Wood Science and Technology (PowerPoint) by yurtgc548

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									     Wood Science and Technology

Forestry and Forest Industry in China




                      Jingxin Wang
       Division of Forestry and Natural Resources
                 West Virginia University
                 Morgantown, WV 26506
                            1                       1
       Presentation Outline



• Overview
• China’s Forests
• Forest Conservation Projects
• Forest Industry



                                 2
                    2
                                                    Overview
 • China has 195.45 million hectares of
   forests (289 million acres), 4.95% of the                                    1000                     In million hectares
                                                                                          809
   world’s forests, 5th position in the world.                                   800

 • Current forest coverage: 20.36% (18% in                                       600              478
                                                                                                           310     303
   2003).                                                                        400
                                                                                                                               195      184
                                                                                 200
 • The total standing stock volume is 17,913
                                                                                   0
   million cubic meters.                                                               Russia   Brazil   Canada   USA     China      Australia


 • Forestland ownership: owned by the State;
   60% is managed by collective farms and
   40% by the state.
 • Total number of employees in Forestry,
   Wood industry, and Pulp and paper
   industry: 12.9 million (2000 data).
 • U.S. is the major forest products export
   trade partner.
(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. 7th National Forest Resource Inventory Report)
(Source: Deutsche Bank. 2007. China Forestry Industry)
                                                                                                                                           3
                                                                        3
                                      Overview (Cont’d)
                                                                Forestry Education in China
                                                                 Currently, there are 200 universities and colleges in China that have
                                                         undergraduate and junior college studies in forestry subject, including 6
                                                         forestry universities and colleges, 12 forestry technical colleges and 182
                                                         agricultural universities/colleges and other types of universities.


                                                                Forest Area by Forest Type

                                                                                           Bamboo forest,
                                                                            Economic
                                                                                              2.97%
                                                                          forest, 11.25%




       Forest Research in China
       Chinese Academy of Forestry
       Provincial Forest Research Institutes
       Universities
                                                                                                                   Arbor forest,
                                                                                                                     85.78%
(Source: State Forestry Administration, China)
(Source: Deutsche Bank. 2007. China Forestry Industry)
                                                                                                                                   4
                                                                4
                 China’s Forest Distribution


                                     Coniferous forest
                                     Mixed coniferous and

                                    broad-leaved forest
                                     Deciduous broad-leaved
                                    forest
                                     Evergreen broad-leaved
                                    forest,
Legend                               Monsoon rain forest
  Coniferous
  Broad-leaved
                                     Rain forest
  Mixed
  Bamboo




                               5                               5
China’s Forest Distribution (Cont’d)




            Coniferous forest in the northeast




       Mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest

                                6                 6
China’s Forest Distribution (Cont’d)




         Deciduous broad-leaved forest




         Evergreen broad-leaved forest

                             7           7
China’s Forest Distribution (Cont’d)




            Monsoon rain forest




                Rain forest

                          8            8
                  China’s Forests - River Valleys


                                                                    Stat Unit              Forest     Forest Area   Stock Volume
                                                                                           Coverage   (million      (million cubic
                                                                                           (%)        hectares)     meters)

                                                                    Yangtze River Valley   34.78      61.87         3567
                                                                    Heilongjiang River     42.63      39.70         3317
                                                                    Valley
                                                                    Pearl River Valley     49.25      21.77         840
                                                                    Yellow River Valley    16.15      12.15         465
                                                                    Liaohe River Valley    28.13      6.18          162
                                                                    Huaihe River Valley    14.63      4.38          157
                                                                    Haihe River Valley     16.25      3.84          73

 •    7 of the 10 largest river basins in China: Forest area – 70%; Stock volume – 60%
 •    The area and stock volume of the forests in the drainage areas of the Heilongjiang River
      and the Yangtze River make up about 50% of the total.
(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. the 7th national forest inventory)
                China’s Forests - Forest Regions

     • Major regions:
            –    Northeast Inner Mongolia
            –    Southwest mountainous region
            –    Southeast low mountain and hilly forest region
            –    Northwest mountainous forest region
            –    Tropical forest region
     • Forest area of the 5 major forest regions - More than 70% of
       the country's total.
     • Stock volume of these regions - Nearly 90% of China's total.


(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. the 7th national forest inventory)

                                                                    10             10
                                       China’s Forests
                        Arbor Forest Area and Stock Volume
        35%     33.82% 33.43%
        30%
        25%
        20%
                                  14.82%
        15%                                 12.03%
        10%                                          5.90%
         5%
         0%
              Young    Middle- Near-      Mature    Over-
              forest    aged   mature     forest   mature                                   28.90%
                                                                         30%
                       forest  forest              forest
                                                                         25%                              23.64%
              Arbor Forest Area by Age Group                                                     19.83%
                                                                         20%                                       16.50%
                                                                         15%       11.13%
                                                                         10%
                                                                          5%
                                                                          0%
                                                                               Young Middle- Near- Mature Over-
                                                                               forest aged mature forest mature
                                                                                      forest forest       forest

                                                                            Arbor Forest Stock Volume by Age Group
(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. the 7th national forest inventory)

                                                                    11                                                      11
                China’s Forests - Forest Quality
    50%        45.81%
    45%
    40%                             35.38%                           • Average annual growth of arbor
    35%
    30%                                                                forest stands: 3.85 m3/ha
    25%
    20%                                                              • Average DHB 13.3cm.
    15%
    10%                   6.60%
                                                           11.25%
                                                                     • Average number of trees per ha
     5%                                          0.96%                 is 916.
     0%
          Protective    Special   Timber    Fuel-wood   Economic
            forest     purpose     forest     forest      forest
                        forest
    Forest Stock Volume by Forest Type (million m3)


  • Arbor forest stock volume is 85.88 m3/ha.
  • Natural forest stock volume is 98.64 m3/ha.
  • Plantation is 49.01 m3/ha.
(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. the 7th national forest inventory)

                                                                    12                           12
     Major Forest Conservation Projects
Northwest
                                                               • Natural forest protection
                                                               • Grain for green project
                                                   Northeast
                                                               • Wind and sand storm source
                                                                 control project
                                                 Southeast     • Three-north and Yangtze River
                                                                 basin shelter forest system
       Southwest                                               • Wildlife and nature reserve
                                      Tropical                    establishment
      Three-North Shelter Forest                               • Fast-growing and high-yield
      Farmland shelter and sand-
      fixing forest project
                                                                 forests
      Coastline shelter forest
      project
      The Yangtze river shelterbelt
      forest project



                                                        13                                 13
 Major Forest Conservation Projects
   Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP)

• Completely stop harvesting in the upper
reaches of the Yangtze River and the upper
and middle reaches of the Yellow River.
• Significantly decrease the amount of log
production in the Northeast, Inner Mongolia
forest regions.
• Carefully protect natural forests in other
areas by the local authorities.
• The project targets to decrease the log
production to 19.91 million cubic meters, and
protect 94.3 million hectares of forests.

                                           For example, a project in Qinling mountains.


                                      14                                         14
 Major Forest Conservation Projects
               Grain for Green Project

• Control 22.68 million hectares of
area with soil erosion and water
problems.
• Fix 26.68 million hectares of
dessertifation area.
• Decrease 260 million tons of
sediment which flushed into the
Yangtze and Yellow Rivers.



               Grain for green project in Shanxi Province.


                                          15                 15
Major Forest Conservation Projects
             Wind and Sand Storm Control

This project is mainly to
deal with the sandstorms
that occur around Beijing
area.


It targets to increase the
forest and grass coverage
rate from 6.7% to 21.4% by
the end of 2010.


         Wind and sand storm source control project in Inner Mongolia.
                                         16                              16
 Major Forest Conservation Projects
                  (Cont’d)
Three-North and Yangtze River Basin Shelter
 Forest System Project - ”Green Great Wall”

  • The biggest shelter forest project in China, started in 1978 and
  will last until 2050.
  • Cover 42.4% of the total land area of China, including
  northeast, north central, and northwest, 13 provinces or 551
  counties.
  • The plantation area will reach 35.62 million hectares, and forest
  coverage rate will be 14.95% in the three-north area by 2050.




                                    17                                  17
Major Forest Conservation Projects




        Three-north projects in Xinjiang and Ningxia




              Three-north projects in Shanxi
                              18                       18
Major Forest Conservation Projects




            Three-north projects in Inner Mongolia




       Three-north projects in Heilongjiang and Liaoning
                              19                           19
                              Forest Industry Output

                                   Forest bioproducts,                       Cultivation and forest
                                   biofuels, chemicals,                            byproducts
                                   bamboo, and others                                 23%
                                           29%




                               Forest operations*
                                       2%
                                       Horticulture                            Wood processing
                                           6%                                       23%

                                         Pulp and paper
                                               8%
                                                    Forest tourism
                                                         9%

                                                                      Forestry industry output value in 2009, with a total of
                                                                      1,580 billion Yuan ($230.59 billion – $1 = 6.8 Yuan).
                                                                      * Estimated.
(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. the 7th national forest inventory)

                                                                     20
             Forest Industry – Log Production

      90                                                                                                          GuangXi
                                                                                          Others                   13%
      80                                                                                   23%

      70                                                                                                                    FuJian
                                                                                                                             12%
      60                                                                 Inner Mongolia
      50                                                                       3%
                                                                             HeiLongjiang                                   HuNan
      40                                                                         6%                                          10%
      30                                                                                JiLin
                                                                                         4%
      20                                                                       AnHui            HuBei
                                                                                                                     GuanDong
                                                                                                                        9%
      10                                                                        3%               4% JiangXi   YunNan
                                                                                                      6%        7%
       0
           1997   1999     2001     2003    2005     2007
      Log production in million m3 from 1997 to 2008                                       69.38 million m3 in 2009




(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. the 7th national forest inventory)

                                                                    21                                                               21
             Forest Industry – Log Production




        3-year old eucalyptus in Guangxi                              Bamboo forest in Guangxi
        Normally, harvested at 4-8 year-old.                          1.2 billion stems of bamboo in 2009.



(Source: State Forestry Administration. 2009. National forest production statistics)

                                                                    22                                       22
Forest Industry – Harvesting Operations




 Tree-length system
   Felling      Delimbing        Skidding       Loading
 Log system
  Felling   Delimbing   Bucking      Skidding    Loading

                            23                            23
Forest Industry - Felling




                 Falling direction control




            24                               24
Forest Industry – Delimbing and Bucking




                   25               25
Forest Industry - Skidding




            26               26
Forest Industry – Loading and
        Transportation




              27                27
                                                 Forest Industry (Cont’d)


                             120                                                                                                                            machine
                                                                                                                                                             Machine                     animal
                                                                                                                                                                                         Animal

                             100
             Percentage(%)




                              80
                              60
                              40
                              20
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                               Ground-based skidding development in Heilongjiang Province.




(Source: Wang, L. 2009. Development of forest industry in China)

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Questions??
For more information, please contact:

Dr. Jingxin Wang
Division of Forestry and Natural Resources
West Virginia University
                                     29
jxwang@wvu.edu
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