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Dengue Fever

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Dengue Fever Powered By Docstoc
					Chrisitna Vivelo
Overview
 Virus
 Transmitted by mosquito bite
 Estimated 100 million cases
  worldwide each year
 No cure or vaccine, can only treat
  the symptoms
 Not fatal (in contrast to DHF)
 SYMPTOMS:
-   Sudden high dever (104-105 C)
-   Red rash
-   Second rash similar to measles later on
    in disease
-   Fatigue
-   Muscle ache
-   Nausea
History
 First record: “water poison”
  in Chinese Medical
  Encyclopedia from Jin
  Dynasty (265-420 AD)
 1789: First confirmed case-
  Benjamin Rush
 20th century: Sir John
  Burton Cleland discovers
  transmission by
  mosquitoes
 WWII allows disease to
  spread globally
                                     Global Outlook

Possible reasons for
increased outbreak

-Rapid population growth
-Inadequate urban infrastructure
-Migration from rural to urban
environments
-Increase in solid waste- may serve
as larval habitats for mosquitoes




-http://www.who.int/csr/disease/dengue/impact
/en/
Transmission
 Mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti
  and Aedes albopictus
 Must feed on human
  during 5 day period when
  person is symptomatic
 Virus incubates inside
  mosquito 8-12 days
 Mosquito remains infected
  for duration of its lifetime

           http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ae
  des_aegypti_during_blood_meal.jpg
The Virus
 Virus family:
  Flaviviridae
 DENV-1 through DENV-
  4
 ssRNA, genome 11,000 bp
  long
 Codes for: 3 structural
  proteins, 7 nonstructural
Viral Proteins
 E (envelope) protein-
  involved in attachment
  of virus to host cell
 prM/M protein- involved
  in formation of viral
  particle
 The Mannose Receptor-
  on macrophage-binds to
  glycoproteins on viral
  membrane
http://www.abcam.com/Mannose-Receptor-antibody-
     ab64693.html
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF)
 More severe symptoms of
  Dengue fever
 Additional symptoms:
  bleeding, followed by shock-
  like state
 Fatal
 Occurs when patient is
  infected a second time by a
  different DENV




   http://nabc.ksu.edu/content/factsheets/category/Viral%20Hemo
    rrhagic%20Fever
Treatment/Prevention
 Can only treat symptoms
 2003- Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative
 July 2010- NIH announces clinical trials for 19 possible
  vaccines
 Environmental approaches: clean water supply, waste
  management, using screens and netting to keep
  mosquitoes out of homes
Research
 Modifying yellow fever
  vaccine YF-17D to fight
  Dengue virus
 Mycophenolic acid and
  ribavirin- inhibit dengue
  virus replication by
  causing defective viral
  RNA production
Refrences
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
    http://www.cdc.gov/dengue
   Lai CJ, Monath TP (2003). "Chimeric flaviviruses: novel vaccines
    against dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and Japanese
    encephalitis". Advances in virus research 61: 469–509.
    doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(03)61013-4. PMID 14714441.
   Miller JL, deWet BJM, Martinez-Pomares L, Radcliffe CM, Dwek RA, et
    al. (2008) The Mannose Receptor Mediates Dengue Virus Infection of
    Macrophages. PLoS Pathog 4(2): e17. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.004001
   Takhampunya R, Ubol S, Houng HS, Cameron CE, Padmanabhan R
    (2006). "Inhibition of dengue virus replication by mycophenolic acid
    and ribavirin". J. Gen. Virol. 87 (Pt 7): 1947–52. doi:10.1099/vir.0.81655-0.
    PMID 16760396.
   Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dengue_fever
   World Health Organization,
    http://www.who.int/csr/disease/dengue/impact/en/

				
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