant subordinates
                       individually and gets their ideas and suggestions without bringing
                       them together as a group. The leader makes the decision.

                CII.   The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group,
                       obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The leader makes the decision.

                GII.   The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group, does not
    Most               try to influence the group, and is willing to accept and implement
Participative          any solution that has the support of the entire group.
                       Organizational Behavior and Management



     Individual Problems and Decisions
   Least        AI.    The leader solves the problem or makes the decision using
Participative          information available at the time. No outside input.

                AII.   The leader obtains the necessary information from the subordinate
                       involved in the decision. The leader makes the decision.

                CI.    The leader shares the problem with the subordinate and asks for
                       ideas and suggestions. The leader makes the decision.

                CII.   The leader shares the problem with the subordinate, and together
                       they analyze the problem and arrive at a mutually agreeable
                       solution.

                GII.   The leader delegates the problem to the subordinate, provides any
    Most               relevant information, but gives the subordinate responsibility for
Participative          solving the problem.
            Organizational Behavior and Management



    Substitutes and Neutralizers
• Leadership Substitute: Something that acts
  in place of a formal leader and makes
  leadership unnecessary (functional).
  – Intrinsic motivation of subordinates
  – Skill level of subordinates and nature of work
• Leadership Neutralizer: Something that
  prevents a leader from having any influence
  and negates a leader’s efforts (dysfunctional).
  – Lack of ability to reward/punish
  – Physical distance between leader and workers
           Organizational Behavior and Management


       Leadership Attribution

• Leadership prototypes
  – Traits & behaviors
  – Depends on job situation
  – Depends on local culture
• Praise and blame
  – Why do leaders get fired?
  Organizational Behavior and Management



   New Topics in
Leadership Research
Transformational and
 Charismatic Leadership
Transactional Leadership
          Organizational Behavior and Management


        Transactional vs.
   Transformational Leadership
• Transactional:

• Transformational:
        Organizational Behavior and Management


     Characteristics of
Transformational Leadership

                                        Charisma
Transformational
     Leader


Intellectual                     Developmental
Stimulation                      Consideration
           Organizational Behavior and Management


        Characteristics of
   Transformational Leadership
• High need for power
• Strong in self-efficacy
• Moral rightness

• Image building
• Image communication
• Arousing followers
             Organizational Behavior and Management


Dimensions of Transformational Leaders

•   Charisma
•   Inspiration
•   Intellectual stimulation
•   Individualized consideration
           Organizational Behavior and Management


Other Leadership Considerations

• Are people born as leaders or can they be
  trained?
• Darkside
            Organizational Behavior and Management


Needs of Self Managed Work Teams

•   Efficient, goal directed effort
•   Adequate resources
•   Competent, motivated performance
•   Supportive climate
•   Commitment to continuous improvement
    and change

								
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