Cognitive _ Perceptual Characteristics

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Cognitive _ Perceptual Characteristics Powered By Docstoc
					Cognitive & Perceptual
        ED 226
       Fall 2010
   Cognitive Theory & Approaches to
            Mild Disabilities
• Learning is an active process that results in
  lasting changes with in the learners
  knowledge base and leads to stable changes in
• Coming to understand
• The child is the novice thinker and the teacher
  is the expert thinker
       Assumptions about cognitive
• Learns must be active participants in and
  responsible for their own learning
• Learning results when a student effectively
  relates a new learning to previous learning
• The way individuals organize and integrate
  information is critical to their success in learning
• Although it is possible and useful to study the
  individual components of successful learning, any
  interventions must consider and address the
  whole learning act
          Behaviorist Approach
• Learning occurs when the individual forms an
  association between a particular environmental
  stimuli and a pleasant or punishing event.
• Pleasant outcomes result in new learning
• Unpleasant events are ignored or avoided
• While popular in reg ed, in sped this approach
  has failed to yield results as they don’t focus on
  the whole child, focus on active learning, or
  develop independent cognitive processing
     Constructivists Perspectives
• How students construct knowledge from
  experience provided by the environment
• Learning is more complicated than a series of
  sensory responses
     Constructivists Perspectives
• Piaget
  – Learning occurs in a set of stages related to
  – Learning is self-regulated
  – Piaget called this “biological constructivism”
  – Begins when we recognize differences in our
  – Schema
  – Assimilation
  – Accommodation
Stage            Age Range
                 (Approximate) Characteristics

Sensorimotor     Birth to 2     Builds knowledge/concepts through
                                sensory experience and motor activity

Preoperational   Ages 2-7       Begins to think in symbols but is still
                                dependent on direct experience for

Concrete         Ages 7-14      Begins to use logic to create new
operation                       concepts, but only those related to the
                                here and now

Formal           Ages 14 to     Develops ability to think abstractly and
operations       adult          logically
 Implications for students w/ mild disabilities

• Process of cognitive development may be
• Plateaus
• Progress for those with ADHD, E/BD, and LD
  maybe be disrupted for less efficient
• Disequilibrium may not be recognized or
• Reliance on assimilation or accomodations
    Characteristics of most effective instruction

•   Well designed
•   Developmentally appropriate
•   Significant exposure to manipulates/hands on
•   Focused on key concepts

             Great for remediation!!!
• Learning occurs through participation in social
  or culturally embedded experiences.
• Not a solitary learner, learns through social
  interactions in meaningful contexts
• Social constructivism: learning occurs when
  teachers and others guide the learner in
  developing new understandings
   Zone of proximal development
• The range of learning that students can achieve
  when they are engaged in meaningful activities
  with competent others.
• The distance between what children can do by
  themselves and the next learning that they can
  be helped to achieve with competent assistance
• Vygotsky believed this zone is where learning
  occurs and that this was a better means to gauge
  ability than tests of acquired knowledge
   Application for those in Sp.Ed.
• What does the learner already know?
• Nature and quality of support needed for
  them to learn the next thing.
         Scaffolding Instruction
• The role of the teachers and others in
  supporting the learners’ development and
  providing support structures to get to the next
  stage or level.
• The teacher helps the students connect the
  “know” with the “new.”
• As this moves forward the learner accepts
  more responsibility in learning
   Implications for students w/ mild
• Smaller zones of proximal development
• More scaffolding
• Those with difficulty in social interactions
  need this more
• Behavioral expectations are only appropriate
  when the behaviors is within the child’s ability
• UDL provide an excellent framework
       Cognitive Style Research
• Field Dependence and Field Independence
  – The degree to which an individual’s perceptual
    and cognitive judgments are influenced by the
    surrounding environment
     • Higher rates of field dependence among low
       socioeconomic groups
     • Higher rate of field independence among girls
       Cognitive Style Research
• Impulsivity and Reflectivity
  – The speed with which the individual reaches
    decisions and whether the individual things about
    the action before acting. The critical issue is not
    the actual speed of taking action but rather the
    presence or absence of an effective and
    deliberated process prior to acting.
                UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 1: Equitable Use
  – Teach the use of a variety of cognitive scaffolds for
    students’ use in learning how to perform cognitive
    tasks; students can then use them as needed
  – Posting cue cards/posters for common strategies
    can assist field dependent students complete
    learning task more confidently
                UDL In Action:
          Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 1: Flexibility in Use
   – Allowing some students to choose to use
     computers or calculators to reduce cognitive load
     of some learning tasks.
   – Provide a list of tasks to be completed by the
     students and then allow them to choose the order
     of completion.
                UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 3: Simple and Intuitive
  – Using clear examples and nonexamples helps all
    students build strong cognitive structures in long-
    term memory.
  – Teaching the use of graphic organizers helps
    scaffold tasks for learners, extablishign strategies
    for doing common cognitive tasks.
               UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 4: Perceptible Information
  – Providing instruction in a variety of modalities
    allows students to depend on their stronger
    sensory register channel while supplementing it
    with a weaker channel.
               UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 5: Tolerance of Error
  – Monitoring students engaged in learning tasks,
    and providing additional coaching/scaffolding for
    those who do not develop learning strategies on
    their own
  – Modeling the completion of the cognitive task
    allows the teacher to correct misconceptions
    students may not have even realized they had.
               UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 6: Low Physical Effort
  – Having computers available for drill and practice
    reduces the effort needed to learn basic skills
  – Using note sheets to go along with the PowerPoint
    or lectures allows students to follow along with
    the lesson without losing focus on the key points
    by reducing the need to write less meaningful
    sentences and words
               UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 7: Size and Space for Approach Use
  – Because learning begins with the student taking in
    sensory stimuli through the sensory register,
    ensure that all students can see and hear
    instructional presentations.
• Principle 8: A Community of Learners
  – Group students heterogeneously in cooperative
    learning groups to accomplish cognitive tasks
    allows students with ineffective learning strategies
    to model strategies uses by more effective
                UDL In Action:
         Supporting Cognitive Learning
• Principle 9: Instructional Climate
  – Clearly identifying the objective for learning
    assists all students in focusing and sustaining