lecture by dandanhuanghuang


									                   media ownership
              fdm 20c introduction to digital media
                            lecture 27.05.2004

warren sack / film & digital media department / university of california, santa cruz
last time: surveillance and privacy

• history of and surveillance today
• review of the capture model
• definition of privacy
   – private versus public
      • civil versus economic
         – capture
   – efficient connections versus resistances
   – on the virtue of inefficiencies
• lessig on monitoring and search
   – example: monitoring on the web
   – example: search on the web
• gandy on data mining

• who owns the media today?
   – ownership structures of local newspapers
   – media map of u.s. media
   – media map of international media
• types of connection between media companies
   – mutual investment
   – interlocking directorates
   – news flows
• implications
   – censorship
   – focus
• fcc’s current review of ownership laws
media concentration: bagdikian’s chronology

  • 1983: 50 corporations dominated most every
    mass medium in the United States
  • 1987: 23 corporations dominated
  • 1987-1996: the number decreased to 14
  • 1997: 10 corporations dominated the media
  • 2000: 6 firms now dominate all U.S. mass
  • 2003-2004: FCC decided deregulate existing
    media ownership laws, then decided to
    reregulate, but...
local newspaper ownership

• Alarm! out of business
• Aptos Times owned by The Times Publishing Group
• Capitola Times owned by The Times Publishing Group
• Scotts Valley Times owned by The Times Publishing Group
• City on a Hill owned by UCSC
• Connection Magazine locally owned?
• Goodtimes locally owned?
• Metro Santa Cruz owned by Metro Newspapers
• Mid-County Post locally owned
• Register / Pajaronian owned by News Media Corporation
• Valley Press/Scotts Valley Banner owned by Johnson Newspaper
• Santa Cruz Sentinel owned by Ottaway Newspapers, Inc. which is
  owned by Dow Jones and Co., Inc.
• San Jose Mercury News owned by Knight-Ridder
resources for uncovering ownership ties

• websites of the publication or station
• websites of the owning corporation
• Hoovers (www.hoovers.com)
• U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
• Columbia Journalism Review
u.s. media

• The Big Ten
• note ownership of internet resources
• note mutual investment (e.g., AT&T owns 8% of
ownership and the internet

• According to Jupiter Media Metrix, a company
  that tracks internet and technology analysis and
  measurement, the "[t]otal number of companies
  that control 60 percent of all minutes spent
  online in the US dwindled 87 percent, from 110
  in March 1999 to 14 in March 2001.” They
  further point out that within the 14 companies, it
  is heavily skewed towards the top four.
• (http://www.mediachannel.org/ownership/)
radio ownership

• In 1996 and 1997, 4,407 of the nation’s 11,000
  commercial radio stations changed hands.
the case of clear channel

•  Two companies, Clear Channel Communications, Inc.
  and Viacom, now attract 42 percent of radio listeners
  and industry revenue. L. Lowry Mays, the San Antonio-
  based billionaire founder of Clear Channel, owned thirty-
  six stations before deregulation and now has 1,225 in
  fifty states. In a decade, the company’s revenue has
  gone from $74 million to about $8 billion. ibid, Columbia
  Journalism Review
• Clear Channel programming reaches more than 110
  million listeners every week; Clear Channel Radio,
  which daily reaches 54% of all people ages 18-49 in the
  U.S. (www.clearchannel.com)
local stations owned by clearchannel

•   KDON (102.5)
•   KSJO (92.7)
•   KOCN (105.1)
•   KTOM (100.7)
interlocking directorates:
another form of influence
• see artist project by futurefarmers:
what is the FCC?
• Federal Communications Commission
   – http://www.fcc.gov/
• “The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  is an independent United States government
  agency, directly responsible to Congress. The FCC
  was established by the Communications Act of
  1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and
  international communications by radio, television,
  wire, satellite and cable. ”
• The FCC is directed by five Commissioners
  appointed by the President and confirmed by the
  Senate for 5-year terms.”
  FCC rules currently under review
• Broadcast-newspaper cross-ownership rule: This policy has
  prohibited the two most important sources of information in a
  community-the daily newspaper and a broadcast TV station-
  from being owned by the same company. [this rule was
  eliminated by the FCC on June 2, 2003]
• Local TV multiple ownership rule and the radio/TV cross-
  ownership rule: These rules limit somewhat the number of
  stations that any one entity can own in a single community.
• National TV ownership rule: This policy limits the number of TV
  stations a single company can own. The current limit prohibits a
  company from controlling stations that collectively reach 35
  percent [as of Jan. ‘04, this figure is now 39 percent; was set at
  45% on June 2, 2003] of all TV households
• Dual Network Rule: This policy prevents one of the four major
  networks-ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox-from buying another
interview with FCC Commissioner

• listen to the interview by Robert McChesney
  with Commissioner Michael Copps
  – http://www.will.uiuc.edu/am/mediamatters/default.htm
how does ownership influence programming? the
clear channel case
• censorship
   – after 9/11 clear channel “recommended” that its
     stations not play a list of 200 songs including
     everything by rage against the machine and cat
     steven’s “peace train” (City on a Hill Press, May 15,
• focus
   – Clear Channel has perfected what’s called “voice
     tracking,” a deceptive technique in which centrally
     produced programming — containing local allusions
     — is beamed to the company’s stations, letting
     listeners believe that the content is all locally
     originated. (Columbia Journalism Review)
does ownership influence
programming? the miramax case
• michael moore’s film, fahrenheit 911, winner of
  the 2004 cannes film festival is to be distributed
  in the u.s. by miramax; but,
• miramax is owned by disney with huge holdings
  in florida where jeb bush is governor; so,
• disney tells miramax not to distribute the film
international media ownership

• the global ownership chart
• http://www.mediachannel.org/ownership/
next time

• free software & open source
• reminder: version 2 of your paper is due one
  week from today on thursday, june 3rd

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