DBMS Evaluation

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					      We are now at Week 10

            A DBMS Contains ..
Dr. Codd’s 12 Rules for Relational Database
             Privacy and Ethics
Changes in Information Technology Direction

                               CSE3180 Semester 1 2005 week10 / 1
                      Week 10

These items will be addressed

– Database Management Systems requirements

– Codd’s 12 Rules for Relational Database Systems

– Some aspects of Ethics and Privacy

– and some thoughts regarding Information Technology and
  its changing direction

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                 DBMS Evaluation
There is a large number of aspects to consider when
attempting to select a DBMS for an application or for an
  These can be divided into the main headings:

1. Data Definition              2. Data Restructuring
3. Non Procedural Languages     4. Procedural Languages
5. Data Dictionary Support       6. Concurrency Control
7. Backup and Recovery           8. Security
9 .Integrity                    10. Limitations

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                  1. Data Definition

01   Data Types Supported Numeric , Character
                             Date        Memo
                             Text        Money             ? Others
02   Handling (support) for NULLS
03 Primary/Foreign key support
04 Indexing methods and implementation. Number of Indexes
05 Views - Possible storage of Virtual Tables; Snapshots

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             2. Data Restructuring

01 Add new tables

02 Delete tables

03 Add/Delete Attributes

04 Change Attribute types e.g. integer to float

05 Create new indexes

06 Delete indexes

07 Modify file structures

08 Software to assist in database rebuilds
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                       3. Languages

                3. Non Procedural Languages

01 Degree of Support for : SQL, QBE, Windows, GQL
                           Natural Languages, OODBMS
02 Optimisation
        - user level (query formulation, data location)

         - DBMS (built-in)

         - or, none at all

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                      4. Languages

                    4. Procedural Languages

01 Cobol ( and versions)
   Fortran (and versions)
   C, Pascal, Basic ......

02 Embedding of Group 3 items (i.e. SQL in C, Cobol ...)

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         5. Data Dictionary Support
01 Types of Entities

          - Tables, Attributes ( any restrictions)

          - Relationships Programs

          - Integrity Constraints

02 Dictionary Integration

          - Active

          - Potentially Active

          - Custom built
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            6. Concurrency Control
01 Degree of Locking   - Column
                       - Row
                       - Table
                       - Database

02 Type of Locking     - Shared
                        - Exclusive
                        - Both
                        - Two phase (multi phase)

03 Deadlock handling - User programmed
                     - DBMS - Auto Rollback

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7. Backup and Recovery

  Backup Facilities

  Journalling Facilities


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  8. Security

01 Passwords

02 Encryption


04 Other

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                    9. Integrity

Support for   - Entity Integrity

              - Referential Integrity

              - Data Type Integrity

              - Other Constraints ( how provided )

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     10. Limitations

01 Number of Tables

02 Number of Attributes (columns)

03 Number of Rows per Table

04 Hardware Platforms

05 LANS, MANS, WANS support

                        CSE3180 Semester 1 2005 week10 / 13
                 Codd’s 12 (+ 1) Rules

• Relational Database had its foundations carefully stated by
  Dr. E.F. Codd.

• We will be looking at what these rules are, and also how
  they determine the various functions of a relational database

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                     Codd’s 12 Rules

                               Relational Systems
S    M     I   S    M        I    S     M I       S                  M       I

 Tabular       (Minimally)        Relationally                Fully
                Relational         Complete                   Relational

S Structural                   Many systems fall into category
M Manipulative                 ‘relationally complete’
I Integrity                    DB2, SQL/DS,Ingres, Oracle,
                               What about SQLServer ?

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                  Edgar F. Codd

                           •   Born 1932, UK.
                           •   Died April 18, 2003.
                           •   BA/MA (Maths) Oxford University
                           •   PhD University of Michigan.

          Dr. E. F. Codd

   The Relational Oath:
    “I promise to use the key, the whole key and
    nothing but the key, so help me Codd”
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        Features of the Relational Model

Structural Feature   Integrity Features       Manipulative Features

Relations            Entity Integrity         Theta-select (restrict)
Base tables          Referential integrity    Project
Query tables         User defined integrity   Theta-join
View tables           (database specific      Outer theta-join
Snapshot tables        integrity)             Divide
Attributes                                    Union
Domains                                       Intersection
Primary keys                                  Difference
Foreign keys                                  Outer union

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             Codd’s 12 Rules (plus 1)

 1. The Information Rule
 2. The Guaranteed Access Rule
 3. Systematic Treatment of Nulls
 4. Active On-Line Catalog Based on the Relational Model
 5. The Comprehensive Data Sub-Language Rule
 6. The View Updating Rule
 7. High-level Insert,Update and Delete
 8. Physical Data Independence
 9. Logical Data Independence
10. Integrity Independence
11. Distribution Independence
12. The ‘Non-Subversion’ Rule

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                   Codd’s Rule 0

“For any system that is advertised, or claimed to be, a
  SYSTEM, that system must be able to manage
  databases entirely through its relational capabilities”

   – Codd, E.F., An Evaluation Scheme for Database
                 Management Systems that are claimed
                 to be Relational

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                 Ethics and Privacy

Some common uses of data about people:

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            Ethics and Privacy

Public Information            Business Transactions

Birth Certificates        Mail Orders
Driver Licenses           Telephone Orders
Car Registrations         Subscriptions
Property Records          Donations
Marriage License          Credit Cards
Census Records            Warranty Cards
Telephone Directories     Tattslotto, ...
Consumer Surveys          Accounts Payments

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                    Ethics and Privacy

which can lead to :
                  Multiple Mailing Lists :

                  Entertainment Specials
                  Social Clubs
                  Professional Development

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                    Ethics and Privacy

• Computers and privacy

• Intellectual Property rights

• Truth in Art and Journalism

• Threats to Computers and Communications systems

• Security issues relating to Computers and Communications

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                   Ethics and Privacy

• Ethics: A set of principles which govern the conduct of an
  individual or group

• Privacy: The right of people not to reveal information about
  themselves, the right to keep personal information from
  being misused

• Electronic invasion of personal data has become a serious
  ethical issue

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                   Ethics and Privacy

• Invasion of Privacy :
  Would you agree to :

  Your personal shopping habits, your income, to be available
  to any number of businesses ?

  Your medical records being used by your employer as one of
  the means of making decision regarding promotions, hiring,
  redundancy ?

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              How do you feel about this ?
              Ethics, Privacy and Security
• Draw 98 is a Microsoft product

• It is available from the Microsoft Web site (so is other

• It is part of the progression to server based software

• Downloading Draw98 initiates a scan of the user’s hard disk
  for components of the Office suite so that ‘the installer
  (software) knows what you need to make Draw 98 run
• Full marks to Microsoft for innovation ??

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• Ethics, noun
   – pertaining to right or wrong in conduct
• Ethical, adj
   – in accordance with the rules or standards for right
     conduct or practice, especially the standards of a

   – the rules of conduct recognised in a particular class of
     human actions

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– The overriding principles are
   • fairness
   • integrity
   • openness
   • responsibility
   • commitment to accuracy and truth

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– Members of a profession should act always for the
  maintenance for the community, rather than for sectional

– This includes the exposure of hypocrisy, falsehoods or
  double standards

– Members should seek to present fair, balanced and
  accurate material

– Confidentiality must be protected at all costs

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– Fair and honest means should be used to obtain material,
  including information. Misrepresentations and the user of
  concealed equipment or surveillance devices should be

– Members of an organisation should have equal
  opportunity to develop their skills

– The employer organisation is obliged to provide a healthy
  and safe working environment

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– Activities outside workhours may be seen to have an
  impact on the individual’s or the employer organisation

– No person should be harassed or discriminated against
  on grounds of gender, colour, race, nationality, religious
  belief, impairment, age, height, weight, marital status,
  appearance or sexual preference

– Managers or others with access to personal information
  relating to other members are required to treat such
  information as confidential, and not to disclose such
  information except in the course of discharging formal
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• Members should not use their position to obtain private
  benefit for themselves or others

• Members should not be influenced by family or other
  personal relationships

• Members should be alert to conflict of interests which may
  arise and declare to a senior person or officer any real or
  perceived conflict of interest which arises or is foreseen

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• Members engaged in the development of software or
  hardware or communications or other Information
  Technology facility and who believe they have a interest on
  such development, maintenance, or installation should
  acknowledge such interest

• Members in doubt as to whether a conflict of interest exists
  should consult a senior officer

• No payment, gift or other advantage which may be seen to
  undermine accuracy, fairness or independence is to be

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• Other people’s material is not to be reproduced without
  reference and acknowledgement

• The source of material obtained form another organisation
  should be acknowledged

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  The Australian Computer Society has this to say :

• An essential characteristic of a profession is the need for its
  members to abide by a Code of Ethics. The Society requires
  its members to subscribe to a set of values and ideals which
  uphold and advance the honour, dignity and effectiveness of
  the profession of information technology

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• In keeping with this statement, a member must
   – be honest, forthright and impartial
   – serve the community
   – strive to increase the competency and prestige of the
   – use special knowledge and skill for the advancement of
     human welfare

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                       Ethics - ACS

• Competence (part only of the Standards of Conduct)
   – A member must endeavour to provide products and
     services which match the operational and financial needs
     of my clients and employers
   – A member must give value for money in the services and
     products I supply
   – A member must respect and protect the clients’ and
     employers’ proprietary interests

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                        Ethics - ACS

• Social Implications
   – A member must protect and promote the health and
     safety of those affected by her/his work
   – A member must consider and respect people’s privacy
     which might be affected by a member’s work
   – A member must respect employees and refrain from
     treating them unfairly

   The full statement of the code of ethics is available at

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Acknowledgements to

      The Age Code of Conduct

      The Australian Computer Society

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                  Ethics and Privacy

Rules and Laws on Privacy:

Privacy Act 1974, amended 2001
Freedom of Information Act
Fair Credit Reporting Act
Right to Financial Privacy Act
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
Federal Data-Matching Program (Assistance and Tax Act)

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                    Ethics and Privacy

Intellectual Property Rights: Products of the human mind and
   includes tangible (i.e. ‘real products’) and intangible property
   (i.e. ‘ideas’)

3 common methods of ‘protection’ :-
     Patents (inventions)
     Trade Secrets (formal or method of conducting business)
     Copyright ( Laws which prohibit copying of intellectual
       property without the permission of the copyright holder)

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                    Ethics and Privacy
Piracy: Theft or unauthorised distribution or use

Software Piracy: Unauthorised copying of copyright software

Network Piracy: The use of electronic networks to distribute
  unauthorised copyright materials in digitised form

Plagiarism: Is the use of another’s text, findings, interpretations
  and presenting it as one’s own original work

   Also involved here is the ownership of images and sounds :
 for example Walt Disney animations and ‘speech/sound’
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                   Ethics and Privacy

Art and Journalism:
  Manipulation of Sound - mixing, overlays, reductions,
  deletions, substitution

  Manipulation of phonographs and video recordings - ‘touch
  ups’, overlays, repositioning, insertions, deletions,
  enhancing, minimising

  Morphing - construction of an image (at pixel level) to
  superimpose, enhance, overlay, redirect, recolour, animate,
  animation with voice commentary, disjoint morphing ( a
  person’s head which is rotated - change of facial attitude)
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                  Ethics and Privacy

Questions :   What is ‘REAL’
              Which values are ‘ACCURATE’
              Which data can MANIPULATE people ?

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              Public Safety Aspects
– Factory / Production Processes and Controls

– Dangerous Materials

– Power Generation and Distribution - Power Surges

– Weaponry

– Transport - Road, Rail, Sea, Air

– Computer Controlled Communications

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                      A Mind Bender

The following exercise is based on advanced mathematics and
   mental gymnastics
1. Write down the number of times per week night that you eat
   out (if you don’t, write down 0)
2. Multiply this value by 2
3. Add 5
4. Multiply the result of (3) by 50
5. If you have already had your birthday this year add 1750
   If not, add 1749
6. Subtract your year of birth
7. You should have a 3 digit number. The first digit should be
   the same as in (1) above, and the other 2 are your age.
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CSE3180 Semester 1 2005 week10 / 47
                Information Technology

A few comments about this discipline

  In the Business environment, the use of Information
  Technology is the primary means to express and execute
  business strategy

  Information Technology executives who don’t understand IT
  will place their companies at risk of failure

  Building and sustaining competitive advantage is tightly
  linked to the intelligent use of Information Technology

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                  The Information Age

Some characteristics:

  The computer is the dominant technology

  Computing intelligence is dispersed into all aspects which
  can be improved by being ‘smart’.

  Computerisation is called mechatronics (mechanical

  Technology gives products the capability to be customised
  and made responsive to each user
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                The Information Age

The output of the current period is knowledge

Products which are ‘information rich’ produces products
which have a high level of attraction to users

The basis of wealth is information.

Information drives the creation of knowledge
   > which drives strategic actions
   > which create temporary competitive advantage for

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                The Information Age

The ‘knowledge worker’ is the key to information

A large part of the workforce is involved in collecting,
processing and communication information

The means of ‘moving things’ is communications networks

Logistics is concerned with moving bits representing data
and information as opposed to moving physical products

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               The Information Age

The market place (where people gather to buy and sell
products and services) has shifted from the physical
marketplace to the marketspace - which is an electronic
market place in cyberspace)

Information based improvements become the main method
of creating new products and services

The value of existing goods and services is enhanced by
information enhancement

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               And the Customers ?

Customers are marketed, sold and serviced as individuals,
not as statistical averages

An accessible information highway, the Internet, permits
global and interactive access to multimedia information

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                    And People ?

Convergence of information forms leads to ‘new’ ways of
working and living

Time and space constraints of markets collapse

People live where they please

They work with remote employers

They purchase products from local or distant providers as

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                     Anything Else ?

  The Information Age has introduced radical shifts in the
  basis of wealth.

  Industrial Age products were physical

  Information Age products are virtual

  Industrial Age focus was the automation of labour

  Information Age focus is the creation and exploitation of
                                          CSE3180 Semester 1 2005 week10 / 55
     The Industrial vs the Information Age

Industrial Age : Information flow was physical and paper

Information Age : Information flow is virtual and digitised

The result is the movement from manufacturing to
knowledge as the key to societal wealth

The end result is the global economy becoming merged and
information-centric = globalisation ?

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                  The Information Age
5 Primary Perspectives:
1. Technology Continued innovation in information
   technologies results in information technology addressing all
   forms of life

2. Economics The economy becomes information-centered.
   The creation of wealth is tied to the ability to create new
   information-based products and amend existing products
   with information

3. Employment There is a shift in numbers to knowledge
   workers. People make their living in creating, moving,
   analysing, interpreting or distributing information
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                  The Information Age

4. Spatial World networking of computers leads to the collapse
   of the traditional market constraints of time and space. The
   world becomes a global marketspace

5. Cultural Society becomes media-laden. Information is
   readily available in multimedia formats, it can be customised
   easily and accurately, and it is interactive
   We expect information in forms which are readily accessible
   and convenient

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                The Information Age

3 associated technology changes drive the information age

1. Digitisation of information - regardless of form
    (audio,data, image, video)
   All information shares the same basis of construction
   It becomes
      • transportable
      • interoperable
      • subject to interactive manipulation by the user

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                 The Information Age

2. Rapidly decreasing cost of computing
   This ensures that computing will become
        available everywhere (ubiquitous)
        cost attractive

3. Broadband Communications
   Multimedia is storage intensive and time sensitive
   Gigabit communications (lecture 9) will give rise to
   efficiency and effectiveness of work

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                     The Information Age

The Implications ?

Companies will engage in IT based high levels of competition
  and aggressiveness.

The use of IT will be the primary expression of business

Business will need highly flexible information systems

The objective will be to attract and/or retain customers AND to
  deter competitors
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                  The Information Age
Business is highly competitive
Success is the objective
Success can be achieved by advantage

Advantage is expressed through the power and agility of
  information technology

I.T. is now not seen as an expense - it is the means of
       attracting customers
       adding value to products
       improving productivity
       beating the competition
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                         Final Thoughts
Industrial Age Advantage         IT Age Advantage
Mass Production                  Mass Customisation
Mass Marketing                   One-to-One Marketing
Customer Research                Customer Participation
Optimisation of Physical Value   Optimisation of Information Chain
Physical Collaboration with      Information Collaboration with
   Suppliers                        Suppliers
Excellent Customer Service       Customer Self_service
Physical Location                Virtual Globalisation
Prompt Delivery of Physical      OnLine Delivery of Virtual Products
   Products to Door
Knowledgeable sales Help         Software Agents
                                 with acknowledgement to Bernard Boar, RCG
                                      Information Technology, who provided some of
                                      the basis for the materials
                                               CSE3180 Semester 1 2005 week10 / 63
                                  But …...

The 2003 ICT Trade Update revealed a deficit or $14.4 billion
  for the 2002-03 financial year - the same as in 2001- 02

ICT exports were $5.3 billion. Imports were $19.7 billion
ICT equipment trade was in deficit by $13.8 billion

The ICT trade deficit has grown by an average of 7.4% pa
  since 1993-94

-Source Prof. John Houghton, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies

- Information Age, Australian Computer Society December/January 2003-2004

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