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Cognitive Processes PSY 334_1_

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 39

									Cognitive Processes
PSY 334

Chapter 1 – The Science of
Cognition
Study Aids

 On the course web page:
     Copies of these Powerpoint slides.
 Textbook publisher student website:
     http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/anderson7e/

 See pg 5, Chapter 1: How to study
  effectively (PQ4R Method).
     Pay special attention to the summary
      statements highlighted between lines in the
      textbook.
Early History

 Empiricism vs nativism (nurture vs
  nature)
 Famous empiricists (nurture):
     Berkeley, Locke, Hume, Mill
 Famous nativists (nature):
    Descartes, Kant

 Lots of philosophical speculation but no
  use of the scientific method to answer
  questions.
       Locke’s “Essay Concerning Human
       Understanding”
 This work was the beginning of British Empiricism.
 Locke sought a set of laws for the human mind, like
  Newton’s principles of physics.
 Locke’s system is atomistic and reductionistic.
    Basic elements of mind are ideas.

    Ideas come from experience (Locke rejected
     Descartes).
    The “blank slate, page of paper, tablet” comes from
     Aristotle, but characterized empiricism.
 Ideas have two sources: sensation & reflection.
        Locke & Ideas (Cont.)
 Sensations can be illusory or misleading.
 Ideas are either simple or complex. Simples ideas form
  a complex idea in several ways:
    By combining several simple ideas into a single one.

    By seeing the relation between two simple ideas.

    By separating simple ideas from other ideas that go
     with them – the process of abstraction.
 Locke’s idea about combination of ideas is analogous to
  a chemical compound (from Boyle).
       George Berkeley (1685-1753)
 Wrote three essays that radically extended Locke’s
  philosophy into subject idealism (immaterialism).
 Berkeley argued that because all knowledge of the
  world comes from experience, the very existence of the
  external world depends on perception.
    Matter exists because it is perceived – matter does
     not exist without a mind.
    The permanence of the world is thus proof of God’s
     existence.
 His book on vision was better regarded in his time.
       David Hume (1711-1776)

 Hume studied “pneumatic philosophy” (the name for the
  science of mental life).
 People are part of nature so should be studied using the
  methods of studying nature.
 He differentiated between impressions & ideas:
    When impressions & ideas occur together they
     become associated with each other.
    3 kinds of associations: resemblance,

     contiguity in time or space, cause-and-effect
     relationship.
Rene Descartes
       Ideas about the Ideas &
       Passions
 Two major classes of ideas exist in the mind:
    Innate ideas – inborn, time, space, motion, God.
    Derived ideas – arising from experience, based on
     memories of past events (open pores stay open).
 Passions arise from the body and cause actions.
    6 primary passions (wonder, love, hate, desire, joy,
     sadness) – other passions are mixtures of these.
 Animals do not possess minds so cannot think, be self-
  aware or have language – have no feelings.
        Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

 The leading German epistemologist, Kant was a
  subjectivist, nativist, rationalist successor to Descartes
  and Leibniz.
 Kant wrote “A Critique of Pure Reason” saying that
  empiricists forgot to ask how experience is possible.
    Certain intuitions or categories of understanding are
     inborn and frame our experiences.
    This knowledge is a priori, whereas experiential
     knowledge is a posteriori (known afterward).
    3 categories of mind: cognition, affection, conation.
        Kant’s View of A Priori
        Knowledge
 Concepts of space and time.
 Other intuitions, including cause and effect, reciprocity,
  reality, existence and necessity.
 Higher faculties of reasoning are understanding,
  judgment, reason.
 True science must begin with concepts established a
  priori by reason alone and deal with observable objects
  that can be located in time and space.
    Psychology lacks this so it cannot be a science.
Scientific Psychology

 Scientific study began in 1879:
     Structuralism – Wundt, Titchener and
      systematic, analytic introspection.
     Functionalism -- William James’ armchair
      introspection.
 Behaviorism (1920):
     Thorndike – consciousness as excess
      baggage.
     Watson – consciousness as superstition.
Early Mentalists

 Gestalt psychologists (German):
     Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler
 Critics of behaviorism:
     Tolman
 European psychologists:
     Bartlett – early memory researcher
     Luria
     Piaget
        Mind for Behaviorists



Input:                                            Output:
Sensation                                         Behavior




            What laws describe the relationship
               between input and output?
        Mind for Cognitive Theorists


                Mental
                Representations:
Input:          Goals, Expectations,           Output:
Sensation       Cognitive Maps                 Behavior

                Processes



            What happens inside the “box” to
            produce the observed behavior?
Three Important Influences

 Human performance studies in WWII –
  information needed to train military.
 Artificial intelligence – thinking about
  how machines accomplish things leads
  to more analytical thinking about how
  humans do.
 Linguistics – behaviorist principles could
  not account for the complexities of
  language use.
Pioneers of Cognitive
Psychology
 Information theory
    Donald Broadbent

 Artificial Intelligence
   Newell & Simon

 Linguistics
    Chomsky – new ways of analyzing language

    Miller -- psycholinguistics

 Neisser’s book “Cognitive Psychology”
Cognitive Science

 Cognitive psychology -- human thinking.
 Cognitive science studies both human
  and machine thinking (artificial
  intelligence).
      Cognitive science includes philosophy and
       neuroscience as well as psychology.
 Non-human (artificial) intelligence:
      http://alice.pandorabots.com/
      http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/~asaygin/tt/ttest.html#talktothem
Information Processing

 The dominant paradigm
  (approach) today in cognitive
  psychology.
 A computer metaphor is used to
  conceptualize mental activity:
     Mental processes operate upon
      mental representations
        “Ops   on Reps”
     Flowcharted steps
A Functional Approach

 Mental activity is described in functional
  terms.
 Brain location, brain processes and
  neural representation are ignored.
How are Models Tested?

 Because no direct observation of mental
  processes is possible, behavior is
  studied.
 Measurement of response time is used
  to deduce the steps performed.
Sternberg’s Paradigm:



        397
 Was “9” a part of this number?

9 would be a positive probe (target)
6 would be a negative probe (foil)
Sternberg’s Flowchart (Model)
Possibilities

 People look at the numbers one at a
  time in sequence, stopping when they
  get the answer.
 People look at the numbers one at a
  time in sequence but continue until the
  end before giving a response.
 People look at all three of the numbers
  at once, responding when they
  recognize the target number in the set.
What do people do?
If people looked at a set as a single
object, the data would be different.


                           Foil and target times
                           would be different if
                           people stopped
                           searching when they
                           found the correct
                           answer.
Concerns about Cognitive
Models
 Relevance – do lab-task processes
  operate in the same manner in real life?
 Sufficiency – can simple theories explain
  complex processes?
     Cognitive architectures, computer models
 Necessity – does the mind actually work
  as described by specific theories?
     Cognitive neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

 Pages 12-30 review basic concepts
  about the brain.
     If you have not taken PSY 210 and find
      this material confusing, come see me.
 New methods permit study of normal
  human functioning in more complex
  tasks:
     EEG
     Imaging techniques – PET & fMRI
Review brain regions and localization
of function in the brain.
Parts of Neuron
Kinds of Neurons
Action Potential Demo

 http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/animati
  ons/actionpotential.swf
EEG measures patterns of
brain activity.
Functional MRI (fMRI)


                   An fMRI scan
                   showing regions of
                   activation in
                   orange, including
                   the primary visual
                   cortex (V1, BA17).
Autism Affects Semantic
Processing of Abstract Words
Using FMRI to Confirm a Model

 BOLD – Blood Oxygen Level Dependent
  response
      Measured in 3 different areas of brain: motor,
       parietal region, prefrontal region.
      Measured and plotted every 1.2 sec.
 Peaks in BOLD graph show when an area
  of the brain was active (4-5 sec delay).
 Different components to a task can be
  independently tracked.
 The Task
Step 0 Step 1   Step 2
           Measured in Three Areas


Motor




                                      Prefrontal


Parietal                 Notice that the peaks of
                         activity for each step occur in
                         the same order as the steps
                         do when solving the problem.
Other Approaches to Cognitive
Psychology
 Connectionism (neural net models) –
  can higher level functions be
  accomplished by connected neurons?
     Parallel distributed processing (PDP) --
      Rumelhart & McClelland
 Situated cognition – the ecological
  approach
     Gibson’s affordances
     Do we explain cognition in terms of the
      external world or internal mind?

								
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