Anatomy physiology introduction to structural units by jennyyingdi


									I. Anatomy & physiology: introduction to structural units

  1.) Definitions

  Biology ~ the study of all forms of life,

  Anatomy~ Studies the shape and structure of an organisms body
  and the relationship of one body part to another.

 Physiology~ studies the function of each boy part and how the
functions      of various body parts coordinate to form a complete
living organism.
   Disease ~ any abnormal change in the structure or the function
   which the procedures symptoms.

  2.) Branches of anatomy

  1.) Gross anatomy ~ the study of large and easily observable
  structures on an organism. This is done through DISSECTION

   2.) Microscopic anatomy ~ Refers to the use of microscopes to
   enable one to see the minute (tiny ) details to organ parts
   microscopic anatomy is subdivided into 2 branches:
a. CYTOLOGY ~ study of structure, function and development of
cells that compromise (make up ) the different body parts.
   b. HISTOLOGY~ study of tissues and organs that make up
       entire body of organism.

   3.) Developmental anatomy~ the study of growth and
development of an organism over its lifetime.

 Ie/ embryology – studies the information of an organism from the
fertilized egg to birth
4.) Comparative anatomy~ study of different body parts of humans
wit regards to similarities and different animals.

5.) Systematic anatomy~ study of structure and function of various
organs or parts that compromise a particular system.
Ie/ dermatology: study of untegumentary system (skin, hair, nails)
endocrine or hormonal system.
Neurology~ study of nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerves)

II. Atomic terminology
1.) Terms referring to location, or position and direction
1. Atomical position

2. Anterior or ventral: means “Front” or in front of.
3. Posterior or dorsal: means “back” or back of.
4.Cranial or caudal: refers to direction.
“CRANIAL” means “Skull or head-end” of the body. “CAUDAL
means tail end.”

ie/ a blow to the skull may increase cranial pressure and cause
headaches. Caudal anesthesia is injected in the lower spine.
5.) Superior and inferior: “superior” means “upper or above
another, inferior refers to “lower” or below another.
Ie/ the heart and lungs are situated superior to the diaphragm, while
the intestines are inferior to it.

6.) Medial and lateral ~ medial signifies toward the midline or
medial plane of the body – while lateral means away or toward the
side of the body.
Ie/ the nose is the medial to the eyes, and the ears are lateral to the

7.) Proximal and distal~ proximal means toward the point of
attachment to the body, or towards the TRUNK of the body.
DISTAL means away from the point of attachment or origin, or
farthest from the trunk.
Ie/ is the wrist proximal to he hand the elbow is distal to the
shoulder. Note*- these words are used to describe the appendages
or extremities.

8.) Superficial or external and deep or internal~ superficial implies
on or near the surface of the body
ie/ a superficial wound involves an injury to the outer skin, a deep
injury involves damage to an internal organ such as the stomach,
“external” an “internal” refer to body cavities and hollow organs,

2. Terms referring to the body planes and sections

1, planes: are imaginary anatomical dividing lines, which are
useful in separating body structures.
2. Section: is a cut made through the body in the direction of a
certain plane
3. Sagittal plane: divides body into left and right parts.
Ie/ if the plane started in the middle of the skull and proceeded
down, bisecting the sternum and the vertebral column, the body
would be divided equally into right and left halves. This would be

4.)Coronal (frontal) Plane: is a vertical cut at right angles to the
saggital plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior
portions, the term carnal comes from the cornal suture of the skull
which runs at right angle to saggital suture.

5. Transverse plane: or cross section is a horizontal cut that divides
the body into upper and lower parts.

3. Terms referring to cavities of the body
  1. dorsal cavity: contains brain and spinal cord.
Cranial cavity: where brain is located
Spinal cavity where the cord is located

2. Thoracic cavity: the central area is called mediastrum the
thoracic cavity contains esophagus, bronchi, lungs, and tracer,
thymus, gland and heart.

*The heart itself is contained in a smaller cavity called the
pericardial cavity; lungs are contained in pleural cavities.
The thoracic cavity pericardial cavity~heart
Mediastinum cavity~ middle
Left Pleural cavity left lung
Right pleural cavity~ right lung

   HEART- covered by membrane called pericardial sac.
   *LUNGS- each lung is covered by membrane called pleura

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