COMMON DISEASES OF GAMEFOWL

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					    COMMON DISEASES OF GAMEFOWL
I. BROODERS        (0 to 30 days)

 -Colibacillosis
 -Mycoplasma/CRD
 -Coccidiosis
 -Fowl pox
 -Infectious Bursal Disease/IBD/Gumboro
 -Newcastle Disease/ND/Avian Pest

II. BABY STAGS (1 to 4 months)

 -Infectious Coryza
 -Mycoplasma/CRD
 -Fowl Pox
 -Newcastle Disease/Avian Pest
 -Avian Malaria
 -Fowl Cholera

III. STAGS          (5 to 10 months)

 -Staphylococcosis
 -Eye Worm/Bubbly Eye
 -Mycoplasma/CRD
 -Infectious Coryza
 -Newcastle Disease/Avian Pest
 -Avian Malaria
 -Marek’s Disease

IV. BULLSTAGS/COCKS/BREEDERS              (11 months old above)

  -Infectious Coryza
  -Mycoplasma/CRD
  -Newcastle Disease/Avian Pest
  -Avian Malaria
  -Staphylococcosis
  -Botulism
  -Marek’s Disease
CLASSIFICATION OF GAMEFOWL DISEASES

BACTERIAL
-Colibacillosis
-Mycoplasma/CRD
-Infectious Coryza
-Fowl Cholera
-Staphylococcosis
-Botulism

VIRAL
-Newcastle Disease
-Infectious Bursal Disease
-Fowl Pox
-Marek’s Disease

PARASITIC
a. Protozoal
 -Coccidiosis
 -Avian Malaria
b. External parasites
 -Red Mites
 -Louse
c.Worms
 -Roundworms
 -Tapeworms

FUNGAL
-Canker/Sampaga
-Aflatoxicosis
-Aspergillosis/Brooder Pneumonia
-Ringworm


COLIBACILLOSIS
-an infection caused by gram negative bacteria which may cause septicemic
diseases
-results to secondary bacterial infection
Etiology- Escherichia coli
CLINICAL SIGNS
-signs of generalized infection
-high mortality
-loss of weight
-decreased feed and water consumption
-decreased egg production to breeders

DIAGNOSIS
-isolation and isolation of organism

TREATMENT
-Trimethoprim-sulfa
-Amoxicillin
-Sulfamethoxine
-Furazolidone

PREVENTION
-keep nest clean
-separate clean eggs from dirty and infected eggs
-practice good hatchery sanitation
-All in-All out system
INFECTIOUS CORYZA
-an acute upper respiratory disease of gamefowl

ETIOLOGY- Hemophilus paragallinarum
CLINICAL SIGNS
-facial swelling
-purulent ocular and nasal discharge
-swollen wattles
-sneezing
-dyspnea
-lost in condition
-drop in egg production from 10-40%
-inappetence

GROSS LESIONS
-exudates in the infraorbital sinus
-conjunctivitis
-tracheitis
-bronchitis
-air sacculitis

DIAGNOSIS
-clinical signs
-isolation and identification of the organism
-flock history

TREATMENT
-Trimethoprim-sulfa
-Tetracycline
-Penicillin
-Erythromycin

PREVENTION
-vaccination
-prophylactic dose of antibiotic in feed and water




                  INFECTIOUS CORYZA
MYCOPLASMOSIS
-Also known as CRD/Chronic Respiratory Disease,Infectious sinusitis

ETIOLOGY-Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG)

CLINICAL SIGNS
-coughing
-nasal and ocular discharge
-leg problems
-inappetence
-slow growth
GROSS LESIONS
-air sacculitis
-pericarditis
-perihepatitis
-catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages

DIAGNOSIS
-lesions and clinical signs
-serology
-isolation and identification of organism

TREATMENT
-Tilmicosin
-Fluoroquinolones
-Tylosin
-Tetracyclines

PREVENTION
-good biosecurity
-all in all out
-good hygiene and sanitation


BOTULISM
-is an intoxication caused by ingestion of toxins produced by gram negative
bacteria
ETIOLOGY- Closridium botulinum
-consumed in feeds,foods,dead birds,toxin containing maggots

CLINICAL SIGNS
-drowsiness
-weakness
-progressive loss of control of legs,wings and neck
-paralysis
-raising of hackle feathers
-death
-loose and easily pulled feathers


GROSS LESIONS
-most birds without lesions
-mild enteritis
-crop with putrid ingesta

DIAGNOSIS
-history
-clinical signs
-presence of putrid feeds,maggots,and decayed carcass
-looseness of feathers

TREATMENT
-Antitoxin
-Laxatives

PREVENTION
-prevent access to any source of toxin


FOWL CHOLERA
-a bacterial disease also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian
hemorrhagic septicemia.

ETIOLOGY-Pasteurella multocida

CLINICAL SIGNS
-greenish diarrhea
-high body temperature
-purple comb and wattle
-swollen wattle
-ruffled feathers
-loss of appetite
-coughing
-nasal,ocular and oral discharge
-swollen joints,lameness
-sudden death

GROSS LESIONS
-hyperemia in the abdominal organs
-hemorrhage inside the heart covering the serosa
-ascites
-swollen liver with multiple,small necrotic areas

DIAGNOSIS
-characteristic sign and lesions
-demonstration of organism from organs

TREATMENT
-Sulfonamides
-Tetracyclines
-Penicillin
-Streptomycin

PREVENTION
-good management practices
-attenuated vaccines
Fowl Cholera
STAPHYLOCOCCOSIS
-an infection in gamefowl caused by gram positive bacteria

ETIOLOGY-Staphylococcus aureus

CLINICAL SIGNS
-lameness
-reluctance to walk
-swollen joints
-droopines
-ematiation
-greenish diarrhea

GROSS LESIONS
-swollen hock joint or foot pad which may contain serous to caseous
 exudates.
-swollen,congested and greenish liver
-swollen kidney and spleen

DIAGNOSIS
-clinical signs
-isolation of Staphylococcus aureus

TREATMENT
-Streptomycin
-Tetracycline
-Novobiocin
-Penicillin

PREVENTION
-proper housing, nutrition and handling
-avoid stress


SALMONELLOSIS
-a bacterial disease of young birds caused by gram negative bacteria

ETIOLOGY
-Salmonella pollurum
-Salmonella gallinarum
-Salmonella enteritidis
-Salmonella typhimurium

CLINICAL SIGNS
-anorexia
-chilling
-weakness
-diarrhea
-pale combs and wattles

GROSS LESIONS
-dehydration
-enteritis with ulceration
-necrotic foci in the liver
-cheessy cecal cores
-enlarged spleen

DIAGNOSIS
-isolation and identification
-gross lesions

TREATMENT
-Tetracycline
-Penicillin
-Sulfonamides

PREVENTION
-good hygiene and sanitation


MAREK’S DISEASE
-a viral disease of gamefowl characterized by proliferation of neoplastic
lymphoid cells in different organs.

ETIOLOGY-Gallid Herpesvirus II

CLINICAL SIGNS
-paralysis
-blindness
-ataxia
-depression

GROSS LESIONS
-enlarged peripheral nerves with loss of striations
-diffuse or nodular lymphoid tumors in the liver, spleen, heart,lung, kidney,
 muscle
-enlarged feather follicles
-white discoloration of the iris of the eye

DIAGNOSIS
-clinical signs
-gross findings
-microscopic findings

TREATMENT
-none

PREVENTION
-vaccination
-strict biosecurity


NEWCASTLE DISEASE
-an acute rapidly spreading,viral disease of poultry,also known as
NCD/Avian pest/Pneumoencephalomalacia

ETIOLOGY- Paramyxovirus

3 Strains:
Lentogenic-low pathogenic
Mesogenic-moderate virulence
Velogenic-most pathogenic


CLINICAL SIGNS
-gasping and coughing
-drooping wings
-twisting of head and neck
-circling
-depression and inappetence
-stargazing
-complete paralysis
-greenish and white diarrhea

GROSS LESIONS
-hemorrhage in several tissues and organs
-congestion and exudates in respiratory tract

DIAGNOSIS
-clinical signs
-gross findings
-Hemagglutination (HA) test
-Hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI)

TREATMENT
-none

PREVENTION
-vaccination/strict sanitation


FOWLPOX
-a slow spreading viral infection affecting primarily the skin and mucous
membrane

ETIOLOGY
-avipoxvirus

CLINICAL SIGNS
-decrease flock performance
-nodular lesions on various parts of the body
-dry type or skin type
-wet type or diptheritic type

GROSS LESIONS
-raised, blanched, enlarged nodular areas that can be fund in the skin, feet,
head and mucous membrane.
DIAGNOSIS
-presence of thick scabs in the skin and lesions in the upper gastro-intestinal
and respiratory tracts microscopic examination of pox lesions

TREATMENT
-none

PREVENTION
-vaccination
-mosquito control




INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE
-an acute,hihly infectious lymphocidal viral disease of young sexually
immature chicken.
-also known as Gumboro Disease.

ETIOLOGY
-Birnavirus
CLINICAL SIGNS

Subclinical infections:
-Unthrifty flock
-no apparent or obvious signs

Clinical infections:
-prostration
-incoordination
-watery diarrhea
-soiled vent feathers
-vent picking
-inflammation of the cloaca

GROSS LESIONS
-swollen and hemorrhagic Bursa of Fabricious
-hemorrhage of the thigh and pectoral muscles
-swollen kidney with urate deposits

DIAGNOSIS
-Gross lesions
-clinical signs
-serological tests

TREATMENT
-None

PREVENTION
-vaccination
-strict biosecurity

				
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posted:3/26/2012
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