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					 KARNATAKA STATE HIGHWAYS IMPROVEMENT PROJECT - II

    CONSULTANCY SERVICES FOR PREPARATION OF DETAILED PROJECT
  REPORT, BID DOCUMENTS AND ASSOCIATED SAFEGUARD INSTRUMENTS
                       ADB FUNDED ROADS


     INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION – T 13 & T 17
                     ADB FUNDED ROADS




                                                   Prepared for:
                                                Govt of Karnataka
                                                Public Works Dept.
                                                  (PIU, KSHIP)

                                                 September 2010




SCOTT WILSON LTD. UK (in JV with)
SCOTT WILSON INDIA PVT. LTD.
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                                                                         Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                                                               Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17

TABLE OF CONTENTS
E   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................ 1
  E1      Project background: ................................................................................................................................ 1
  E2      Scope of Works....................................................................................................................................... 1
  E3      Improvement proposal ............................................................................................................................ 1
  E4      Key Environmental Laws & Policies: ..................................................................................................... 1
  E5      Applicability of EIA Notification 2006 and ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement 2009 ......................... 2
  E6      Clearances required for the project: ........................................................................................................ 2
  E7      Baseline Environment: ............................................................................................................................ 3
  E8      Analysis of Alternatives: ........................................................................................................................ 3
  E9      Anticipated environmental impacts and mitigation measures: ............................................................... 4
  E10 Stakeholder Consultation: ....................................................................................................................... 6
  E11 Environmental Management Plan: .......................................................................................................... 6
1   INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 1
  1.1     Project Background ................................................................................................................................ 1
  1.2     Objectives of the Study: .......................................................................................................................... 2
  1.3     Extent of IEE .......................................................................................................................................... 2
  1.4     Methodology ........................................................................................................................................... 2
  1.5     IEE Content ............................................................................................................................................ 3
  1.6     Organisational structure of Project Implementation Unit (PIU) ............................................................. 3
2   DESCRIPTION OF SUB-PROJECT ............................................................................................................. 5
  2.1     Sub-Project Location .............................................................................................................................. 5
     2.1.1     Scope of Works ............................................................................................................................... 5
     2.1.2     Improvement proposal .................................................................................................................... 5
     2.1.3     Corridor of Impact (CoI) and Right of Way (RoW) ........................................................................ 5
     2.1.4     Traffic Details per Route ................................................................................................................ 7
     2.1.5     Alignment and Profile ..................................................................................................................... 7
     2.1.6     Realignments and Bypasses ............................................................................................................ 7
     2.1.7     Major and minor junctions ............................................................................................................. 7
     2.1.8     Road Construction Materials .......................................................................................................... 7
     2.1.9     Street Furniture .............................................................................................................................. 8
     2.1.10 Bus Lay-bays................................................................................................................................... 8
     2.1.11 Constructions and replacement of bridges and culverts ................................................................. 8
     2.1.12 Railway Crossing: .......................................................................................................................... 9
     2.1.13 Design Cross Sections and Road widening and improvements: ..................................................... 9
  2.2     Schedule for Implementation ................................................................................................................ 12
3   POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATION FRAMEWORK ................................................................. 13
  3.1     Policies and Regulatory Framework of the Government of India......................................................... 13
     3.1.1     Constitutional Provisions ............................................................................................................. 13
     3.1.2     Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974: .............................................................. 13
     3.1.3     Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 .................................................................... 13
     3.1.4     The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 ...................................................................................... 13
     3.1.5     EIA Notification (September 2006 and February 2009): .............................................................. 14
     3.1.6     Interpretation and applicability of EIA Notification, 2006 for subproject road:.......................... 14
     3.1.7     Environmental Clearance Process ............................................................................................... 15
     3.1.8     The Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 ................................................ 16
     3.1.9     Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 ........................................................................................................ 17
     3.1.10 The Indian Forest Act, 1927 ......................................................................................................... 17
     3.1.11 Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 (as amended in 1988) ............................................................... 17
     3.1.12 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 .................................. 18
     3.1.13 Fly Ash Notification, 1999 ............................................................................................................ 18
     3.1.14 Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 ............................................................................................ 18
     3.1.15 The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 ....................................................................................................... 18
  3.2     Asian Development Bank’s Safeguard Policy Statement (June 2009) ................................................. 19
  3.3     Administrative Framework: .................................................................................................................. 19
     3.3.1     Ministry of Environment and Forest ............................................................................................. 19
     3.3.2     Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), ................................................................................... 19
     3.3.3     Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB), ................................................................... 19
     3.3.4     The Environmental Management Plan Implementation Unit (EMPIU) ....................................... 20
  3.4     Other Environmental Guidelines and Norms ........................................................................................ 20


Executive Summary                                                             i                                                                    Scott Wilson
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                                                                          Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                                                                Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17
  3.5     Clearances required for the subproject ................................................................................................. 20
4   DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................... 22
  4.1     Physical Environment ........................................................................................................................... 22
     4.1.1     Physiography and relief ................................................................................................................ 22
     4.1.2     Climate.......................................................................................................................................... 22
     4.1.3     Rainfall ......................................................................................................................................... 22
     4.1.4     Temperature .................................................................................................................................. 23
     4.1.5     Wind Intensity and Direction ........................................................................................................ 23
     4.1.6     Monitoring of Environmental attributes ....................................................................................... 24
     4.1.7     Water Resources ........................................................................................................................... 24
     4.1.8     Hydrogeology ............................................................................................................................... 25
     4.1.9     Geology ......................................................................................................................................... 25
     4.1.10 Soils .............................................................................................................................................. 25
  4.2     Land use pattern .................................................................................................................................... 26
     4.2.1     Agriculture and cropping pattern ................................................................................................. 26
  4.3     Biological Component .......................................................................................................................... 26
     4.3.1     Fauna ............................................................................................................................................ 26
     4.3.2     Flora ............................................................................................................................................. 27
     4.3.3     National parks .............................................................................................................................. 27
  4.4     Social Environment .............................................................................................................................. 27
     4.4.1     Demographic Features ................................................................................................................. 27
     4.4.2     Occupational Pattern .................................................................................................................... 28
     4.4.3     Sites of Tourist and Archaeological Interest................................................................................. 28
5   ANALYSIS ALTERNATIVES .................................................................................................................... 29
  5.1     Introduction: ......................................................................................................................................... 29
  5.2     Project Alternatives .............................................................................................................................. 29
     5.2.1     No project scenario ....................................................................................................................... 29
     5.2.2     Project with alternatives ............................................................................................................... 30
     5.2.3     Project with mitigation measures ................................................................................................. 30
  5.3     Evaluation of project Alternatives: ....................................................................................................... 30
  5.4     Bypass alternatives ............................................................................................................................... 31
  5.5     Analysis of cross section type alternatives ........................................................................................... 31
  5.6     Preferred Alternative: ........................................................................................................................... 31
6   ANTICIPATED ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES .............................. 32
  6.1     Impact on Physical Environment .......................................................................................................... 32
     6.1.1     Climate.......................................................................................................................................... 32
     6.1.2     Natural Hazard ............................................................................................................................. 32
     6.1.3     Air quality ..................................................................................................................................... 33
     6.1.4     Noise ............................................................................................................................................. 35
     6.1.5     Impact on Soil and Land use ......................................................................................................... 37
        6.1.5.1 Loss of Productive Soil and Change in Land use ..................................................................... 37
        6.1.5.2 Soil Erosion .............................................................................................................................. 38
        6.1.5.3 Borrow areas and Quarries........................................................................................................ 38
        6.1.5.4 Compaction and contamination of Soil ..................................................................................... 39
     6.1.6     Impact on Ground water ............................................................................................................... 40
     6.1.7     Impact on surface water bodies .................................................................................................... 41
     6.1.8     Impact on Hydrology and Drainage ............................................................................................. 42
  6.2     Impact on Biological Environment ....................................................................................................... 43
     6.2.1     Terrestrial Ecology ....................................................................................................................... 43
     6.2.2     Aquatic Ecology ............................................................................................................................ 45
  6.3     Management of Construction Debris/Waste ......................................................................................... 45
  6.4     Socio-Economic Impact ........................................................................................................................ 46
     6.4.1     Positive Impacts ............................................................................................................................ 46
     6.4.2     Negative Impacts .......................................................................................................................... 47
  6.5     Impacts due to Construction Camp and Immigration of Workers ........................................................ 47
  6.6     Impact on Safety and Health of Construction Workers and Accident Risk to Local Communities ..... 48
     6.6.1     Impacts on Occupational Health and Safety ................................................................................. 48
     6.6.2     Impacts on Community Health and Safety .................................................................................... 50
7   STAKE HOLDER CONSULTATIONS ...................................................................................................... 52
  7.1     Type of Consultations conducted.......................................................................................................... 52



Executive Summary                                                             ii                                                                   Scott Wilson
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                                                                     Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                                                           Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17
  7.2     Consultation during Environmental Screening ..................................................................................... 52
  7.3     Major findings of consultations ............................................................................................................ 53
  7.4     Follow-up consultations ........................................................................................................................ 54
8   ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ........................................................................................... 55
  8.1     Environmental Management Plan ......................................................................................................... 55
  8.2     Other Mitigation Plans .......................................................................................................................... 86
     8.2.1      Resettlement Plan ......................................................................................................................... 86
     8.2.2      Emergency Response Plan ............................................................................................................ 86
     8.2.3      Construction Water Management Plan......................................................................................... 86
  8.3     Grievance Redressal Mechanism .......................................................................................................... 86
  8.4     Environmental Monitoring programme ................................................................................................ 87
  8.5     Performance indicators ......................................................................................................................... 89
  8.6     Reporting system .................................................................................................................................. 91
  8.7     INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS .............................................................................................. 94
  8.8     Institutional Capacity Building ............................................................................................................. 95
     8.8.1      Training Components: .................................................................................................................. 96
     8.8.2      Training Programme: ................................................................................................................... 96
  8.9     ENVIRONMENTAL BUDGETARY PROVISIONS .......................................................................... 97
9   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................... 101

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1: Details of ADB funded Subproject roads under KSHIP II. ................................................................... 1
Table 2-1: Present and projected traffic by vehicle types along the subproject road (in Nos.) ............................... 7
Table 2-2: Details on realignments/bypasses of the subproject road ...................................................................... 7
Table 2-3: Details of road construction materials and their locations..................................................................... 8
Table 2-4: Details on treatment proposals for culverts of the subproject roads (Nos.) ........................................... 9
Table 2-5: Details on treatment proposals for bridges of the subproject roads (Nos.)............................................ 9
Table 2-6: Guiding Parameters for up gradation of Road in project area ............................................................... 9
Table 3-1: List of clearances required for the subproject ..................................................................................... 20
Table 4-1: The normal and actual average rainfall (in mm) in the project enroute............................................... 23
Table 4-2: Average Mean Maximum and Mean Minimum Temperature ( 0 C) of the Project Area ..................... 23
Table 4-3: Water Contours and water Yield ......................................................................................................... 25
Table 4-4: Demographic features of the Study Area ............................................................................................ 28
Table 4-5: Workforce in project area .................................................................................................................... 28
Table 5-1: Various alternatives of the project....................................................................................................... 30
Table 5-2: Cross sectional alternatives considered in the subproject. .................................................................. 31
Table 6-1: Flood prone areas along subproject ..................................................................................................... 33
Table 6-2: Emission factors of different vehicles (g/Km) .................................................................................... 34
Table 6-3: Pollution load of pollutants along the project routes (in Tons/Km) .................................................... 35
Table 6-4: Noise sensitive locations along the subproject .................................................................................... 36
Table 6-5: Noise level (in dB (A)) due to Traffic along the project Road links ................................................... 36
Table 6-6: Water supply sources likely affected link wise in the project area (in Nos.) ...................................... 41
Table 6-7: Girth wise likely impact on avenue trees (in Nos.) ............................................................................. 43
Table 6-8: List of utilities being affected by the proposed roads (in Nos.) ........................................................... 47
Table 6-9: The Religious and cultural structures under impact in the project area (in Nos.) ............................... 47
Table 6-10: The Community structure under impact in the project area (in Nos.) ............................................... 47
Table 7-1: Major findings of consultations - T13 – Jagalur – NH 13 ................................................................... 53
Table 8-1: Environmental Management Plan (Part-A) ......................................................................................... 56
Table 8-2: Environmental Management Plan – Bridges (Part-B) ......................................................................... 77
Table 8-3: Environmental monitoring for Air, Water, Noise and Soil ................................................................. 88
Table 8-4: Performance Indicators and monitoring plan ...................................................................................... 89
Table 8-5: Reporting System ................................................................................................................................ 92
Table 8-6: Summary Details of Reporting Formats .............................................................................................. 92
Table 8-7: Training Modules for Environmental Management ............................................................................ 96
Table 8-8 : Bill of Quantities for Implementation of Environmental Management Action Plan to be executed
under Civil Works Contract ................................................................................................................................. 97
Table 8-9: Bill of Quantities for Environmental Management Action Plan - Mandatory Works to be
implemented by Government Departments/ agencies as per regulatory requirements......................................... 99




Executive Summary                                                          iii                                                                 Scott Wilson
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                                                         Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                                               Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1: Organisation Structure of Project Implementation Unit (PIU) ........................................................... 4
Figure 2-1: Geographical location of the subproject roads ..................................................................................... 6
Figure 2-2: The rural and urban cross sections of the road in the proposed subproject road ................................ 10
Figure 2-3: Implementation schedule of the subproject road................................................................................ 12
Figure 3-1: The procedure for obtaining environmental clearance ....................................................................... 16
Figure 4-1: Wind-rose Bellary Meteorological Station ........................................................................................ 24
Figure 8-1: Relationship among Environmental Specialist of CSC, KSHIP and the contractor .......................... 95


ANNEXURE
ANNEX 1: PHYSIOGRAPHY OF THE PROJECT AREA .............................................................................. 102
ANNEX 2: CLIMATIC CONDITION OF THE PROJECT AREA. ................................................................. 103
ANNEX 3: DRAINAGE AND RIVER BASINS OF THE PROJECT AREA ................................................. 104
ANNEX 4: IRRIGATION AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE PROJECT AREA .......................................... 105
ANNEX 5: ROCKS AND MINERALS IN THE PROJECT AREA. ................................................................ 106
ANNEX 6: SOIL TYPE OF THE PROJECT AREA ......................................................................................... 107
ANNEX 7: GENERAL LAND USE AND CROPPING PATTERN OF THE PROJECT AREA. .................... 108
ANNEX 8: FORESTLAND TYPE IN THE PROJECT AREA. ........................................................................ 109
ANNEX 9: RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (REA) CHECKLIST –ROADS and HIGHWAYS 110




Executive Summary                                                   iv                                                            Scott Wilson
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                        Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                              Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17

E    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
E1     Project background:
The Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project (KSHIP) is an initiative by the Public Works
Department (PWD) of the Government of Karnataka (GoK), to undertake improvement of roads
consisting of State Highways (SH) and Major District Roads (MDR). These roads were selected on
the basis of a Strategic Option Study (SOS) carried out in 2003. Total stretch of 615.03 km of State
Highways and MDRs has been considered for up-gradation under the assistance of ADB funding. The
proposed project roads constitute nine project corridors (Sub-projects) that are spread across the state
of Karnataka. The project is scheduled to be taken up for implementation in 2011 at the total
estimated cost of Rs. 13,619 million. Initial Environmental Examination report has been prepared to
address those stipulations fully and comprehensibly for up-gradation of project corridor T 13 & 17
covering a road length of 9.25 and 5.13 km stretching from Jagalur - NH-13 and Molkalmur - SH 19
respectively in the districts of Davanagere and Chithradurga of Karnataka state. The Environmental
Assessment (Initial Environmental Examination) for the project corridor is done as per the EIA
Notification, 2006 by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), GoI as well as Asian
Development Bank’s Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS), June 2009.
E2     Scope of Works
The scope of works involve Up-gradation works of improving existing single-lane and intermediate
lane roads to 12m roadway with standard 2-lane 7m carriageway and alignment improvements to
relevant IRC standards and other associated road and bridge works including improvement of major
and minor bridges, culverts, road intersections, drains, road geometrics and road furniture.
E3     Improvement proposal
The improvement proposal for the project includes up-gradation of existing carriageway. The main
elements of the construction processes are given below.
Up-gradation: Widening & Strengthening (including raising of embankment): The elements are:
            Remove high shoulders & grub out bushes (some trees may get removed);
            Remove existing pavement and widening to the required width;
            Raise existing embankment where ever the possibility of seepage across the road line
             exists; presence or likelihood of field irrigation close to the road and where nature of soil
             is expansive in nature;
            Widen road formation to the required width depending on the cross section types;
            Construct new wider pavement with paved or unpaved shoulder, including surfacing and
             providing footpaths, ditches and drains, covered drains wherever necessary.
            The up-gradation works also include geometric improvements, structural improvements,
             repair/construction of bridges and culverts, junction improvements, etc.
E4     Key Environmental Laws & Policies:
The Constitutional Provisions like Article 48 and 51-A (g) and 74th Amendment to the Constitution
serve as principle guidelines of environmental protection. Further Regulations, Acts, Policies
applicable to sustainability and environmental protection are as follows.
         -      EIA Notification, September 2006 & February 2009
         -      The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
         -      The Water (Prevention and Control) Act, 1974


Executive Summary                                     1                                        Scott Wilson
 Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                               Detailed Project Report
 Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                     Volume IV – IEE Report
 and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17

          -      The Air (Prevention and Control) Act, 1981
          -      The Indian Forest Act, 1927
          -      The Karnataka Forest Act, 1963
          -      The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 (as amended in 1988)
          -      The Forest Conservation Rules, 1981
          -      The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
          -      The Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989
          -      National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995
          -      National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997
          -      The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958
          -      Town and Country Planning Act, 1976
          -      The Motor Vehicles Act 1988
          -      Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
          -      Coastal Regulation Zones Act
          -      The Factories Act 1956
 The other guidelines and norms related to road construction by Indian Road Congress that help for
 environmental protection include, IRC: 104-1988, IRC: 36-1974, IRC: 10-1961, IRC: 36-1970, IRC:
 43-1972, IRC: 72-1978, IRC: 33-1982, etc.
 E5     Applicability of EIA Notification 2006 and ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement 2009
 The Jagalur - NH-13 and Molkalmur - SH 19 sub-projects are the up-gradation (expansion) of existing
 state highway project having a length of less than 30 km and involving additional right of way less
 than 20 m involving land acquisition is not under the purview of MoEF’s EIA Notification, 2006 and
 the projects do not require Environmental Clearance. As per ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement, the
 subproject roads T 13 and 17 have been categorized as Category ‘B’ project and requires Initial
 Environmental Examination.
 E6     Clearances required for the project:
 After reviewing the various applicable acts and statutes, as mentioned above, it is suggested that some
 clearances and permission are required for the project. A summary of clearances required for the
 present project is shown in the following table.
Sl.                                  Authority Granting           When
              Subject                                                                        Remarks
No.                                      Clearance               required
 1    Environmental                State    Environmental     Before            Ssub-project is not under the
      Clearance                    Appraisal Committee,       Construction      purview of EIA Notification 2006.
                                   GoK.
2     Tree cutting permission.     Department of Forest,      Before            KSHIP’s responsibility. Application
                                   GoK                        Construction      for tree cutting clearance has been
                                                                                submitted on 3rd August 2010.
3     Consents under Water         Karnataka          State   Before            KSHIP’s responsibility.
      (P&CP) Act, 1974 &           Pollution Control Board    Construction      Consents have been obtained vide
      Air (P&CP) Act,              (KSPCB), Bangalore                           letter no. PCB/05/CNP/09/558 dated
                                                                                29th January 2010.
4     Permit for installation of   KSPCB                      Before            Contractor’s responsibility.
      crusher                                                 Construction
5     No Objection Certificate     KSPCB, Inspectors of       Before            Contractor’s responsibility.
      (NOC) for batching           Factories                  Construction
      plant
6     Clearance              for   KSPCB                      Before            Contractor’s responsibility.
      establishing      Asphalt                               Construction
      Plant


 Executive Summary                                      2                                              Scott Wilson
 Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                                 Detailed Project Report
 Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                       Volume IV – IEE Report
 and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17
Sl.                                 Authority Granting            When
               Subject                                                                         Remarks
No.                                      Clearance              required
 7    Installation of             Karnataka Electricity      Before              Contractor’s responsibility.
      Generators                  company of respective      Installation
                                  regions
8     Clearance for excavation    Department of Mines &      Before              Contractor’s responsibility.
      & transporting soil         Geology/ Local Bodies      Quarrying
9     Permission for              Department of Mines &      Before              If the extraction of boulder is being
      extraction of boulder       Geology. Government        Quarrying           procured      from      the     existing
                                  of Karnataka                                   quarry/supplier, it shall be ensured
                                                                                 that, requisite license/ lease has been
                                                                                 obtained from the concerned
                                                                                 Authority.
10    Permission for              Department of Mines &      Before              If the extraction of sand is being
      extraction of sand          Geology. Government        Quarrying           procured from the existing sand
                                  of Karnataka                                   quarry/supplier, it shall be ensured
                                                                                 that requisite license/lease has been
                                                                                 obtained from the concerned
                                                                                 Authority.
11    License for storing         Commissioner of            During              Contractor’s responsibility.
      diesel                      Explosives & KSPCB         Construction
12    Labour camps                District Health Officer    During              Contractor’s responsibility.
                                                             Construction
13    Clearance for crossing      Irrigation Department,     During              Contractor’s responsibility.
      other waterways             Government of              Construction at
                                  Karnataka                  the specific site
14    If water has to be taken    Concerned Water            During              Contractor’s responsibility.
      from river / Reservoir      Authority                  Construction at
                                                             the specific site
 E7      Baseline Environment:
 Information on baseline environment was collected from secondary sources of data for the macro
 environmental parameters like climate, physiography (geology and geomorphology), biological and
 socio-economic environment of the project influence area. The micro-environmental details within the
 Corridor of Impact (CoI) have been collected from primary source of data such as base maps prepared
 by reconnaissance survey, extrapolation of environmental features on the proposed design, tree
 enumeration, analysis for environmental attributes along the project road.
 E8      Analysis of Alternatives:
 The subproject road is an existing State Highway with very limited alignment alternatives for
 selection. However analysis of alternatives have been done for bypasses, realignments, cross section
 types and construction materials alternatives to avoid the places of congestion, human settlements,
 environmentally sensitive areas, different construction materials etc. keeping in view traffic condition,
 obligatory points, geometric designs, congestions and socio economic viability and other
 environmental aspects of the region. There are no bypasses considered along the sub-project. Four
 cross section types have been considered for various stretches of the subproject. Discussion also
 includes consideration of alternatives such as no project scenario; project with alternatives and project
 with mitigation measures and alternatives Project with alternatives and project with mitigation
 measures were found acceptable. Following cross section type alternatives have been considered for
 the subproject.
                  C/S Type                                  Description
                   UR1A          Rural cross-section
                   UR1B          Rural cross-section
                    UR2          Rural cross-section (Through Village)


 Executive Summary                                     3                                                 Scott Wilson
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                      Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                            Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads - Corridor T 13 & 17
                C/S Type                                    Description
                  UR7          Rural cross section in cutting
E9     Anticipated environmental impacts and mitigation measures:
Some of the significant environmental impacts of Jagalur to NH-13 and Molkalmur to SH 19
subproject road on the natural environment and nearby communities are discussed in the section.
These impacts could be largely mitigated through engineering designs, good construction practices
accompanied by a site specific mitigation measures.
Though no change in the macro-climatic parameters (precipitation, temperature and wind) is
envisaged due to the subproject, cutting of approximately roadside trees, laying of paved surface and
other construction activities temporarily modify the microclimate.
There would be an increase in daytime temperature near the newly paved surfaces of the road due to
increase in the surface area of blacktop of widened road. This impact shall be mitigated by planting
rows of avenue plantations.
Raising of embankment height and improvement of both longitudinal and cross drainage shall be done
to avoid flooding of flood prone section. Run off water recharge pits shall be constructed to facilitate
the infiltration of runoff water into the ground.
Air quality along the subproject road alignment; congested major settlements locations like Jagalur,
Molkalmur and at construction establishments such as batching plants, hot mix plants, crushers, etc.
will be adversely impacted temporarily during construction activities. Asphalt plants, crushers and
batching plants shall be sited at least 1 km in the downwind direction from the nearest human
settlement. Vehicles delivering loose and fine materials like sand and fine aggregates shall be covered
to reduce spills on existing roads. Water will be sprayed on earthworks, temporary haulage and detour
roads on a regular basis. The hot mix plants will be fitted with dust extraction units and
cyclones/scrubbers to reduce exhaust gases.
There will be gradual enhancement of air pollution due to increase in number of vehicles on the
improved roads. Avenue and median plantation along the road sides and medians respectively should
help to control dust and fugitive emissions by operating vehicles from reaching the receptors.
The impacts on noise due to the project will be of significance in both the construction as well as the
operation stages. The community abutting subproject road and construction establishments will be
adversely affected by increase in noise level due to operating equipments and construction activities
of subproject road. All mitigation measures such as use of enclosures, walls, installation of mufflers
around noisy equipment; substituting quieter equipment or construction methods; timing of noisier
construction and demolition activities; providing Personnel Protective Equipments (PPE) to the
workers; locating construction establishments away from sensitive receptors; construction of noise
barriers at sensitive receptors; etc.
Soil compaction and contamination is envisaged at locations such as construction camp, labour camp,
concrete batching plant, hot mix plants, borrow areas, quarries and along access roads to these
construction establishments. Soil erosion is anticipated at bridge and culvert    construction sites.
The major land use in the project area is agriculture and some stretches of the subproject constitutes
built up areas /settlements at Jagalur and Molkalmur having active commercial and economic activity
along the roadside. The agricultural and commercial activities will be disturbed temporarily during
construction phase. As part of mitigation measures top soil shall be preserved and back filled after the
rehabilitation of quarry/burrow areas Natural geographical contours and natural landscape shall be


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preserved and maintained. If haulage roads are inevitable on productive agricultural land, it shall be
reclaimed to the original nature after the completion of construction activity. All construction
establishments such as construction camps, labour camps, and material storage areas shall be
rehabilitated to the original condition after the completion of construction work. Domestic solid waste
from construction and labour camps shall be segregated into biodegradable and non biodegradable
before being sent to treatment. Biodegradable wastes are treated by composting and non
biodegradable wastes are either recycled or disposed off to authorised land fill site.
Paved surface of the road will reduce the percolation of runoff water and decreases the ground water
recharge. Ground water recharge pits shall be provided at suitable intervals to facilitate the recharge of
runoff water in to the ground to counter the impact of decreased percolation and increased runoff from
the paved surface of the subproject road.
There is ChinnaHagari river (T13) and four ponds in the impact zone which are impacted temporarily
during construction of road embankments, cuts and fills, construction of cross drainage structures
temporarily increases the silt inflow to the surface water bodies affecting the aquatic ecology of the
water bodies. Some of the water supply units adjacent to subproject road within proposed RoW will
be impacted. Waste water generated at the construction camps and labour camps will pollute the
surface water bodies if disposed untreated. The impact on surface water bodies and other water supply
resources shall be mitigated by constructing cross drainage structures during the lean flow periods of
summer to minimize the impacts and provision for silt traps made at regular intervals, especially at
major cross drainage structures to trap the silt before it reaches the water bodies. All the water
resources and water supply connections such as bore wells, taps, water cisterns, pipelines, etc. being
impacted by the project shall be relocated before the construction starts. All liquid wastes generated
from the construction camp and labour camp shall be treated to meet the prescribed norms before
disposal.
Total of 716 trees are impacted due to the project. Rows of approximately 2,876 avenue trees shall be
planted on both sides of the subproject for the entire length of sub project road.
Road projects aim to improve urban and rural area connectivity, which in turn will improve economic
and social welfare of rural communities by improved access of rural communities to markets, jobs,
and education and health services. Tourism of the region will be boosted contributing to the local
economic activities. Good roads reduce travel time, fuel consumption and pollutants emitted by the
operating vehicles.
A variety of utilities serving the regional needs like electric poles, electric transformers, telephone
poles, telephone junction boxes which are within impact zone shall be impacted. Some of the religious
structures such as temples, mosque, church, shrines, arali kattes and community structures such as
schools, hospitals, bus shelters, etc. along subproject road are impacted directly or indirectly.
Mitigation measures include shifting of all utilities before the start of construction; relocation of
religious and community structures after consulting the public.
During construction of roads there will be major or minor accidents envisaged by lack of knowledge
on handling of new equipments, workers functioning without proper personal protective equipment
and without possessing first aid facilities at work sites. Workers at construction and batching plants
shall be compulsorily equipped with personal protective equipments along with first aid facilities for
all the construction workers. Periodical health check-up of the workers are to be arranged by the
contactors to ensure good health for workers. Implementation of road safety plan during project
implementation is an important mitigation measure. Labour camp shall not be located within 1000m


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of major habitations to avoid disease outbreak and communicable diseases. Arrangement for storage
and supply of potable water shall be made to the workers.
During construction it is usual that the operating traffic will be affected to some extent and near by
public and commuting transportation will suffer the inconvenience, additional time, cost and distance.
Contractor shall at all times carry out construction work on the road in manner creating least
interference to the free flow of traffic as per the approved Traffic Management Plan for the diversion
of traffic on the subproject road.
Significant positive and negative impacts due to project are summarized in the following impact
matrix.
                                              Physical          Biological
                                                                               Geology
                                            Environment        Environment                       Topo-
         Environmental Attributes
                                                                      Natural                   graphy
                                          Air Water Noise Flora Fauna                  Soil
                                                                      Drainage
     I. Construction Phase
     Labour Camp Activities                 -ve/t
     Quarrying                       -ve/t          -ve/t -ve/t                -ve/t    -ve/p   -ve/p
     Material Transport & Storage    -ve/t -ve/t -ve/t -ve/t                   -ve/t    -ve/t
     Drilling and Blasting           -ve/t          -ve/t -ve/t                                 -ve/p
     Pavement works                  -ve/t -ve/t -ve/t -ve/t -ve/t             -ve/p    -ve/t   -ve/p
     Use of Construction Equipment -ve/t -ve/t -ve/t
     Cutting of Trees                                      -ve/p
     Plantation                      +ve/p         +ve/p +ve/p                          +ve/p
     Culvert and Bridge Construction        -ve/t -ve/t                        -ve/p
     Stripping of Topsoil                                  -ve/t               -ve/t    -ve/t
     Debris Generation               -ve/t -ve/t                               -ve/t    -ve/t
     Oil and Grease                         -ve/t                                       -ve/t
     II. Operational Phase
     Vehicular Movement              +ve/p         +ve/t +ve/t -ve/p
Note: t – Temporary; p- Permanent; Impacts indicated in bold letters are Significant Impacts.
E10 Stakeholder Consultation:
Consultations during feasibility studies and environmental assessment stage have been conducted with
the objective of involving local communities in the project planning (participatory planning). Many a
times, suggestions and options given by people improves technical and economic efficiency of the
project. Execution of suggested improvement from stakeholders also generates the sense of ownership
among the communities of the region and eases the implementation process. Consultations are usually
conducted with a sample section of the community with a good representation from the affected
communities.
E11 Environmental Management Plan:
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) deals with the implementation procedure of the guidelines
and mitigation measures recommended to avoid, minimize and mitigate foreseen environmental
impacts of the project. The implementation of environmental management plan needs suitable
organization set up and the success of any environmental management plan depends on the efficiency
of the group responsible for implementation of the programme. It is proposed to carryout regular
environmental monitoring to provide information to the management for periodic review and
alternation of the environmental management plan as necessary so as to ensure that environmental
protection is optimized at all stages of the mining



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Environmental monitoring is an essential component for sustainability of any developmental project.
It is an integral part of any environmental assessment process. The monitoring programme consists of
performance indicators, reporting formats and necessary budgetary provision. For each of the
environmental condition indicators, the monitoring plan specifies the parameters to be monitored,
location of the monitoring sites, frequency and duration of monitoring. The monitoring plan also
specifies the applicable standards, implementation and supervising responsibilities. The monitoring
will be carried out by PIU through the approved agency and will be supervised by the Environmental
Experts of the Construction Supervision Consultants and PIU.
Environmental Management Plan Implementation Unit (EMPIU) constituted under KSHIP with the
assistance of the Environmental Specialist of Project Design and Environmental Officer (EO) of the
CSC is responsible for implementing all environmental monitoring and management works during
implementation of road improvement project to achieve certain level of quality in the project and
ensure that all statutory requirements are met during the project implementation. Organizational setup
for PIU and EMPIU is illustrated in the Figure 1.1.
The engineering staff of PIU, supervision consultancy and the contractor who would be responsible
for the implementation of the EMP, need to be trained on environmental issues of specific road
development project. Suitable training programmes have been worked out for the project as well as
capacity building needs. The programme consists of a number of training modules specific to target
groups. Looking into the potential requirements of each of the target groups, several training modules
have been planned. The training would cover the basic principles and postulates of environmental
assessment and mitigation plans; implementation techniques; monitoring and management methods
and tools.
The budgetary provision for the implementing EMP of the road project has been made in 2 parts
based on the responsibility of the execution.
The Part ‘A’ works to be undertaken has been quantified and quantities included in the respective
BOQ items in the civil works contract packages. These cover items such as safe disposal of
unserviceable materials with suitable top soil treatment; dust mitigation during construction phase;
recharge pits; silt fencing; sign boards for tourist and ecologically sensitive areas if any; safe disposal
of scarified bitumen in clay lined pits; construction of noise barriers for silent receptors; monitoring of
air, water, noise and soil qualities; oil interceptors; personal protective equipments for labourers, etc.
Part ‘B’ works of redevelopment of oxbow lands and other leftover lands; raising median plantations;
compensatory plantation; compensatory provisions in terms of Net Present Value (NPV) for diverted
forest lands, if any; providing environmental management training at all levels are discussed under
mandatory works to be implemented by Government Departments or other agencies as per the
regulatory requirements, as.
Cost for Part A & B works of EMP implementation are estimated and given in the following table.
                       Cost for Part A works        Cost for Part B works      Total cost in Rs.
       Sub project
                           of EMP (Rs.)                of EMP (Rs.)             (Part A + B)
        T 13 & 17            3,408,699                    4,907,092              8,315,791




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1      INTRODUCTION
1.1      Project Background
The Second Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project (KSHIP-II) is a part of the ongoing road
improvement programme in Karnataka State to support the growing economy and social development
programme. KSHIP-II is a continuation of the State’s earlier initiatives including World Bank assisted
KSHIP-I programme under which 2,406 km roads were improved, under the control of the Public
Works Department. The techno-economic feasibility study evaluated various types of improvement
works and established a priority ranking of 3,411 km of roads under subsequent improvement
programme of state roads. These roads were selected on the basis of a Strategic Option Study (SOS) 1
carried out in 2003. The objective of the SOS study was to formulate a policy for developing an
effective network of regional roads in the state.
Total length of 615.03 km State Highways and MDRs has been considered for up-gradation under the
assistance of ADB funding. The proposed project roads under the initiative “Karnataka State Highway
Improvement Project” (KSHIP) constitutes nine project corridors (Sub-projects) that are spread across
the state of Karnataka. The highway improvement project is scheduled to be taken up for
implementation in 2011 at the total estimated cost of Rs. 13,619 million. The proposed sub-projects
under KSHIP are given in the following table.
                     Table 1-1: Details of ADB funded Subproject roads under KSHIP II.
    Corridor     Link                                                           Length
                            SH No.                  Subproject road                               Districts
      No.         ID                                                             (km)
       21        21C           34        Saundatti – Ramdurg                     38.47    Belgaum             and
                                                                                          Bagalkot
                 21D           14        Ramdurg – Badami                        45.73
                  21E          14        Badami -Pattadakal                      23.72
                  21F    14 and MDR* Pattadakal – Kamatagi                       22.28
       27        27A           45        Shelwadi – Gadag                        30.54    Dharwad             and
                                                                                          Gadag
                 27B           45        Gadag - Mundaragi                       32.90
       31        31A           29        Mudagal – Tawaragere                    31.21    Raichur and Koppal
                 31B           29        Tawaragere – Gangavathi                 42.89
       42        42A           76        Davanagere – Channagiri                 53.63    Davanagere    and
                                                                                          Chikkamagalur
                 42B           76        Channagiri – Birur                      51.98
       48        48A            1        Padubidri – Karkala                     27.80    Udupi
       57        57A           84        Gubbi – Yediyur                         49.03    Tumkur              and
                                                                                          Mandya
                 57B           84        Yediyur - Kowdley                       26.43
                 57C           84        Kowdley - Mandya                        33.16
       64        64C            3        Magadi – NH 48                          13.88    Ramanagara,
                                                                                          Bangalore (Rural)
                 64D            3        NH 48 – Dobbespet                       19.90    and Tumkur
                  64E           3        Dobbespet – Koratagere                  33.89
      64H        64H            3        Pavagada – AP Border                    23.21    Tumkur
      T13         T13          45        Jagalur – NH-13                          9.25    Davanagere
      T17         T17          2        Molkalmur – SH 19                         5.13    Chithradurga
                               Total length (km)                                615.03
* MDR – Main District Road


1
    Strategic Option Study (SOS) was carried out by IDS cell headed by Mr. G. C. Tallur in 2003


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Public Works Department, Government of Karnataka has appointed M/s Scott Wilson India Pvt. Ltd.
as the Consultants and entrusted the work of preparing Detailed Project Report for the selected project
corridors up-gradation and major maintenance.
Environmental assessment has been carried out as per the statutory requirement of EIA Notification
dated 14th September 2006 of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India
(GoI) and as a part of requirement of ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS), 2009 and ADB’s
Environmental Assessment Guidelines, 2003.
The Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) presented below addresses those stipulations fully and
comprehensively for up-gradation of Subprojects T13 and T17 covering a road length of 9.25 and
5.13 km on SH 45 and SH 2 respectively. Subproject T13 stretches from Jagalur to NH 13 in
Davanagere district and T17 stretches from Molkalmur to SH 19 in Chitradurga district of Karnataka
state.
1.2       Objectives of the Study:
The main objective of the study are i) identify the impact of the subproject improvement on
environment and ii) alleviate the unsafe condition of the existing road connecting Jagalur to NH 13 on
SH 45 and Molkalmur to SH 19 on SH 2 by enhancing the capacity and quality of the road to the
users in a sustainable and environment friendly manner. MoEF, GoI, has enforced Environment
(Protection) Act 1986 and Notification on Environmental Impact Assessment dated 14th September
2006 and February 2009 to avoid, mitigate and prevent the environmental impact from various
projects or activities or expansion and modernization of existing projects. The IEE Report is prepared
in line with ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS), June 2009. The report attempts to identify,
predict and communicate information on impacts of the proposed subproject on the environment
along with mitigation and management measures for the indicated impacts.
1.3       Extent of IEE
IEE was conducted based on the feasibility studies. Study areas were delineated into two zones while
carrying out feasibility study namely the impact zone and the influence zone. The impact zone
extends to 50m either side of the road from the centreline covering an area of 100m width. All the
physical components such as rivers, hospitals and schools, industries, water supply units, productive
land, trees and other environmental features within this zone will be directly impacted by the road
improvement. The influence zone extends 7 Km (7000 m) on either side of the road from the
centreline covering the area of 14 km of width covering the construction establishments such as
batching plants hot mix plants, construction camps, labour camps, quarries etc. for the analysis of
impact on land use and other environmental features.
1.4       Methodology
The general methodology adopted to accomplish the Initial Environmental Examination includes:
          Review of legal and statutory requirements;
          Review of feasibility study;
          Preliminary reconnaissance to identity environmentally sensitive issues relating to the
           subproject and base line conditions;
          Collection of Primary and secondary data;
          Stakeholders Consultations;




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          Identify and assess the potential impacts of the subproject on the base line conditions and
           recommend mitigation measures to offset the identified adverse impacts;
          Formulate Environmental Management Plan including review of Institutional set up and
           Capacity Building.
1.5       IEE Content
IEE has been structured based on ADB’s Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS), 2009 and ADB’s
Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003) and consists of following chapters.
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Description of Subproject
Chapter 3 – Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework
Chapter 4 – Description of Environment
Chapter 5 – Analysis of Alternatives
Chapter 6 – Anticipated Impacts and Mitigation Measures
Chapter 7 - Stakeholders Consultation
Chapter 8 – Environmental Management Plan and Grievance Redressal Mechanism and
Chapter 9 – Conclusion and Recommendations
1.6       Organisational structure of Project Implementation Unit (PIU)
Project Implementation Unit is responsible for implementing the road improvement project to ensure
and achieve certain level of quality in the project, during implementation of subproject and in turn
will make sure that the statutory requirements are not violated during the pre construction,
construction and Operational (defect liability period) stages of the subproject. Organizational setup for
PIU and EMPIU is illustrated in the Figure 1.1.
The Chief Project Officer heads KSHIP. He will be responsible for the successful implementation of
the Subproject. The Chief engineer is also the Project Director in the KSHIP set up for the
implementation of the subproject. The project director (PD) is assisted by PIU, Environmental and
Social wings at the head office. Various sub units are functioning under PIU such as Environmental
Social Management Unit (ESMU); Environmental Management Plan Implementation Unit (EMPIU)
and Social Development Resettlement Cell (SDRC). The SDRC is headed by a Chief Administrative
Officer (CAO). The Project Director will be heading the overall functioning of the Environmental and
Social Management Unit (ESMU).
The Executive Engineers (EEs) and supporting staff as employer’s representatives nominated for the
subproject will be responsible for the implementation of the project under the divisions. The
Executive Engineer (Environment) and Social Development Officer of KSHIP will look after the
environmental and social issues during the project preparation, implementation and operation with the
assistance of the Environmental Specialist of Project Design and Environmental Officer (EO) of the
CSC.




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                                                 Figure 1-1: Organisation Structure of Project Implementation Unit (PIU)

                                                      PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION UNIT (PIU)

                                                                             Chief Project Officer


                                                                               Project Director


                                                                           Superintendant Engineers



                                          ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION UNIT (EMPIU)

                                                                     Executive Engineer                  Assistant Conservator of Forest
                               supervision                         Environmental Engineer
                                                                       (Environment)                      Assistant Conservator of Forest
                               Supervision
                               Consultants
                               Consultants                                                                                  Range Forest
                                                                                Documentation and
                                                                                                                              Officer
                                                                                    Training

                        Asst. Engineer               Asst. Exe.                                                               Forester
                           (Envt.)                Engineer (Envt.)




                                                                     Executive Engineers KSHIP Divisions
                                                                   Tumkur, Belguam, Raichur and Shimnoga


                           Asst.           Asst.               Asst.        Asst.
                         Engineer        Engineer            Engineer     Engineer               RFO,       RFO,           RFO,             RFO,
                          (Envt.)         (Envt.)             (Envt.)      (Envt.)              Tumkur     Belgaum        Raichur        Shimoga
                         Tumkur          Belgaum             Raichur       Shimoga




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2     DESCRIPTION OF SUB-PROJECT
2.1       Sub-Project Location
The proposed subprojects Jagalur to NH 13 on State highway 45 and Molkalmur to SH 19 on state
highway 2 lie in Davanagere and Chithradurga districts of Karnataka state provides vital connectivity
between the taluk head quarters (Jagalur and Molkalmuru) and the nearest national and state
highways. The roads traverse in East – West direction. Improvement of these subproject roads provide
for better level of service for commuters and movement of goods trucks in the region. Figure-2.1
shows the geographical location of the subproject road.
2.1.1      Scope of Works
The scope of works involve up-gradation works of improving existing single-lane and intermediate
lane roads to 12m roadway with standard 2-lane 7m carriageway and alignment improvements to
relevant IRC standards and other associated road and bridge works including improvement of major
and minor bridges, culverts, road intersections, drains, road geometrics and road furniture.
2.1.2      Improvement proposal
The improvement proposal includes up-gradation of existing carriageway. The main elements of the
up-gradation - widening and strengthening are:
          Remove high shoulders and grub out bushes (some trees may get removed);
          Remove existing pavement and widening to the required width;
          Raise existing embankment where ever the possibility of seepage across the road line exists;
           presence or likelihood of field irrigation close to the road and where nature of soil is
           expansive in nature;
          Widen road formation to the required width depending on the cross section types;
          Construct new wider pavement with paved or unpaved shoulder, including surfacing and
           providing footpaths, ditches and drains, covered drains wherever necessary.
2.1.3      Corridor of Impact (CoI) and Right of Way (RoW)
The proposed subproject road width varies from about 14.0 to 30.0 M depending on the typical road
cross-section types applied. In isolated instances where the embankment heights are significant, a
wider road width is necessary to accommodate the embankment height.
Existing RoW information is furnished by local PWD offices and it has been verified subsequently as
a part of social surveys and LA plan preparation. The available RoW is not consistent and varies
significantly along the length of the subproject route. The IRC recommended RoW for State
Highways is 45 and 30 m for open and built-up area respectively but clearly this is not available
throughout the length of the subproject road. Wherever the required width (CoI) for the proposed road
is not available, KSHIP is acquiring only the required width of land to limit the compensation cost
and in turn the project cost.




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                          Figure 2-1: Geographical location of the subproject roads




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2.1.4    Traffic Details per Route
The volume of present and projected vehicular traffic as of year 2009 is presented in Table-2.1 along
with the projection for the year 2015. The reason for not preparing any projection beyond year 2015 is
that any Environmental Assessment report is not considered valid by the MoEF beyond five years
without further review.
        Table 2-1: Present and projected traffic by vehicle types along the subproject road (in Nos.)
                             Two                      Three
 Link ID        Year                     Car                    LCV          Bus      Trucks        Total
                           wheeler                   wheeler
   T13          2009            591          212           85       105        191         117        1301
                2015            965          411          110       149        292         175        2103
                2009           2584          262         1334       149        233         152        4714
   T17
                2015           4263          587         1850       206        381         212        7499
*Traffic projections are based on the 2006 traffic survey data

2.1.5    Alignment and Profile
The visibility and stopping distance along the existing highway section are inadequate at many
stretches of the proposed subproject road. These deficiencies will be corrected for the stretches
identified. Longitudinal profile is determined by the proposed grade separators, raising of profile at
low lying areas and riding quality for the designed speed with respect to minimum requirements as
per the relevant IRC guidelines.
2.1.6    Realignments and Bypasses
Many sections of the subproject road are passing through small but congested villages. In case where
the RoW is not sufficient to improve the geometrics, traffic condition and human congestion,
possibility of realignment/bypass along the project route have been examined through field
verification and ascertained the need for the same. There are no bypasses considered for the proposed
subproject. Detail on realignments is given in Table 2.2.
                       Table 2-2: Details on realignments/bypasses of the subproject road
                  From (m)                 To (m)           Length (m)             Remarks
                                               Subproject – T13
                       9010                 9210                200           Minor realignment

2.1.7    Major and minor junctions
There are several major and minor junctions along the subproject road. Major junctions involved are
NHs, SHs and MDRs intersecting with the subproject road. Village and other roads intersecting with
subproject were considered as minor junctions. These junctions will be meticulously planned to
integrate with the development proposals for the subproject road.
2.1.8    Road Construction Materials
Rocks such as granite, gneiss, basalt, quartzite and sandstone are commonly used materials in the road
construction. Amongst these, granite, gneiss and massive basalt are suitable for all purposes. Murrum
and residual gravel are useful as sub-base, sub grade and shoulder material. Sand is utilised for
making concrete and lime plaster used in the construction. These sands get replenished each monsoon
on the river banks. Fly ash is relatively strong when compacted having compaction characteristics
similar to natural sand. The fly ash will be used in subproject roads which are within 100 km radius
from the thermal plants as per MoEF’s Fly Ash Notification, 1999 depending on its availability.
Asphalt will be prepared in hot mix plants with bitumen brought from Mangalore Port, Mumbai and
Chennai depending on the shortest lead to the proposed subproject road. Information on existing


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quarries and other sources of potential road construction materials have been collected during field
visits and from local offices of the Public Works Department of the project area. Details of road
construction materials and their locations for the proposed subproject road are in the Table 2.3.
                    Table 2-3: Details of road construction materials and their locations.
Sl No     Quarry No.                              Name of Quarries                           Chainage (Km)
                                                Subproject – T13
STONE METAL QUARRIES
                  Bangarigudda Granite Stone Metal Quarry is Available @ distance
 1.   QII-1B -208                                                                                 9+500
                  of 5.10Km from project Road.
                  Kanikuppe Gavimatha Granite Stone metal quarry is available at a
 2.   QII-1B -209                                                                                 0+00
                  distance of 8.0Km from project Road.
SAND QUARRIES
                  Locally available Nalla sand is available at a distance of 10Km
  1    SII-1B-112                                                                                 0+000
                  (LHS/RHS) from project Road.
                  Harihara (Tungabadhra) River sand Quarry is available at a
  2    SII-1B-113                                                                                 0+000
                  distance of 72.0 Km from Project Road.
                  Hagari River sand Quarry is available at a distance of 75.0 Km
  3    SII-1B-114                                                                                 9+250
                  from Project Road.
MURRUM BORROWPITS
                  Locally available Roadside murram borrow pit is available at a
  1   MII-1B-223                                                                                  1+500
                  distance of 0.10Km from project Road.
                  Locally available Roadside murram borrow pits is available at a
  2   MII-1B-224                                                                                  8+00
                  distance of 0.20Km from project Road.
                                      Subproject – T17
STONE METAL QUARRIES
                  Moralubande Granite stone quarry (Hanagal quarry) is Available
 1.   QII-1B -210                                                                                 5+60
                  @ distance of 2.50 Km from project Road.
SAND QUARRIES
                  Locally available Nalla sand is available at average lead of 10 km
  1    SII-1B-115                                                                             2+000,5+600
                  and 15 km From Project Road
                  Hagari River sand Quarry is available at distance of 29 km from
  2    SII-1B-116                                                                                 5+600
                  SH-2, of Project Road.
MURRUM BORROWPITS
                  Locally available Roadside murram borrow pit is available at a
  1   MII-1B-225                                                                                  4+900
                  distance of 0.20Km from project Road.
                  Locally available Roadside murram borrow pit is available at a
  2   MII-1B-226                                                                                  3+000
                  distance of 0.20Km from project Road.

2.1.9    Street Furniture
Adequate road furniture comprising of road markings, cautionary, mandatory and informatory signs;
delineators and object markers; reflective pavement markers; guard posts and crash barriers; road
humps and rumble strips have been proposed at appropriate locations for the safety of road users as
per the guidelines stipulated in relevant IRC codes keeping in view the site requirements.
2.1.10 Bus Lay-bays
Bus lay-byes have been proposed for each village or built up locations along the subproject road. Bus
bays have been positioned in straight and level sections of the road and visible from a long distance in
both directions and as per the recommendations of IRC: 80-1981. Details of bus bays along the
proposed subproject roads are given in Main report.
2.1.11 Constructions and replacement of bridges and culverts
All the hydraulic data for bridges has been collected from the field and analysed to determine the
adequacy of waterways. Existing bridges proposed to be retained and new bridges to be constructed
are as per the provisions of IRC: 5-1998 and IRC: SP-13. Many existing cross-drainage structures, like


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 culverts and bridges, were considered for the improvement and new construction. The improvement
 includes widening the structures, increasing the vent size to increase the flow and major maintenance.
 Details of culverts and bridges in the corridor considered for the treatment (improvement and new
 construction) are presented in Tables - 2.4 and 2.5.
            Table 2-4: Details on treatment proposals for culverts of the subproject roads (Nos.)
                            Replacement                    Replacement       Additional
                                            Replacement
 Link    Maint- Widen- with larger                              due          Culverts on
                                            of distressed                                  Abandon       Total
  ID     enance     ing        diameter                     to change in       Major
                                              culverts
                                 pipe                        Alignment      Realignment
 T 13       -        -             2              4               -               -            -          6
 T 17       -        -             -              10              -               -            -          10
                                                Total                                                     16
             Table 2-5: Details on treatment proposals for bridges of the subproject roads (Nos.)
Link        New Bridges        Replacement of                                 Converted
                                              Widening Maintenance Do Nothing             Total
 ID 6m to 30m 30m to 60m > 60m Superstructure                                 to Culverts
T 13    -          1        -        -           2          -          -           -       3
T 17    -          -        -        -           -          -          -           -       0
                                        Total                                              3

 2.1.12 Railway Crossing:
 There are no railway crossings across the proposed subproject.
 2.1.13 Design Cross Sections and Road widening and improvements:
 The design parameters for cross sections of road for up-gradation have been refined. These are being
 used for designing the roads as guidelines. Table - 2.6 shows the guiding parameters for up-gradation
 roads and urban and rural cross sections of the road in the project area are given in Figure - 2.2.
                   Table 2-6: Guiding Parameters for up gradation of Road in project area
 C/S-                           Carriageway                              Unpaved
              Description                     Paved shoulder (m)                              Remarks
Type                              width (m)                            shoulder (m)
UR1A      Rural cross-section       7.00        1.50 M both sides    1.00 M both sides            -
UR1B      Rural cross-section       7.00               Nil            2.50m both sides            -
 UR2      Rural cross-section       7.00         Varies 2.50m to            Nil.       For parking/ stopping/
           (Through Village)                    4.50m both sides                          bus bays/ bicycles
 UR7     Rural cross section in     7.00        1.50m both paved            Nil             Paved drains
                cutting                            with flexible
                                               pavement and 1.0m
                                              both sides with ICPB
 ICPB - Interlocking Concrete Paver Blocks.




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                                 Figure 2-2: The rural and urban cross sections of the road in the proposed subproject road




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2.2    Schedule for Implementation
The implementation of proposed improvements to subproject road is depicted in the following Figure 2-3.
                                                   Figure 2-3: Implementation schedule of the subproject road

                                      2010                         2011                       2012                           2013                          2014

   Activity                  Q1     Q2       Q3   Q4     Q1   Q2          Q3   Q4   Q1   Q2          Q3   Q4       Q1   Q2          Q3   Q4   Q1      Q2          Q3   Q4


   Civil Works                       Pre-construction Phase                                   Construction Phase                              Defects Notification Period


   Land
   Acquisition

   Compensation,
   Resettlement

   Utility Shifting and
   Tree cutting

   Bidding/Contract
   Award and CSC

   Works
   Execution
   Contractors
   Demobilization and
   Maintenance.




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3     POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATION FRAMEWORK
The environmental management and protection policies, regulations and administrative framework
governing the project is reviewed in this section. The review includes sector-specific environmental
policies & regulations of the Government of India, State Govt of Karnataka, Safeguard Policy
Statement, June2009, ADB’s Environmental Assessment Guidelines (2003), and the administrative
framework of various agencies, such as the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), the
Pollution Control Boards and other bodies associated with the implementation of the proposed
subproject.
3.1     Policies and Regulatory Framework of the Government of India
3.1.1    Constitutional Provisions
The Constitution of India, in Article 48, of Directive Principles of the State, states that “the state shall
endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the
country”. Further Article 51-A (g), of fundamental duties, emphasizes that, “It shall be the duty of
every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers
and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures”. These two provisions of the constitution are
the guiding principles for the environmental legislation in India.
The Government of India has laid down various policy guidelines, regulations, acts and legislations
pertaining to sustainability and protection of the environment and its various components. The
statutory requirements for the proposed road projects are discussed briefly in the following
paragraphs.
3.1.2    Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974:
This Act provides for the prevention and control of water pollution, and the maintaining and restoring
of the wholesomeness of water. ‘Pollution’ means such contamination of water, or such alteration of
the physical, chemical or biological properties of water, or such discharge of any sewage, or trade
effluent, or of any other liquid, gaseous or solid substance into water (whether directly or indirectly)
as may, or is likely to, create a nuisance for health or safety, or to domestic, commercial, industrial,
agricultural or other legitimate uses or to the life and health of animals or plants or of aquatic
organisms.
The subproject has already secured clearance (Consent) from the State Pollution Control Board
(SPCB) of Karnataka pursuant to the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974, the
Cess Act of 1977.
3.1.3    Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
Similar to the Water Act, the Air Act vests regulatory authority on the State Pollution Control Boards
and empowers them to enforce air quality standards (Appendix – 7) to prevent air pollution in the
country. Section 21 of the act requires an application to be made to the state board to establish or
operate any industrial operation and project activity.
The subproject has obtained clearance (Consent) from the Karnataka SPCB pursuant to the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981 and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Rules of 1982 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act, 1987.
3.1.4    The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
The Environment (Protection) Act, popularly known as EP Act, is an umbrella legislation that
supplements existing environmental regulations. Empowered by the EP Act, the MoEF, the GoI has



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issued the following notifications regulating the siting of industry and operations, procuring clearance
to establish industries and development of projects with appropriate EIA studies, coastal zone
regulations and many other aspects of environment through notifications.
3.1.5    EIA Notification (September 2006 and February 2009):
The MoEF Notification dated 14 September 2006 states that ‘prior Environmental Clearance (EC)’ is
required for certain types of projects. All developmental projects have been categorized subject to
certain considerations listed in the ‘Schedule’ of the Notification. Highway projects are dealt under
Clause 7f of the Schedule. Construction of new State Highways and expansion of existing State
Highways come under Category ‘B’ if the length of the road is ‘greater than 30km involving
additional right of way greater than 20m involving land acquisition’.
Under the ‘General Condition’ contained in the MOEF Notification, Category ‘B’ will be specified as
Category ‘A’, if located in whole or in part within 10km from the boundary of: (i) Protected Areas
notified under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, (ii) Critically Polluted areas as notified by the
Central Pollution Control Board from time to time, (iii) Notified Eco-sensitive areas, (iv) inter-State
and international boundaries. Also all Category ‘B’ projects (including new as well as expansion of
modernization projects) will be treated as Category ‘A’ projects in the absence of a duly constituted
State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) or State Level Environmental
Appraisal Committee (SEAC).
Further, the roads of lower classification (i.e. MDRs and lower) do not find a mention in the MOEF
Notification.
                                   Schedule I
 Project                                                                        General Conditions
                     Category A                Category B
7(f)           i) New National High i) New State High ways; Any project or activity specified in Category
Highways      ways; and                 and                       ‘B’ will be treated as Category A, if located in
                                                                  whole or in part within 10 km from the
              ii)     Expansion      of ii)    Expansion       of boundary of:
              National High ways National             /     State (i)   Protected Areas notified under the Wild
              greater than 30 KM, Highways greater than                 Life (Protection) Act, 1972,
              involving      additional 30      km      involving (ii) Critically Polluted areas as notified by
              right of way greater than additional right of way         the Central Pollution Control Board
              20m involving land greater           than      20m        from time to time,
              acquisition and passing involving              land (iii) Notified Eco-sensitive areas,
              through more than one acquisition.                  (iv) Inter-State boundaries and international
              State.                                                    boundaries.

3.1.6    Interpretation and applicability of EIA Notification, 2006 for subproject road:
Since the proposed subproject road is an existing state highway, requiring improvement with no new
alignment except a few realignments for avoiding congestions at major settlements or comply with
IRC standards or to provide adequate bridge approach and smoothen the road curvature at some
section of the subproject road. Therefore the road is treated as expansion of existing State Highway
for examining the applicability and relevance of the MoEF Notification.
The issue of ‘additional RoW greater than 20 m involving land acquisition’ needs to be seen in the
context of the linear nature of road projects. The 20 m of additional right-of-way as indicated in the
Notification has been considered on an average basis rather than a location-specific figure for
examining the applicability and relevance of the MoEF Notification.
Realignments under this subproject are minor and limited to providing required approach roads to
new bridges improving road alignment geometry and avoiding congested and narrow town/built-up
areas. These realignments/bypasses are contiguous with the rest of the Corridor and form part of the


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existing highway improvement. Therefore all realignments are considered as a part of the project
corridor for the purposes of calculating the additional right-of-way required and not as stand-alone
lengths for examining the applicability and relevance of MoEF Notification.
Keeping in view the above considerations both Jagalur to NH 13 (T 13) and Molkalmur to SH 19 (T
17) subprojects are less than 30 km in length and ‘additional right-of-way required for subprojects is
less than 20m involving land acquisition. Hence both subprojects are not under the purview of EIA
Notification, 2006 and February 2009. Environmental clearance is not required for the subprojects T
13 and T 17.
3.1.7     Environmental Clearance Process
The procedure for obtaining environmental clearance is depicted in Figure 3.1. for category B
projects.




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                       Figure 3-1: The procedure for obtaining environmental clearance
Note
    1. PFR - Project Feasibility Report
    2. SEIAA - State Environmental Impact Assessment Authority
    3. SEAC State Environmental Appraisal Committee
    4. ToR – Terms of Reference
    5. EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
  - The Environmental clearance is valid for five yrs from the date of issuance.
  - Half yearly Post Environmental Clearance compliance monitoring report shall be submitted to Regulatory
     Authority.

3.1.8    The Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989
The Central Government formulated these rules under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Under
Section 7 of these rules it is required that the operator or occupier of a facility dealing with hazardous


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waste ensures that hazardous waste is packaged in a suitable manner for storage and transport and the
labelling and packaging shall be easily visible and be able to withstand physical conditions and
climatic factors. Bituminous and other materials used in road construction are considered as
hazardous in nature. Section 9 of these Rules also requires that in case of an accident during
transportation of hazardous wastes, the operator or occupier of a facility shall immediately report to
the SPCB in the prescribed form. This statute applies on KSHIP and the contractor as they involve in
handling (including storing) and transhipment of hazardous bituminous materials during construction
of the project roads.
3.1.9    Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
This Act is promulgated to provide for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters
connected therewith. The provisions under this Act such as prohibition of hunting wild animals
specified in Schedule I; prohibition of picking, uprooting, damaging, destroying or acquiring any
specified plant from any forestland; prohibition of use of injurious substances, chemicals, explosives
that may cause injury or endanger wildlife in a sanctuary; prohibition on alteration of the boundaries
of a National Park shall be made, except on a resolution passed by the Legislature of State;
prohibition on destruction or damage of wildlife property in a National Park is prohibited. This act
shall be applicable to the project roads passing through forests or adjacent to the National Parks and
Wildlife Sanctuaries.
3.1.10 The Indian Forest Act, 1927
This Act consolidates all the statutes passed since 1865 relating to forests, the transit of Forest
Produce and the duty leviable on timber and other forest-produce. This Act also confers power to the
State Government to declare a forestland or a wasteland which is the property of the Government or
over which the Government has proprietary rights, or to the whole or any part of the forest-produce of
which the Government is entitled as reserved forest.
Section 5 of the Act, states that after declaring a particular land as reserved forest, no fresh clearings
for any purpose shall be made, except in accordance with such rules as made by the state government;
Section 26 of the Act, states that certain activities are prohibited in such reserved forests; Sections 30
and 32 of the Act empowers the State government to regulate certain acts (clearing of reserved forests
for cultivation, building or any other non forestry purpose) in such forests as specified in the section;
Section 35 furnishes power to the State government to prohibit certain acts (clearing of vegetation etc)
in lands not being the property of the government. The act refers to the project roads that are adjacent
to the reserved forest and involving forest land diversion for the non forestry purpose.
3.1.11 Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 (as amended in 1988)
As per Section 26 of the Indian Forest Act, 1927 a number of activities are prohibited in forest areas,
and prior approval is required from the Central Government to use forest land for non-forest purposes.
The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 prohibits large-scale diversion of forestland for non-forest use.
As amended in 1988, no State Government or authority shall make such diversions, except with the
prior approval of the Central Government.
The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 also pertains to the cases of diversion of forest areas and felling
of roadside plantations. Depending on the size of the tract to be cleared, clearances are applied at
various levels of government: If the area of forests to be cleared or diverted exceeds 40 Ha (or, 10ha
in hilly area) then prior permission of Central Government is required; If the area of forest to be
cleared or diverted is between 5 to 40ha, the Regional Office of Chief Conservator of Forests is
empowered to approve; If the area of forest to be cleared or diverted is below or equal to 5ha, the


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State Government can give permission; If the area to be clear-felled has a forest density of more than
40%, permission to undertake any work is needed from the Central Government, irrespective of the
area to be cleared. The act refers to the project roads that are adjacent to the reserved forest and
involving forest land diversion for the non forestry purpose. Subprojects T13 and T17 do not have
forest stretches along the links.
3.1.12 The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958
This Act provides for the preservation of ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites
and remains of national importance and for the regulation of archaeological excavations and for the
protection of sculptures, carvings and other like objects. According to this Act, areas within the radii
of 100m and 300m from the “protected property” are designated as “protected areas” and “controlled
areas” respectively. No development activity (including building, mining, excavating, blasting) is
permitted in the “protected areas”. Development activities likely to damage the protected property are
not permitted in the “controlled areas” without prior permission from the Archaeological Survey of
India (ASI) if the site/remains/ monuments are protected by ASI or the State Directorate of
Archaeology. None of the notified archaeological monuments recognised by the UNESCO or World
Heritage Monuments intercept with the road improvements.
3.1.13 Fly Ash Notification, 1999
The MoEF, GoI has issued a Notification regarding the utilization of fly ash/bottom ash generated
from coal/lignite based thermal power plant in 1999 and amended it in 2003, with an intention to
protect the environment, conserve top soil and prevent the dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged
from coal or lignite based thermal power plants. Further it states the need for restricting the
excavation of topsoil for manufacture of bricks and promotes the utilization of fly ash in the
manufacture of building material and in construction activity within the radius of 100 Km from coal
or lignite based thermal power plants.
No agency, person or organization shall, within a radius of 100 km of a thermal power plant undertake
construction or approve design for construction of roads or flyover embankments in contravention of
the guidelines/specifications issued by the Indian Road Congress (IRC) as contained in IRC
specification No. SP: 58 of 2001. Any deviation from this direction can only be agreed to on technical
reasons if the same is approved by Chief Engineer (Design) or Engineer-in-Chief of the concerned
agency or organization or on production of a certificate of “pond ash not available” from the thermal
power plant(s) located within 100 km of the site of construction. Subprojects T 13 and T 17 are within
a distance of 100 km from Grasim Industries near Harihara and Jindal Thermal Power Plant near
Hospet. Fly ash from the plants is used in the project subjected to availability of fly ash at the time of
construction.
3.1.14 Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
This Act provides for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the
persons affected by accident occurring while handling any hazardous substance and for matters
connected therewith or incidental thereto. The transportation of hazardous substances by vehicle use
is also included. This statute would apply on the implementers of Project road.
3.1.15 The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988
The Indian Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 empowered the State Transport Authority (usually the Road
Transport Office) to enforce standards for prevention and control of vehicular pollution. The authority
also checks the emission standards of registered vehicles, collects road taxes and issues licenses. The



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Pollution under Control Certificate (PUC) programme was launched In August 1997as an attempt to
crackdown on the vehicular emissions. This act is applicable for the road projects.
3.2     Asian Development Bank’s Safeguard Policy Statement (June 2009)
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has released new Safeguard Policy Statement – June 2009 that
consolidates and builds upon the earlier ADB policies on Environment, Indigenous Peoples and
Involuntary Resettlement. ADB’s new Safeguard Policy Statement intends to enhance the
effectiveness of ADB’s safeguard policies and to ensure that these policies remain relevant to the
changing client needs and to new business opportunities being funded by ADB.
The Safeguard Policy Statement has sought to
   i.   Better articulate the safeguard policies to improve their clarity, coherence and consistency;
  ii.   Balance a front-loaded procedural approach with one also focused on results during
        implementation;
 iii.   Adapt policy implementation to an evolving range of lending products and innovative
        financing modalities;
 iv.    Work towards greater harmonization with safeguard policies across Multilateral Financing
        Institutions (MFI) and tailor safeguard approaches to different clients with varying capacities
        and
  v.    Improve internal processes and resource allocation.
The proposed sub project cause potential adverse environmental impacts which are less adverse in
nature and few of them are reversible and mitigation measures can be designed more readily for the
identified impacts. As per the ADB’s Guidelines on Environmental Assessment the proposed Jagalur
– NH 13 (T13) and Molkalmuru – SH 19 (T17) subprojects having lengths of 9.25 km and 2.13 km
with minimal impacts are classified as Category ‘B’ project requiring Initial Environmental
Examination (IEE).
3.3     Administrative Framework:
The Government through specific legislations regulates the environmental management system in
India. The Ministries/Statutory bodies responsible for ensuring environmental compliance by project
promoters include following agencies.
3.3.1    Ministry of Environment and Forest
The MoEF is a nodal ministry at national level. It has set up offices within each region which is
responsible for the collection and furnishing of information relating to EIA of projects, pollution
control measures, methodology and status of legal and enforcement measures and environmental
protection in special conservation areas such as wetlands, and other biological reserves. The proposed
subproject falls under the jurisdiction of the Regional office of MoEF, Bengaluru.
3.3.2    Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB),
It is a statutory authority attached to the MoEF located at New Delhi. The main responsibilities of
CPCB include, planning and implementation of water and air pollution programmes; advising the
Central Government on water and air pollution programmes; setting air and water standards and co-
ordinating with the SPCBs.
3.3.3    Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB),
The KSPCB is the government agency responsible for ensuring the compliance to relevant standards
related to discharges to the environment. The following activities of the KSPCB include, planning and
executing state level air and water quality initiatives; advising the state government on air, water and


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 industry issues; establishing standards based on National Minimum standards; enforcing and
 monitoring of all activities within the state under the Air Act, the Water Act and the Cess Act.
 3.3.4     The Environmental Management Plan Implementation Unit (EMPIU)
 To assess, advise and monitor the environmental performance of the project being planned, designed
 and implemented by the KSHIP, an EMPIU has to be established as part of the Project
 Implementation Unit (PIU). The Environmental Unit is headed by the Senior Environmental Engineer
 and assisted by Assistant Environmental Engineers in each project block, along with an Assistant
 Conservator of Forest and Range Forest Officers of the respective divisions who look into tree
 cutting, forest land acquisition issues and afforestation, if any.
 The Environmental Unit is responsible for the co-ordination of the environmental and social issues of
 the proposed project road and shall work in close interaction with the environmental engineers at the
 different project site offices. An organisational chart has been illustrated in Figure 1.1 of section 1.
 3.4     Other Environmental Guidelines and Norms
 Over and above, the project also gives due importance to the road construction standards, norms,
 guidelines and management procedures prescribed by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC). This includes
 i) Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway Projects, IRC: 104-1988; ii)
 Recommended Practice for Treatment of Embankment slopes for erosion control, IRC: 36-1974; iii)
 Recommended Practice for Borrow pits for Road Embankment for Road manual operation, IRC: 10-
 1961; iv) Recommended Practice for the construction of Earth Embankments for Road Works, IRC:
 36-1970; v) Highway Safety Code, IRC, special publication no. 44; vi) Guidelines on Bulk Bitumen
 Transportation and Storage Equipment, IRC, special publication 39; vii) Recommended Practice for
 Tools Equipment and Appliances for Concrete Pavement Construction, IRC: 43-1972; viii)
 Recommended Practice for use and upkeep of Equipment, Tools and Appliances for Bituminous
 Pavement Construction, IRC: 72-1978 and Road Accident Forms A-1 and 4, IRC: 33-1982.
 3.5     Clearances required for the subproject
 After reviewing the various applicable acts and statutes, as mentioned above, some clearances and
 permissions are required for subproject. A summary of clearances required for the subproject is shown
 in the Table 3-1.
                              Table 3-1: List of clearances required for the subproject
Sl.                                  Authority Granting           When
                Subject                                                                       Remarks
No.                                       Clearance              required
 1     Environmental               State     Environmental Before               EC is not required as the sub-project
       Clearance                   Appraisal Committee, Construction            is not under the purview of EIA
                                   GoK.                                         Notification 2006.
2      Tree cutting permission. Department of Forest, Before                    KSHIP’s responsibility. Application
                                   GoK                        Construction      for tree cutting clearance has been
                                                                                submitted on 3rd August 2010.
3      Consents under Water Karnataka                  State Before             KSHIP’s responsibility.
       (P&CP) Act, 1974 &          Pollution Control Board Construction         Consents have been obtained vide
       Air (P&CP) Act,             (KSPCB), Bangalore                           letter no. PCB/05/CNP/09/558 dated
                                                                                29th January 2010.
4      Permit for installation of KSPCB                       Before            Contractor’s responsibility.
       crusher                                                Construction
5      No Objection Certificate KSPCB, Inspectors of Before                     Contractor’s responsibility.
       (NOC) for batching Factories                           Construction
       plant
6      Clearance              for KSPCB                       Before            Contractor’s responsibility.
       establishing      Asphalt                              Construction


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Sl.                                 Authority Granting            When
               Subject                                                                          Remarks
No.                                     Clearance                required
      Plant
7     Installation of             Karnataka Electricity       Before              Contractor’s responsibility.
      Generators                  company of respective       Installation
                                  regions
8     Clearance for excavation    Department of Mines &       Before              Contractor’s responsibility.
      & transporting soil         Geology/ Local Bodies       Quarrying
9     Permission for              Department of Mines &       Before              If the extraction of boulder is being
      extraction of boulder       Geology. Government         Quarrying           procured      from      the     existing
                                  of Karnataka                                    quarry/supplier, it shall be ensured
                                                                                  that, requisite license/ lease has been
                                                                                  obtained from the concerned
                                                                                  Authority.
10    Permission for              Department of Mines &       Before              If the extraction of sand is being
      extraction of sand          Geology. Government         Quarrying           procured from the existing sand
                                  of Karnataka                                    quarry/supplier, it shall be ensured
                                                                                  that requisite license/lease has been
                                                                                  obtained from the concerned
                                                                                  Authority.
11    License for storing         Commissioner of             During              Contractor’s responsibility.
      diesel                      Explosives & KSPCB          Construction
12    Labour camps                District Health Officer     During              Contractor’s responsibility.
                                                              Construction
13    Clearance for crossing      Irrigation Department,      During              Contractor’s responsibility.
      other waterways             Government of               Construction at
                                  Karnataka                   the specific site
14    If water has to be taken    Concerned Water             During              Contractor’s responsibility.
      from river / Reservoir      Authority                   Construction at
                                                              the specific site




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4     DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The proposed alignments Jagalur to NH 13 (T13) and Molkalmuru to SH 19 (T17) are in Davanagere
and Chithradurga districts of Karnataka state respectively. The baseline environment of the project
influence area such as climate, physiography, biological and socio-economic environment of the
project influence area has been discussed in this chapter.
4.1     Physical Environment
4.1.1    Physiography and relief
The Jagalur to NH 13 (T13) subproject of Davanagere district and Molkalmuru – SH 19 (T17)
subproject of Chithradurga district are in Central Karnataka Plateau region. Central Karnataka Plateau
covers the districts of Bellary, Chikkamagalur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri,
Raichur, Koppal and Shimoga. The region represents the transitional surface between the Northern
Karnataka Plateaux with relatively higher surface. By and large, this region represents the area of
Tungabhadra basin. The general elevation varies between 450 and 700 meters. However, this
transitional ground is broken by several sets of parallel ridges mainly made up of Dharwar system of
rocks. The height of such residual hills is about 900 meters above mean sea level. The general slope
of this region is towards the east. The geomorphology of Davanagere district is characterised by vast
stretches of undulated plains interspersed with sporadic ranges or isolated clusters of low ranges of
rocky hills. This may be broadly divided into two regions. The eastern hilly region consisting of
Jagalur and north –eastern parts of Harpanahalli taluks and the plain region consisting of Harihar,
Davangere, Honnali, Channagiri and parts of Harpanahalli taluks. The physiography of the subproject
is presented in Annex - 1.
4.1.2    Climate
Davangere district has an agreeable and healthy climate. Within the district the southern belt has a
more pleasant weather. The year is usually divided into four seasons. Summer sets in during the
second half of February and lasts till the end of May. This season is marked by harsh eastern winds,
rising temperatures, whirlwinds, and occasional thunderstorms accompanied by sharp showers.
South –west monsoon season stars during early June and lasts till the end of September. This is a
period of cool and damp climate. The months of October and November constitute the post monsoon
or the north–west monsoon season and this period witnesses a gradual rise in day temperatures and a
substantial amount of rainfall as well. The winter season covers the period from December to mid
February. While Channagiri and Honnali blocks coming under Malnad area, have hot summer,
pleasant winter and good monsoon, Davangere and Harihar have hot summer, pleasant winter and
average rainfall. Harapanhalli and Jagalur blocks have very hot summer, very low rainfall and a
pleasant winter. The Chithradurga district is in south-western part of the deccan plateau, which is the
semi-arid zone of Karnataka, bordering arid condition. The district is marked by hot summer months,
low rainfall and a pleasant monsoon season. District receives low to moderate rainfall (annual average
is 574mm) and is one of the drought prone districts. The climatic condition of the Project area is
presented in Annex - 2.
4.1.3    Rainfall
Davanagere district receives average annual rainfall of 644.0 mm and within the district, the quantum
of rainfall and the average number of rainy days decreases as one moves from South to North. During
the south west monsoon season 80-85 percent of the annual rainfall precipitates. The average actual
annual rainfall recorded in Davanagere district during 2007 is 824 mm. The annual number of the
rainy days is about 45 days. The normal annual rainfall in Chithradurga district based on 30years is


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574mm. However, during 1996-2005, the district received an average annual rainfall of 631.7 mm.
Further, there was deficient rainfall in the years 2003, whereas the year 2005 received excess rainfall.
Rainfall is lowest in Challakere taluk and highest in Hosadurga taluk. Normal annual rainfall varies
between 668mm in Holalkere in western part to 457mm in Chellakere, in the northeastern part. The
normal and actual rainfall of the project en route is given in Table 4.1.
            Table 4-1: The normal and actual average rainfall (in mm) in the project enroute.
    Cor.                                 Annual Normal        Annual Actual Rainfall
              Corridor description                                                         District
     ID                                   Rainfall (mm)            (mm) (2004)
    T13 Jagalur – NH 13                        644                      608             Davanagere
    T17 Molkalmur – SH 19                      632                      552             Chitradurga
   Source: Indian Meteorological Department,

4.1.4    Temperature
Davanagere district experiences the temperature variations of 190C to 390C. The temperature increases
from the month of January. Highest temperature is noticed during April – May and ranges from 260C
mean maximum to 280C mean minimum. In the cold season temperature ranges average mean of 160C
to 170C. Among the different taluks of the Davanagere district, highest temperature and less humidity
is found in Harappanahalli and Jagalur taluks (320C to 380C) whereas in Channagiri and Honnali
taluks temperature and humidity ranges from 260C to 320C. Chithradurga district has a record of mean
maximum temperature of 38.310 C and mean minimum temperature of 18.010 C. The average mean
maximum and minimum temperature of the project area is presented in Table 4.2.
    Table 4-2: Average Mean Maximum and Mean Minimum Temperature (0 C) of the Project Area
 Cor. ID         Link Description        Mean Maximum (oC) Mean Minimum (oC) IMD Station
 T13 and Jagalur – NH 13 and
   T17     Molkalmur – SH 19
                                               38.31             18.01           Chitradurga
Source: Indian Meteorological Department

4.1.5    Wind Intensity and Direction
The wind pattern and intensity of the wind observed at nearest meteorological stations are presented
in the form of Wind-rose from Figure 4.1.




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                                             Bellary Windrose
                            Figure 4-1: Wind-rose Bellary Meteorological Station

                                         N
                                    25


                                    20
                NW                                           NE

                                    15


                                    10


                                     5

                                                                              8.30 Hours-Calm-26%
         W                           0                            E
                                                                              17.30 Hours- Calm-11%




                SW                                           SE




                                         S




                                             Bellary - Station
                     Direction                      %                              %
                         N                           1                             1
                        NE                           3                             6
                         E                           9                             12
                        SE                          16                             23
                         S                           1                             1
                        SW                           8                             9
                         W                          13                             13
                        NW                          23                             24
                       Calm                         26                             11
             Mean Wind Speed 8.40 KMPH
             Source: Indian Meteorological Department

4.1.6    Monitoring of Environmental attributes
The subprojects T13 and T17 are 5.13 and 9.25 km respectively in length and do not qualify for EIA
studies under the EIA Notification, 2006. The subproject implementation period is relatively less and
does not cause significant environmental impact. Most of the impacts are temporary in nature and
does not warrant for monitoring the baseline environmental attributes such as air, water, noise and soil
along the project corridor.
4.1.7    Water Resources
Major part of Davanagere district lies in Krishna basin and is drained by Tungabhadra and Chikka
Hagari Rivers. The other major streams in the district are Janagahalla and Haridra Nadi. The absence
of any major irrigation project in the district highlights the vulnerability of the agricultural economy
and emphases the importance of dry land farming in its overall economy. Four taluks of Davangere
sub-division i.e., Davangere, Harihar, Honnali and Channagiri partly come under Tunga and Bhadra
irrigation projects. Sasala Halla also known, as Sulekere Halla is a major stream and flows through
Davangere and Harihar taluks. About 35 per cent of the net area sown is having irrigation facilities.
Canals account for 53 per cent and wells account for 47 per cent of the total irrigated areas. Major part


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of Chithradurga district lies in Krishna basin and is drained by Vedavathi River. The reservoir is built
across the Vedavathi River near Vanivilaspura, in Hiriyur taluk. The other streams are Janagahalli,
Chikhagari, Swarnamukhi, Garain and Nayakanahalli halla. Agriculture is mainly dependent on the
timely and adequate rainfall in the district. Across Vedavathi river and its tributaries, Vanivilas
Sagara, Gayathri reservoir, Rangayanadurga reservoir and Narayanapura anicut irrigation projects are
commissioned. In addition to the above, there are about 300 tanks in the district providing irrigation
facilities to small stretches of lands. The drainage density varies from 0.72 to 1.70 km/km2 and
general ground elevation ranges from about 500 m amsl to 800 m amsl. The drainage and river basins
of the project area is presented in Annex - 3.
4.1.8     Hydrogeology
In Davanagere district groundwater occurs under phreatic and semi-confined conditions in the
weathered and fractured rock formations of the ‘Peninsular Gneissic Group’ of rocks comprising of
granites, gneisses and schist. The thickness of weathered zone varies from 4.0 – 36.74 m. The main
source of ground water occurring in the district is through precipitation and return flow from applied
irrigation. Ground water occurs within the weathered and fractured rocks under water-table conditions
and semi-confined conditions. Groundwater in Chithradurga district occurs under phreatic condition
in the weathered rock formations of the ‘Peninsular Gneissic Group’ of rocks comprising of Granites,
gneisses and schist. The thickness of weathered zone varies from less than a meter near hill slopes and
higher altitudes to about 39 m. in valleys and topographic low areas. In Molakalmur taluk, granites,
granitic-gneisses and amphibolites gneisses are the main water bearing formations. Depth of
weathered zone ranges from 12.3 m to 24 mbgl. Yield ranges from <1.0 to 7.1 lps. The water contours
and ground water yields in the project area are given in Table 4.3 and irrigation and hydrogeology of
the project area is presented in Annex - 4.
                                Table 4-3: Water Contours and water Yield
   Subproj                                        Grond water Contours (M Above
                     Subproject description                                             Yield (L/Sec)
    ect ID                                                     MSL)
     T13       Jagalur – NH 13                                600 - 700                    1.0 to 5.0
        T17    Molkalmur – SH 19                                 500                      1.0 to 5.0

4.1.9     Geology
In Davanagere district, the basement gneisses and small patches of younger granites are exposed in
the eastern half. These rocks have been classified as crystalline formations. The gneisses are overlaid
by conglomerate, quartz, chlorite schist, greywacke, meta-volcanics, limestone and iron/manganese
formations in the southern part of the district. Chithradurga district is distributed with mainly three
types of rocks such as granites; charnockites, gneisses and unclassified crystallines and third group of
rocks constitute slates, phyllites and schists. Granites are seen as patches in the centre of the district
and Molkalmuru taluk; Major part of the district is covered by charnockites, gneiss and unclassified
crystallines; slates strikes the central part of the district in NW – SE direction. Major minerals such as
Managanese, Gold and Barytes are known to occur in the district. Map showing the Rocks and
Minerals of the project area is exhibited in Annex – 5.
4.1.10 Soils
Davanagere district consists of mainly 3 types of soils, viz., black alluvial soil, red soil with shallow
to medium depth gravel and clay soil. The black soil has high water retaining capacity, is self
aerating with small to medium depth and rich in clay. It is suitable for crops like cotton, paddy,
sugarcane etc. Both black and red soils found in the district are generally fertile. Major part of the



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district is covered by red soil and followed by black soil and Clay soil. Red soil is spread through out
the district except in a small area in the northeastern part of the district where the area is covered by
black soil. Soil types of the Chithradurga district comprises of deep and shallow black soil, mixed red
and black soil, red loamy and sandy soil. Southern part of the district is covered with mixed red and
black soils. Eastern and western parts of Chithradurga district is distributed with red loamy soils.
Molkalmur taluk and eastern part of district are covered by red sandy soils. Types of soil in the project
area are presented in Annex – 6.
4.2     Land use pattern
The total geographical area of Davanagere district is 5,97,597 hectares. Area under forest constitutes
89,640 hectares (15 %); Area not available for cultivation is 59,162 hectares (9.9 %); Cultivable waste
land constitutes 8,964 hectares (1.5 %); Uncultivated land is about 24,501 hectares (4.1 %); fallow
land constitutes about 49,003 hectares (8.2 %) and followed by net sown area of 3,65,729 hectares
(61.2 %) of the total area. The total geographical area of Chithradurga district is 7,70,702 hectares.
Area under forest constitutes 73,987 hectares (9.6 %); Area not available for cultivation is 76,300
hectares (9.9 %); Cultivable waste land constitutes 21,580 hectares (2.8 %); Uncultivated land is
about 1,00,191 hectares (13 %); fallow land constitutes about 76,300 hectares (9.9%) and followed by
net sown area of 4,22,345 hectares (54.8 %) of the total area. The land use pattern of the project area
is shown in Annex – 7.
4.2.1    Agriculture and cropping pattern
Agriculture is the main occupation in the rural parts of Davanagere district. The main food crops are
paddy, maize and ragi while the important commercial crops are sugarcane, chilly, onion, and cotton.
The net sown area of 3.84 lakh hectares constitutes about 64 per cent of the geographical area. The
total cultivable area is 3.87 lakh hectares (65 per cent). The net irrigated area is 1.13 lakh hectares,
which account for 29 per cent of net sown area. The gross cropped area is 4.81 lakh hectares. Cereals
occupy about 76 per cent followed by pulses 6 per cent, oilseeds 12 per cent, and commercial crops 6
per cent. Paddy, ragi, maize and jowar are grown in all the taluks. About 82 per cent of the total
cropped area is under food crops. Cash crops such as sugarcane, onion, chilly, cotton and plantation
crops i.e., arecanut and coconut are also grown in 18 percent of the total cultivated area. Fruit crops
and sericulture is gaining popularity in the district. About 70 % of the total cultivated area in
Chithradurga district is annually sown with food crops. Ragi, and jowar are grown in plenty and
paddy in a very small quantity. Cotton, groundnut, oilseedsm tur, tobacco are also grown in the
district. Chitradurga district has been in fore-front in respect of horticultural production particularly in
fruit crop production viz. pomegranate, sapota, mosambi, banana, fig, mango etc., Present area under
horticulture crops is nearly 1.00 lakh hectares.
4.3     Biological Component
4.3.1    Fauna
The Davanagere and Chithradurga districts are deficient in forest and wildlife wealth. None of the
notified National Parks and Wildlife sanctuary is present in the districts. Forests in these districts are
scanty and are distributed over entire district in small blocks. The wildlife found here is related to the
drier areas like monkey, lemur, loris, wild cat, hyena (kiruba), wolf, squirrel, bats, fox, deer, rabbit,
bear, wild pig and wild lizard, variety of snakes. Peacock, sparrow, crow, eagle, weaver bird are some
of the avian fauna in the district. Migrating birds inhabit the tanks, huge trees and reside for some
time during January to June.




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4.3.2    Flora
Out of the total geographical area of 5.97 lakh hectares, forest cover in Davangere district is only 0.89
lakh hectares, forming only 15% as against 33% of national requirement. The existing tree cover has
diminished leading to soil erosion, wind erosion, stream erosion etc. Social forestry is taken up by the
department of forests on the waste lands owned by the Government. The revenue land identified by
the department for development of social forestry is about 6000 hectares, which would be available
for forestry in the district. Plantations of Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Acacia auriculiformis and Grevillea
robusta are found here. As Chithradurga district receives less rainfall, the diversity of tree species is
limited in nature. Commonly found trees in the project area are Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus
indica, Ficus beghalensis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia species, etc. The forest type in the project area
is dry deciduous forest types with scrb jungle (Annex – 8) and the Subproject roads T13 and T17 have
no forests adjoining the road.
4.3.3    National parks
Subproject does not pass through eco-sensitive area such as National Parks and Wild life Sanctuaries
and there are no notified National Parks and Wild life Sanctuaries in the near vicinity (within 10 km
of radius) of the subproject. The nearest Daroji Sloth Bear sanctuary is approximately 60 km away
from the subproject roads T13 and T17.
4.4     Social Environment
Agriculture is the main occupation in the rural parts of Davanagere district. The major land use in the
subproject areas is agriculture and some stretches of the subproject constitutes built up areas
/settlements at Jagalur and Donihalli. The district being mainly agriculture dependent, does not boast
of too many industries. Once popularly known as "Manchester" for its cotton mills, Davangere has
only a few functioning cotton mills. There are a couple of rice mills, a distillery, a sugar mill and a
tool factory to represent industries. An industrial area had been established to encourage small-scale
industries. The subproject stretch Jagalur to NH 13 covers mainly of dry cultivable land growing
crops such as Ragi, jowar, paddy, maize; pulses like red gram, horse gram, green gram, Hyacinth
Beans, black gram and Bengal gram; oil seeds like groundnut, sesamum, sunflower, castor and
commercial crops like cotton, and tobacco are also grown here. The population of Chithradurga
district was 1,517,896, of which 18.07% were urban as of 2001. The district is hilly with lots of forts
and villages. Chithradurga is rich in mineral deposits, including gold prospecting and copper deposits
at Ingaldhal. Molakalmuru taluk has major villages like Rampura, Hangal. It is famous for the unique
Molkalmuru sarees which are manufactured here. Manufacturing of machine tools, cotton textiles, oil
mills, cement, leather works, coir and sugar are some of the industries of the district.
4.4.1    Demographic Features
As per 2001 India census, Davanagere and Chithradurga districts have a population of 1,790,952 and
1,517,896 respectively. Males constitute 51.24 % and 51.14 % and females 48.76 % and 48.86 % of
the total population respectively. Districts have a literacy rate of 67.43 % and 64.45 % with 76.37 %
and 74.66 % of the males and 58.04 % and 53.78 % of females literate respectively. The basic
features of demography along the study corridor have been indicated in the Table 4-4. Due to the
absence of better data, the figures as of 2001 Census of Population have been used. The demographic
data given in the following tables has been worked out considering all villages’ and towns’
administrative boundaries within which the proposed subproject passes.




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                              Table 4-4: Demographic features of the Study Area
                            Total      Total male Total female        SC      STs     Literacy
             Location
                          Population Population       Population      %        %         %
               T13          18249          9486           8763       17.38   10.59     71.27
               T17         129308         66571          62737       19.77   35.63     44.18
          Source: Primary Census Abstract, Census of India, 2001

4.4.2    Occupational Pattern
In Table 4.5, attempt has been made to show the features of the workforce in the study area
considering all villages’ and towns’ administrative boundaries within which the proposed subproject
passes.
                                     Table 4-5: Workforce in project area
                                 Percentage of worker category to Total Population
      Link ID
                       Main worker %              Marginal Worker %          Non-worker %
        T13                 34.52                          6.08                    59.40
        T17                 37.02                          7.67                    55.31
    Source: Primary Census Abstract, Census of India, 2001
Total working population of Davanagere and Chithradurga districts is 43.76 % and 47.56 % of the
total population respectively. The main worker population comprises of 35.27 % and 37.95 % of the
total population and 8.49 % and 9.61 % of the total population is the marginal workers. The worker
population in the district from the census data indicates that cultivators and agricultural labours
dominate the total working population. The non-working population of the districts is 56.24 and 52.44
% respectively.
4.4.3    Sites of Tourist and Archaeological Interest
Kunduvada kere in Davanagere, is a picturesque lake. Soole kere (Shanthi Sagara) situated near
Davanagere is a second largest pond in Asia. It was built by namesake Princess Shanthi during 12th
century. Kondajji is situated around 12kms from Davangere city. It is a major scout and guides camp
for south India named in the commemoration of Kondajji Basappa.
Chitradurga Kote is a fort that is one of a kind, as it is built on top of hill with stones. Ashoka
Siddapura is an important archeological site where emperor Ashoka's edits were found. Nearby is
Ramagiri, a hillock that has mythical associations with the epic Ramayana. Brahmagiri village is the
ancient site of Ishila, one of emperor Ashoka's provincial capitals. His earliest rock edicts in Brahmi
script and Prakrit language (3rd c. BC) containing Kannada words were discovered here. Chandravalli
is an ancient archeological site where painted pottery and coins from the Shatavahana empire and
prehistoric times were discovered. Hiriyur situated on the right bank of Vedavathi river is famous for
its Tirumalleshawara temple. Jogimatti hill station is situated to the south of Chithradurga town.
Molakalmuru is a fortified town of the Kadambas.




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5     ANALYSIS ALTERNATIVES
5.1     Introduction:
This chapter presents a comparative analysis of various alternatives considered to avoid, prevent or
minimize impacts that would be inevitable if technically (based on design speed and geometrics) best-
fit alignment is followed. The consideration of alternatives to a proposal is a requirement of the EIA
report. During the scoping process, alternatives to a proposal can be generated or refined, either
directly or by reference to the key issues identified. A comparative analysis of alternatives will help to
determine the best method of achieving project objectives while minimising environmental impacts.
Various alternatives selected for analysis usually includes the ‘no project’ or ‘no action’ alternative.
The relative impact of each alternative is compared against the baseline environment to select a
preferred alternative.
The constituent subprojects Jagalur to NH 13 and Molkalmuru to SH 19 were considered after
finalization of various options such as realignments, bypasses and different construction material
options keeping in view objectives of the project, traffic condition, obligatory points, geometric
designs, flood regions, congestions and socio-economic viability and environmental safety aspects.
The discussion includes no project scenario; project with alternatives and project with mitigation
measures. The objective of this chapter is to highlight some of the salient issues considered for
exercising options.
5.2     Project Alternatives
5.2.1    No project scenario
The ‘No project scenario’ is analysed with respect to the development of the state as a requirement of
reliable quality infrastructure for sustained growth of economy and consequent well-being of its
citizens. Providing better connectivity within the state will ensure that, goods and people from areas
accessed by the road can commute quicker and save time. Increase in trade and commerce activity is
expected. The savings in the vehicle operating costs makes the subproject viable.
The connectivity between the taluk head quarters Jagalur of Davanagere with NH 3 and Molkalmuru
of Chithradurga district with SH 19 by the proposed subproject roads. The economic activity
employment potential for people in the region will increase. However, there would be an increase in
the vehicular pollution - air and noise, in the vicinity of the road. Some agricultural land will have to
be diverted for road widening, realigning and bypassing. Where the road is passing through villages
and towns, some people will lose their properties close by the road to accommodate the proposed
widening.
If the subproject is not implemented, there is every likelihood that the existing bad pavement of the
corridor deteriorates further. In the absence of the proposed subproject, the districts will also find it
extremely difficult to generate revenue. Increased air pollution, due to bad road condition, slow
moving traffic and congestion, will increase as the time goes by. Noise levels will rise due to
deterioration of the pavement as well as increased honking. Without the improvement of subproject,
the traffic would continue to pose a safety risk for the road users.
Therefore, ‘project with alternatives’ scenario, with its minor adverse impacts is more acceptable than
‘No project scenario’ which would mean an aggravation of the existing problems. Potential benefits of
the proposed road improvements are substantial and far-reaching both in terms of the geographical
spread and time. Hence, it is clear that, the implementation of the subproject will be a definite




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 advantage to Karnataka state in order to achieve all-round development of its economy and progress
 for its people.
 5.2.2     Project with alternatives
 Although the subproject alternatives in terms of location (alignment) option is very limited as the
 project objective is to improve the existing roads except that some lengths of route require alternatives
 such as change of alignments from congested locations within towns or major human settlements to
 avoid impact on the public and community properties; traffic congestion; air pollution; noise levels
 and accidents; ribbon developments to safe guard social and commercial integrity of the region and to
 avoid exorbitant resettlement and business re-establishment costs; to smoothen existing sharp curved
 (poor geometrics) alignments for facilitating traffic movement. However, impacts from proposed
 realignments would not be severe in magnitude to the extent of warranting analysis for alternative
 alignments if the realignments are shorter in length. There are no major realignments/bypasses
 proposed for the subproject warranting analysis for alternative alignments.
 5.2.3     Project with mitigation measures
 Project with mitigation measures is most acceptable alternative in many cases. In this alternative,
 emphasis is given to minimise the impact due to project implementation on the environmental
 features. This alternative is most suitable where the option of ‘project with alternatives’ is limited.
 5.3     Evaluation of project Alternatives:
 The alternatives considered with respect to alignment, routing, construction methods, materials used,
 landscaping, human values such as health and education, land use impact and keeping business and
 commercial integrity for construction of road. Frequently two to three alternatives are chosen and
 these alternatives are presented in Table 5.1 given below:
                                  Table 5-1: Various alternatives of the project
   Road
                     Issues               Alternative 1              Alternative 2               Alternative 3
components
Alignment      Congestion           Bypass                      Realignment                 Tunnel
               Air pollution        Widen                       Bypass                      Vegetative Screen
Design         Noise                Solid barrier               Bypass                      Vegetative barrier
               Animal/Traffic       Cattle crossings in rural   Chicanes in forest land
               conflict             area
Route          Forest               Compensation on NPV         Realignment on non-         Bypass
                                                                forest land
               Water logged         Embankment                  Drainage                    Realignment
Material       Expansive Soil       Complete removal Black      Use of fly ash within       Lime stabilization
               regions              cotton soil up to 1 meter   100 km from thermal
                                    and laying with good        plant for embankment
                                    Gravel medium
Landscape      Stone quarry         As much as possible to      Back filling and            Redevelopment and
                                    carry out quarries          developing into             restoration of closed
                                    underground                 recreational spots          quarries into to a water
                                                                                            retention bodies
Obligatory     Temples/cultural     Realignment                 Shifting and
points         heritage                                         reconstruction with
               monuments                                        public consultation
Human          Land use             Provide adequate            Provide alternative lands
values                              compensation for the
                                    land loss
               Commercial           Realignment at congested    Adequate compensation       Training programmes
               integrity            locations in urban towns    for the buildings and       for Project Affected



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   Road
                    Issues                                Alternative 1                                                                         Alternative 2                                                            Alternative 3
components
                                                                                                                                         business re-                                               Persons (PAPs)
                                                                                                                                         establishment
               Health and                            Connectivity to nearest                                                             Connectivity to Nearest
               education                             Health care Centre                                                                  School
5.4     Bypass alternatives
There are no bypasses considered along subprojects Jagalur to NH 13 and Molkalmuru to SH 19.
5.5     Analysis of cross section type alternatives
Four different cross sectional type alternatives are considered for the subproject to suit the
requirements of the region that the proposed subproject road is passing through. The alternatives
considered for cross section types are basically rural and urban. Further, cross section types are
classified into different types to suit the land use and minimize resettlement and number of structures
affected. Cross section type alternatives considered for the subproject are given in the following Table
– 5.2.
                     Table 5-2: Cross sectional alternatives considered in the subproject.
                                                           Earthen Shoulder (m)


                                                                                  Blocks / Parking Bays
                                                                                  Shoulders with Paver
                                Paved Shoulder (m)




                                                                                                                                                             Embankment Slope
                                                                                                                                                             Width (m) – typical
                                                                                                                           Width of Darin (m)




                                                                                                                                                                                   Berm Width (m)


                                                                                                                                                                                                       Ditch Width (m)



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Total Width (m)
              Width of
                                                                                                           Foot Path (m)




             Carriageway                                                                                                                        Median (m)
 Type of
                                                                                            (m)




  Cross          (m)
 Section
            2–       4-
           Lane     Lane
 UR1A         7        -       1.5                         1                                                                         -           -           2.12                  0.5               2.75                      22.2
 UR1B         7        -        -                         2.5                                                                        -           -           2.12                  0.5               2.75                      22.2
                              2.5 to
  UR2         7                                               -                                                                                                                                                             13.8 - 17.8
                               4.5
  UR7         7                1.5                                                        1                                                                                                                                    14.6
5.6     Preferred Alternative:
The proposed Jagalur to NH 13 and Molkalmuru to SH 19 subprojects are existing State Highways
and they are being up-graded and no new alignment is being proposed except for minor realignments
for improving the road geometrics and for smoothening the sharp curves and avoid vehicular
accidents along the subproject road. The scope for project alternatives as a whole is very much
limited.




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6       ANTICIPATED             ENVIRONMENTAL                IMPACTS        AND        MITIGATION
        MEASURES
There is a growing awareness on the major environmental impacts of the road development projects.
Some of the major environmental impacts of road projects on the natural environment and nearby
communities (ecosystems). However, these impacts can be largely mitigated through engineering
designs, good construction practices.
The subproject aim being limited to up-gradation of existing state highway stretches of Jagalur to NH
3 and Molkalmur to SH 19 subproject road will pose limited adverse impacts, all of which are site-
specific, and can easily be mitigated. Irreversible impacts are few and limited to land use conversion
into road carriageway. These situations do not call for full scale environmental impact assessment.
The chapter identifies potential environmental impacts and formulates suitable mitigation measures.
6.1     Impact on Physical Environment
6.1.1 Climate
Impacts during Construction Phase
The project corridors Jagalur to NH 3 and Molkalmur to SH 19 are in a semi arid zone of Karnatka
state. Though no change in the macro-climatic parameters (precipitation, temperature and wind) is
envisaged due to the subproject, cutting of approximately 716 number of trees, laying of paved
surface and other construction activities temporarily modify the microclimate.
Mitigation measures
       Efforts shall be made to minimize the number of trees being cut during design by realigning the
        subproject section with green tunnels. Efforts to minimize the impact on trees shall be continued
        during the project implementation by coordinating with the contractor.
    
    Approximately, 2,876 avenue plantations shall be taken up along both sides of the road giving
    due importance to Karnataka Tree Preservation Act, and additional plantation works shall be
    taken up on available oxbow land locations and within RoW as an enhancement measures to
    reduce the impacts of air and dust pollution and act as a natural filter to traffic emissions
    (Appendix – 10 and 11).
Impacts during Operation Phase
There would be an increase in daytime temperature near the newly paved surfaces of the road due to
increase in the surface area of blacktop of widened road and loss of shade giving trees. Temporary
increase in the temperature assumes significance especially to the slow moving traffic, pedestrians
and the first row of residences / receptors along the corridor.
Mitigation measures
       This impact shall be avoided by planting a row of avenue trees and median plantation.
        Landscaping and restoring the green cover along the length of the proposed road reduces the
        impact of temperature along the alignment (Appendix – 10).
6.1.2     Natural Hazard
The subproject roads T 13 and T 17 passes through different topographical locations and some
sections of subproject are prone to inundation during flash floods in the region and have significant
effect over the road structure and lead to fast deterioration of pavement and shoulder of the roads.
Flood prone stretches identified along the subproject is given in the Table – 6.1.




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                                Table 6-1: Flood prone areas along subproject
        Cor     Chainage      Length of the reach
                                                                           Remarks
        ID       (Km)            to be raised
                 4.700         50m on either side     Road level raised with balancing culvert
        T 13
                 8.600         30m on either side     Road level raised with balancing culvert
        T 17     0.300         50m on either side     Road level raised with balancing culvert
As per earth quake prone zoning, whole of Karnataka State falls under zone II and III. The subproject
area falls in zone II (Low Damage Risk Zone) meaning least prone to earthquakes.
Mitigation measures
       The height of the embankment along with both longitudinal and cross drainage shall be
        improved in all areas of flood prone section in such a way that the raise in the embankment
        height should not act as barrier for the free flow of runoff water and should avoid flooding and
        water logging that could have negative impact on the traffic, local community damaging the
        road surface and the embankment. Run off water recharge pits have been proposed to facilitate
        the infiltration of runoff water into the ground (Appendix – 2).
       As the subproject road falls in zone II (Low Damage Risk Zone) no special design
        considerations are warranted for civil structures.
6.1.3     Air quality
Air quality along the subproject road alignment and at congested major settlement locations like
Jagalur, Molkalmuru and Hanagal will be adversely impacted both during construction and operation
stages.
Impacts during Construction Stages
Most of the dust (suspended particulate matter) during construction arises from operations such as
excavation and filling during site preparation works, loading, unloading and transportation of
construction material, drilling use of heavy equipments and machinery in the earthworks and
pavement works. Large quantities of dust become wind borne and are carried away depending on the
wind velocity and wind direction. The fugitive dust released during the construction activities cause
immediate effect on the construction workers as well as on the settlements adjacent to the alignment,
especially those in the downwind direction.
Increased suspended particulate matter and fugitive gaseous emissions like, oxides of sulphur (SO2),
oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) will be released from
vehicles, hot mix plant, batching plants and diesel generator sets; stone crushing units in the stone
quarries, etc also add to the problem. Most of the generated pollutants from the above activities are
limited to construction phase and confined to impact zone in downwind direction of the site hence no
significant is envisaged.
Mitigation measures
       Consent for Establishment (CFE) and Consent for Operation (CFO) shall be obtained for
        construction establishments such as hot mix plants, batching plants and stone crushers from the
        SPCB. All project activities are adhered to the contractual obligations under clearances and
        approvals
       All vehicles and construction equipments operating for the contractor and the consultant shall
        obtain “Pollution Under Control” (PUC) Certificates. Good maintenance of all vehicles and
        machines used in construction activities must be conformed to the National standards.


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     Vehicles deployed for borrow material, sand and aggregate haulage shall be covered with
      tarpaulins to be spillage proof.
     Location of all construction establishments such as hot mix plants, WMM plants, Crusher
      plants, Construction camps and offices etc shall be located at least 1 km away from the human
      habitations and preferably on the leeward side ensuring all legal requirements and standards
      (Appendix - 21).
     In order to curb the increased fugitive dust emissions in the area due to excavations, loading,
      unloading, vehicular movement and raw material transport, provisions shall be made for
      periodical sprinkling water on all the haul roads on a regular basis during the entire construction
      period (Appendix – 16).
     Pollution control devices such as cyclone separators /scrubbers shall be installed to control
      emissions from hot mix plants, crushing units and concrete batching plants. Height of the stacks
      shall be as per the statutory requirements.
     Construction labours shall be provided with nose masks and other personnel protective
      equipments (Appendix – 9).
     LPG or low sulphur diesel shall be used in the Diesel Generator sets and DGs are fitted with the
      chimney stack of required height.
     To ensure the efficacy of the mitigation measures suggested, all operational areas (work sites,
      haul roads, hot mix plants, quarries, borrow sites and disposal sites) under the road construction
      works are to be regularly monitored for air quality parameters so that suitable mitigation
      measures can be taken up if any of the parameters exceed the prescribed limit.
Impacts during Operation Stage
Operation stage impacts will not be as severe as the construction stage impacts and they will be
confined generally to a ribbon development close to edge of the pavement.
After the completion of road project, smoothened new pavement and widened roads reduces fugitive
dust emissions. Reduction in the vehicular emissions is due to more uniform speed and less frequent
acceleration and deceleration of vehicles. The levels of SO2, NOx, CO and HC are likely to come
down to a greater extent by the operating vehicles of new roads with extensive savings on
consumption of fuel. However there may be localized impact with increase in number of vehicles
(traffic) running on the road, adulterated fuel supply and poor maintenance of vehicle, which spreads
down depending on wind direction and wind speeds.
There will be continued enhancement of air pollution due to increase in number of vehicles on the
improved roads over a period of design life. It is difficult to predict the pollution levels from vehicle
since it is not known how the adoption of new technology vehicles would proceed. However it is
possible to assess the future pollution load on the assumption that old technology vehicle would
persist. The unit load of pollutants from different types of vehicles have been estimated under the same
assumption by the Indian Institute of Petroleum which is presented in Table 6.2.


                         Table 6-2: Emission factors of different vehicles (g/Km)
              Types of Vehicle         CO        HC         NOx       SOx       Pb         TSP
       Two Wheeler                       8.3     5.16       -         0.013     0.004      -
       Cars                            24.03     3.57       1.57      0.053     0.0117     -
       Three Wheelers                  12.25     7.77       -         0.029     0.009      -



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       Buses-Urban                        4.381 1.327             8.281     1.441     -           0.275
       Trucks                             3.425 1.327             6.475     1.127     -           0.45
       Light Commercial Vehicles          1.3     0.5             2.5       0.4       -           0.1
      Source: Indian Institute of Petroleum, 1985
Based on the emission factors and predicted increase in the number of vehicles, the loads of vehicular
pollution in the project road for the year 2009 as well as those expected in 2015 have been estimated in
Table 6.3.
                  Table 6-3: Pollution load of pollutants along the project routes (in Tons/Km)
 Link
           Link description       Year       CO              HC       NOx           SO2      Pb             TSP
  ID
 T13     Jagalur – NH 13          2009     0.012415    0.004928     0.002332   0.000470   0.000006        0.000116
                                  2015     0.021306    0.007996     0.003668   0.000715   0.000010        0.000174
 T17     Molkalmuru – SH          2009     0.045820    0.025219     0.002915   0.000653   0.000025        0.000147
         19                       2015     0.074814    0.039357     0.004873   0.001011   0.000041        0.000221
Note: TSP: Total Suspended Particulate, CO: Carbon Monoxide, HC Hydrocarbons, NOx: Oxides of Nitrogen,
        SO2: Sulpher dioxide, Pb: Lead.
Mitigation measures:
       During operation stage of the project, vehicular emissions of pollutants (SPM, RSPM, CO,
        SO2, NOx and Pb) shall be monitored at approved representative locations against the National
        Standards (Appendix – 7). Regular monitoring of air quality along the project area should help
        to ensure air pollutants within permissible limits.
       Avenue and median plantation along the road sides and medians respectively should help to
        control dust and fugitive emissions from reaching the receptors. Compensatory plantation could
        be taken up in the available space within RoW. Tree plantation for attenuating pollution levels
        shall include pollution tolerant species with thick foliage (Appendix – 10).
6.1.4     Noise
Impact on Noise levels during construction stage
The community abutting subproject will be adversely affected by increase in noise level due to road
development projects Road noise depends on factors such as nature of construction activity, traffic
intensity, type and condition of the vehicles plying on the road, acceleration/deceleration/gear changes
by the vehicles depending on the level of congestion and smoothness of road surface (IRC: 104-1988).
Pre construction stage activities such as establishment of workers camps, stockyards will generate a
little noise in addition to localised (base) noise levels. There will be increased noise levels due to
diversion of traffic and movement of heavy equipments on unpaved roads for a short duration during
the pre-construction stage. As these noise generating activities are not likely to be placed near
settlement locations, the noise impact is bound to be negligible.
Various road construction activities increase noise levels in the impact zone of the project corridor.
The construction activities such as excavation for foundations, grading of the site, construction of
structures and facilities, movement of heavy vehicles, loading, transportation and unloading of
construction materials and also activities such as blasting at stone quarry sites, crushing plants, asphalt
production produce significant noise during construction stage. Noise is a major area of concern,
especially where a number of sensitive receptors are located within Impact zone and close to RoW.
The impact on ambient noise due to the project is not of significance during both construction as well
as the operation stages.



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Mitigation measures:
       Use of enclosures, walls, installation of mufflers around noisy equipment and the noise sources
        reduce noise generated during construction and demolition activities.
       Substituting quieter equipment or construction methods; minimizing time of operation and
        locating equipment farther from sensitive receptors.
       Timing of noisier construction and demolition activities to between 6 AM and 10 PM would
        reduce construction noise impacts during night.
       Detouring construction trucks away from noise-sensitive areas such as schools and hospitals
        would eliminate construction truck noise from those areas.
       Personnel Protective Equipments (PPE) such as Ear plugs and earmuffs shall be provided to the
        workers operating or working near noise generating machines (Appendix – 9).
       Equipping construction equipment engines with adequate mufflers,                silencers, and engine
        enclosures would reduce their noise by 5 to 10 dB (A).
       Turning off construction equipments during the prolonged periods of nonuse eliminates noise
        from construction equipment during those periods.
       Regular maintenance of all equipments and training to equipment operators would reduce noise
        levels and increase efficiency of equipments.
       Locating stationary equipment away from sensitive receptors would decrease noise
        considerably and
       Consideration of bypass to avoid the road construction near Gadag town will reduce the impact
        of noise during construction.
Impact on ambient Noise levels during Operation Stage
The noise will be reduced during operation stage as subproject road will be smoothened and widened
as a part of road improvement. However there will be negligible noise from usage of poorly
maintained vehicles and old vehicles. The impact is more significant at the sensitive receptors like
schools, colleges and hospitals present along the project road. Details of noise sensitive receptors
located in impact zone of the project are given below in Table 6.4.
                           Table 6-4: Noise sensitive locations along the subproject
 S.    Chainage
                                    LHS                                                 RHS
No.      (KM)
T 13 (Jagaluru – NH 13)
 1       0.600                                                     Govt. Higher Primary School, Jagaluru
 2       2.400    .                                                College, Jagaluru
 3       9.000    Govt. Primary School, Ramathgalli
T17 (Molkalmur - SH19)
 1       0.600                                                     Civil court, Molakalmuru.
 2                                                                 Govt. Higher Primary School,
         1.000
                                                                   Molakalmuru
Adopting Highway Noise Model and by incorporating the future predicted number of vehicle users in
community and noise level factor, the noise level of vehicular traffic in 2009 as well as those expected
in future (2015), the noise levels have been estimated and given in Table 6.5.
                Table 6-5: Noise level (in dB (A)) due to Traffic along the project Road links
      Link                                  Total Vehicle q (Vehicles/                 u (Miles/
                 Project road        Year                              d (in M)                    L (dB(A)
       ID                                   per day (No.)    Hours)                     Hour)



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      T13 Jagalur – NH 13           2009      1301             54        15         17.472       64.229
                                    2015      2103             88        15         50.000       75.447
    T17 Molakalmuru – SH 19         2009      4714            196        15         15.833       68.964
                                    2015      7499            312        15         50.000       80.969
*Traffic predictions have been done based on 2006 traffic surveys.
Mitigation measures
       Planting one or more rows of avenue vegetation along the project road and stationary noise
        sources reduce noise
       Noise barriers are constructed at sensitive receptors such as schools, colleges, hospitals, etc. can
        reduce long-term noise levels associated with road subprojects (Appendix - 6).
       Traffic management measures such as prohibition on use of horns and speed restrictions at
        noise sensitive areas like schools, civil courts and major hospitals reduce roadway noise levels
        (Appendix – 14).
       Reduction in traffic congestion due to road widening correspondingly decreases traffic noise
        levels.
       A regular monitoring programme should help to ensure the control of noise pollution under
        prescribed limits.
6.1.5     Impact on Soil and Land use
6.1.5.1    Loss of Productive Soil and Change in Land use
Construction phase:
Up-gradation of subproject road requires acquisition of agricultural land abutting subproject where the
proposed RoW width exceeds the existing RoW. Some stretches of the project corridor constitutes
productive agricultural land which may be affected. Loss of agricultural land may result from the
establishment of construction camp, labour camp, concrete batching plant, hot mix plants borrow
areas, quarries near to subproject roads and access roads.
Suspended particulate matter from quarries and crushers lead to decrease in productivity of the soil;
degeneration of plant species and retards the plant growth.
Mitigation measures:
       Top humus rich soil from productive agricultural lands is preserved during construction and
        reused later for plantation works and for turfing works of embankment slopes.
       All efforts shall be made to restore the sites of construction camps, labour camps, borrow areas,
        quarries and access roads to these establishments shall be restored and rehabilitated to its
        original land use after construction works are over (Appendix – 17).
       It shall be planned in such a way that construction activities and diversion of traffic nearby
        settlements does not disturb the commercial activities of the towns (Appendix – 14).
Operation Stage impacts
After the construction of road is over, some of the land use changes are envisaged due to improved
accessibility to far off distances and changes in socio economic activities, especially linear
developments at the villages and towns will increase. The agricultural and horticultural activities will
be positively benefited from better roads and connectivity.
Mitigation measures:



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     It is necessary to ensure that no deterioration or major land use change such as ribbon
      development shall take place. Many of the land use changes by the subproject road
      improvement are beyond the control of project proponent.
6.1.5.2    Soil Erosion
Construction Phase
Road construction activities will intensify the effects of natural soil erosion due to vegetation removal,
soil disturbance and exposure of bare soil surface.
Soil erosion is anticipated at bridge and culvert construction sites. Problem will be more pronounced
if the construction is taken up in rainy season. Construction activities such as cuttings and fillings will
initiate soil erosion within CoI and at borrow areas, quarries and access roads to these areas.
Mitigation measures
     Special care has to be taken while construction at erosion prone locations during monsoon.
     Recommended slope ratio of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal shall be maintained to avoid soil erosion
      and land slides at embankment slopes and at borrow areas. IRC: 56-1974 shall be followed for
      treatment of embankment slopes for control of erosion (Appendix – 18).
     Stone pitching and retaining structures shall be provided to control to soil erosion wherever
      necessary. Turfing is taken up for the embankment slopes of bridge locations as a slope
      protection measure and to improve the aesthetics (Appendix – 18).
     All construction debris shall be cleared immediately after the construction is over to prevent
      unconsolidated soil being eroded by either wind or runoff water.
Operation Phase
No significant impacts are predicted other than those resulting from neglected protection works in
erosion prone areas and failure to maintain re-vegetated areas along the alignment, borrow sites, and
debris disposal sites.
Bridge approaches with high embankments are vulnerable to soil erosion during high rainfalls.
Mitigation measures
     To prevent soil erosion along the embankment during operation phase, regular monitoring
      inspections should be undertaken to ensure that drainage, bridge approaches and re-vegetated
      areas are maintained and strengthened to prevent re-occurrence of soil erosion.
6.1.5.3    Borrow areas and Quarries
Generally, murrum is collected from the wasteland notified from Government or with the consent
from the farmers (owners) in case of farmland. Borrowing earth will cause loss of productive top soil,
changes in land use, soil erosion, and degradation of land. Generation of dust from roads, spillage and
compaction of borrow material along haul roads during transportation to the construction sites is of
significance. List of proposed murrum borrow pits is given in Appendix – 17.
Sand will be dredged from Harihara (Tungabadhra) River sand Quarry, Hagari River sand Quarry,
which may alter the course of flow disturbing the river bed and velocity of flowing water in the river.
Increase in localised sedimentation may be noticed nearby dredged locations.
No new quarries will be opened for the subproject as quarry material will be sourced from the existing
nearby. However, if new quarries are to be opened up use of explosive is absolutely necessary to


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break open the aggregates. Opening up quarry alters the terrine affecting the aesthetics of the
landscape and alters contours of the geographical region. Impact will be very large and permanent in
nature. A major source of dust during the construction stage is from stone crushing operations from
the crushers and the vibrating screen.
Mitigation measures
     Contractor should to prepare Debris transportation and disposal plan; Borrow area
      /quarry/crusher area development and rehabilitation plan before starting construction activities
      (Appendix- 17 and 18).
     All requisite clearances shall be obtained from State Pollution Control Board, Mines and
      Geology Department before starting quarrying and borrowing activities.
     Controlled blasting techniques like restricted quantity of explosive to be charged per delay
      detonator in stone quarries, shall be adhered to restrict the range of fly rock (Appendix – 18).
     The information on quarries opened exclusively for the purpose of the subproject shall be
      brought to notice of the Government to ensure that these quarry leases are not renewed after
      expiry.
     During construction phase there will be diversion of traffic at these quarry locations. Sprinkling
      water for the earthen haul roads to minimize the fugitive dust and good traffic management is
      necessitated (Appendix – 14).
     Abandoned or closed quarries can be used as final receptors of unserviceable construction waste
      with required compaction. The area should be rehabilitated with good soil for 30 cm thickness
      and turfing or plantation shall be done in the area.
     Topsoil should be preserved and back filled after the rehabilitation of quarry/borrow areas
      Natural geographical contours and natural landscape shall be preserved and maintained.
     The earth material required should be borrowed from the wasteland or barren land and should
      not be excavated from the productive agricultural lands and forestland (Appendix – 13).
     The crusher units are to be covered with windbreaker sheet or fitted with cyclone scrubber to
      decrease the suspended particulate matter. Frequent sprinkling of water in the premises of the
      crusher will reduce the fugitive dust and growing vegetative belt around the crushers will
      control the suspended particulate matter (Appendix – 19).
6.1.5.4    Compaction and contamination of Soil
Construction Phase
Soils of productive agricultural area adjoining subproject road, haul roads, construction camp area,
labour camp area and at other construction establishments will be compacted due to the movement of
heavy equipments, transportation vehicles and other construction activities.
Soil may be contaminated due to spillage and inappropriate storage of oils and lubricants at workshop
areas. Soil also gets contaminated by the spills of bitumen waste at hot mix plants. Unscientific
disposal of liquid waste (sewage) and domestic solid waste from construction camps and labour
camps will contaminate the soil.
Mitigation measures
     Soil compaction beyond RoW shall be avoided by controlling the movement of construction
      vehicles.



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       Existing roads shall be used for hauling the construction materials and new haulage roads are
        routed on the barren lands.
       If haulage roads are inevitable on productive agricultural land, it shall be reclaimed to the
        original nature after the completion of construction activity.
       Construction camps, labour camps, material storage areas shall be rehabilitated to the original
        condition after the completion of construction work.
       A construction camp layout plan shall be developed with designated area for storage of fuel, oil
        and lubricants with required slope directing it to oil interceptor before washings are let into the
        waste water chamber. The collected oil and grease residues are collected and stored and
        disposed off as per the Hazardous waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989 (Appendix –
        20).
       Waste water treatment plants shall be constructed at labour camps to treat the sewage to the
        prescribed CPCB standards (Appendix – 7) before disposing it on the land or water.
       Domestic solid waste from construction and labour camps shall be segregated into
        biodegradable and non biodegradable before being sent to treatment. Biodegradable wastes are
        treated by composting and non biodegradable wastes are either recycled or disposed off to
        authorised land fill site.
6.1.6     Impact on Ground water
Construction Phase
Water required for construction of road and for domestic uses of labour camps and workers drawn
from existing community bore wells and nearby irrigation canals may impact the local users. Paved
surface of the road will reduce the percolation of runoff water and decreases the ground water
recharge. Sources of ground water such as bore wells and hand pumps are getting affected by the
widening of the project road. Unscientific disposal of the untreated waste water generated in the
construction camp and labour camps may contaminate the ground water.
Mitigation measures
       In view of the special situation in Karnataka, contractor shall prepare and implement the
        approved Water Management Plan in accordance with the Appendix – 15. The contractor shall
        provide a list of locations and type of sources from where water for construction shall be
        extracted.
       Ground water recharge pits shall be provided at suitable intervals to facilitate the recharge of
        runoff water in to the ground augmenting the water table of the project area (Appendix – 2).
       The contractor shall use ground/surface water as a source of water for the construction and may
        set up own bore well facility for construction work with requisite permission from State Ground
        Water Authorities. To avoid disruption/disturbance to availability and supply to nearby
        communities, contractor shall extract water from approved locations.
       Contractor may take surface water from the Irrigation Canal with the written consent from the
        Irrigation Department.
       Construction camps and labour camps shall be provided with suitable storage and treatment
        facility to treat the sewage. Before it is disposed off (Appendix – 21).
       All ground water supply sources which are impacted by the subproject road are relocated to a
        suitable location in consultation with local community.



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Operation Stage
No significant impact on ground water during operation phase except reduction in the recharge of
ground water due to paved surface of subproject road.
Mitigation measures
       Provision for Ground water recharge pits are made at suitable location along the subproject road
        to facilitate the runoff water to percolate in to the ground (Appendix – 2). Regular maintenance
        of these recharge pits shall be done during the operation stage to prevent choking of recharge
        pits.
6.1.7     Impact on surface water bodies
Construction Phase
There is ChinnaHagari river (T13), four ponds in the impact zone and there are no major rivers in the
influence zone except a tributary of hagari river (T17) of the subproject roads. There are a few small
streams and small irrigational canals crossed by the subproject road. There are five ponds along the
project road. Disturbance to flows; alteration of drainage causing erosion; sewage and
oil/grease/lubricant contamination from construction camps may occur.
Some of the water supply units adjacent to subproject road within proposed RoW will be impacted.
The affected water supply units such as hand pumps, wells and agricultural bore wells within
proposed RoW are given in Table 6.6.
        Table 6-6: Water supply sources likely affected link wise in the project area (in Nos.)
                                    Bore Wells MWS/                              Over Head       Public
Link                       Hand                              Water Water
      Link description              and Pump Water                                Tank/GL        Toilet/
 ID                       Pumps                               Taps     Lines
                                      house        cistern                       Reservoir      Man hole
T13 Jagalur – NH 13         3             3           -         -         -           -            -
T17 Molakalmuru – SH         -            -           -         -         -           -            -
     19
Use of local water resources for road construction activities may disturb water supply use.
Mitigation measures
       Construction works of culverts and bridge (cross drainage structures) are taken up during the
        lean flow periods in summer to minimize the impacts on drainage.
       All the water resources and water supply connections such as bore wells, taps, water cisterns,
        pipelines, etc. being impacted by the project shall be relocated in such a manner that it should
        not hamper the access to drinking water. Relocation of bore wells shall be done with consent of
        concerned water supply authority or the owner.
       Water for construction shall not be tapped from the surface water resources like non-perennial
        rivers, lakes and water tanks which are being utilized for drinking purposes.
       Ponds and other cattle feed tanks should be conserved by effective planning and design
        modifications. If so affected new ponds have to be constructed by taking the public opinion and
        revenue authority. The locations should be such that it should be on barren land.
       Provision for enhancement of one water body along the stretch of the subproject road has been
        made (Appendix – 11).
       Construction waste shall not be dumped in to the rivers as it constricts the passage to the flow of
        water and ecosystem of the water body is disturbed (Appendix – 16).



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       Appropriate location should be sited for the construction camp, workers camp, etc. to prevent
        the waste water from entering these water resources and prevent incidence of spreading of
        communicable diseases through water. Provision for treatment of wastewater shall be made
        (Appendix – 21).
       Cleaning of construction vehicles and construction equipments shall be prohibited at rivers,
        canal and other water bodies.
       When the excavation is undertaken in the wet area of the water body, the banks shall be
        protected, such that the slopes are not steeper than 1 vertical to 2 horizontal. Protection works
        such as geo-textures, silt traps shall be used to control the erosion at these points.
       Provision for silt traps has been made at regular intervals of the subproject road (Appendix – 3)
       All efforts shall be maintained to use the hazardous scarified bituminous material in the
        construction of approach roads and disposed off in the landfill or dumping into clay lined
        bitumen disposal pits so that that leachate does not reach the ground water and pollute
        (Appendix – 5).
       Provision for oil interceptors shall be made at all the construction camps/workshop areas to
        separate the oil and grease waste generated from servicing of equipments and vehicles used in
        the construction (Appendix – 8).
Operation stage
Surface water contamination may result from storm water containing oil and grease, metals and other
pollutants released by vehicles on the roadway. Storm water may also contain nutrients and herbicides
used for management of vegetation in the right-of-way.
Proposed widening also contributes to consolidation of embankment decreasing the permeability of
the paved and unpaved shoulder area by decreasing the ground water recharge and increasing in run
off aftermaths of road construction. Surface runoff also increases due to paved impervious surface of
main carriageway.
The accidental spills of oils, fuels and other hazardous chemicals on the roads during operational
phase will pollute near by water courses of the area.
Mitigation measures
       During operation stage, regular cleaning of chocked / blocked or damaged drainage provision
        are necessary to avoid operational impact.
       Monitoring of water quality to comply with Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act
        will have better control over the quality maintenance.
6.1.8     Impact on Hydrology and Drainage
Construction Phase
Construction of high embankment road may act as a barrier to the flow of runoff water in absence of
adequate cross drainage structures.
Run off water quantity may increase near the project area due to the paved surface of the subproject
road.




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Mitigation measures
       In addition to treatment of existing culverts and bridges, new cross drainage structures shall be
        proposed to take care of the increased run off and maintain the existing drainage morphometry
        of the project area.
       Longitudinal drainage system is designed to handle surface runoff from the paved surface of the
        road and embankment slopes as per IRC: SP 42 and IRC: SP 50.
       Rain water harvesting structures shall be provided to recharge the ground water from excess of
        runoff from the surface of the project road.
Operation Stage
Hydrology of the project area is least impacted during operation stage, if all design criterion are taken
into consideration during design.
Mitigation measures
       Regular maintenance of drains by removing the silt and dirt before the start of monsoon will
        prevent choking of drains.
6.2     Impact on Biological Environment
6.2.1     Terrestrial Ecology
Most of the project road stretch passes through agricultural areas and built-up areas and there are no
National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and other eco-sensitive areas nearby subproject road.
Construction Stage
The acquisition of productive agricultural land at some stretches is inherent to the road development
projects. The loss of crops on productive agricultural land is inevitable during construction stage due
to operating heavy vehicles.
Some stretches of avenue trees such as Ficus beghalensis, Tamarindus indica, Pongamia pinnata,
Azadirachta indica (Bevu), etc. are found along the subproject road. Total of 716 trees are impacted
due to the project. Cutting of trees will have negligible impact on local meteorological parameters.
Details of number of trees to be felled in the project area for the proposed road widening are presented
in Table 6.7.
                         Table 6-7: Girth wise likely impact on avenue trees (in Nos.)
 Link                                     Girth (30cm     Girth (>60cm Girth (>90cm   Girth
              Link description                                                                           Total
  ID                                        –60 cm)          - 90cm)     - 180cm)   (>180cm)
 T13      Jagalur – NH 13                     169              141          91         70                 471
 T17      Molakalmuru – SH 19                  67               94          54         30                 245
                                          Total trees impacted                                            716
During construction of subproject road, there will be inconvenience for local road users and domestic
animals and also cause health problems by the dust and gaseous pollutants for a short period.
Mitigation measures:
       Trees impacted due to the project shall only be cut after requisite permission from State Forest
        Department is obtained.
       Trees impacted by the project shall be compensated by planting of endemic tree species which
        are highly tolerable to vehicular emissions and dust will be taken up as per IRC: SP 21.




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     The median in urban sectors are landscaped with small tree/bushes and blooming shrubs to
      avoid future tree cutting when the road is upgraded further.
     All necessary measures such as siting of construction establishments away from human
      habitations; increase of stack height; regular maintenance of construction equipments and
      vehicles; etc. shall be taken up to reduce the dust and gaseous emissions during construction
      activities.
     Rows of approximately 2,876 avenue trees shall be planted on both sides of the subproject for
      the entire length (Appendix – 10). Indigenous species are selected for plantation, which will suit
      the local environmental conditions. Some species of trees, shrubs and herbs recommended for
      plantation are given in the following table.
                     Trees                                      Shrubs                          Herbs
Acacia arabica (Kateria babul)                    Bougainvillea (Baganvilas)           Achyranthes aspera
Acacia auriculiformis (Pencil tree)               Calotropis procera R. Br. (Madar)    Jacq. (Latjira)
Samanea saman ( Rain tree)                        Cassia sophera Wall. (Kasunda)       Amaranthus graecizans
Terminalia arjun (Arjuna)                         Clerodendron infortunatum. (Bhant)   Auct.
Pongamia pinnata (Honge)                          Ipomoea fistulosa (Behaya)           Argemone mexican L.
Peltophorum pterocarpum (Yellow                   Lantana camara L. (Ghaneri)          (Sialkanta)
gulmohar)                                         Murraya exotica L. (Kamini)          Croton sparsiflorus
Casuarina equisetifolia (Sarve mara)                                                   Morong.
                                                  Nerium odorum Ait. (Lal Kaner)
Michelia champaca (Sampige)                                                            Solanum xanthocarpum
                                                  Ricinus communis L. (Arand)
                                                                                       Schard and Wendl.
Polyalthia longifolia (Ashoka)                    Tabernaemontana coronaria Wils.      (Bhatkataiya)
Delonix regia (Gulmohar)                          (Chandni)
Butea monosperma (Muthuga)                        Thevetia nerifolia Juss. (Peela
Jacaranda mimosaefolia (Jacaranda)                Kaner)
Plumeria kubra (Deva kanagale)
Bauhinia variegate (Kanchivala)
Aegle marmelos Correa. (Bilpatra)
Azadirachat indica. (Bevu)
Ficus religiosa Forsk. (Arali)

Operation stage
Impacts to terrestrial ecology during project operation are either minimal or positive. Trees will be
established along the road such that it does not affect the visibility and improve micro-climate (see
Appendix-10) and sequester greenhouse gases.
Mitigation measures
     All efforts shall be made for survival of planted trees. A Memorandum of Understanding has
      been signed with Karnataka State Forest Department to take up the plantation work along with
      maintenance of trees for 7 years. Selection of big tree species having lateral growth should be
      avoided to ensure vertical clearance on the subproject road to avoid any obstruction to the
      visibility for the operating vehicles. Small avenue trees shall be preferred over big trees. Fruit
      bearing avenue trees shall be avoided.
     The traffic – animal conflicts during the operation stage shall be resolved by implementing
      speed calming mitigation measures such as road humps, rumble strips, speed limits, sign boards
      etc (Appendix – 14).
     It is necessary to comply with Hazardous Waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1989
      during road construction projects to protect animals by consuming contaminated water.
      Accidental chemical spills shall be handled by emergency spill procedure such as stopping the



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        flow; removing ignition source; initiating emergency response; cleanup and safe disposal will
        be followed (Appendix – 20).
       It is essential to make provisions for the transportation of agricultural equipments and animal
        crossing wherever necessary by providing service roads, speed breakers (road humps, rumble
        strips, signboards, etc.). Although situation does not warrant for the provision of exclusive
        underpasses, all possible efforts shall be made to avoid animal-traffic conflict arising out of
        proposed improvement of project roads.
6.2.2     Aquatic Ecology
Construction Stage
Impacts on the aquatic ecology during construction include increase in the silt inflow to the surface
water bodies and disposal of liquid wastes and untreated sewage from construction camps and labour
camps into the surface water bodies.
Mitigation measures
       Construction of road embankments shall be adhered to 1:2 slope ratio and turfing on the slopes
        will reduce the embankment erosion. Construction of cross drainage structures will be taken up
        during lean flow period to avoid the silt inflow to the surface water bodies.
       Liquid wastes and sewage from the construction establishments will be treated to meet the
        CPCB standards (Appendix – 7) before disposing it into water bodies.
Operation stage
There is no significant impact on aquatic ecology during operation stage except during accidental
chemical spill in the project area entering the surrounding water bodies and proving detrimental to
aquatic fauna.
There will be impact on aquatic ecology due to flow of sediments from the embankment slopes if
turfing done on slopes are not regularly monitored and maintained.
Mitigation measures
       Accidental chemical spills shall be handled by emergency spill procedure such as stopping the
        flow; removing ignition source; initiating emergency response; cleanup and safe disposal will
        be followed.
       Provision for silt traps has been made at regular intervals, especially at major cross drainage
        structures to trap the silt before it reaches the water bodies along the subproject road (Appendix
        – 3 and 16).
6.3     Management of Construction Debris/Waste
Construction debris/waste is generated due to demolition of existing structures, scarification of
existing pavement and excavation at some section of the subproject road. Improper disposal of
scarified bitumen causes decrease in soil fertility and water pollution. Careless disposal of debris can
obstruct waterways causing siltation of reservoirs and reduce capacity. Unleaded demolition wastes
will cause traffic blockage and dust causing inconvenience and health risks.




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Mitigation measures
         During the site clearance and disposal of debris, the contractor shall take full care to ensure that
          public or private properties are not affected; there are no dwellings below the dumpsite and the
          traffic is not interrupted.
         The Contractor shall at all times ensure that the entire existing canal and drains within and
          adjacent to the site are kept safe and free from any debris.
         Construction waste debris shall be utilised for backfilling embankments, filling pits,
          construction of cross roads, approach roads and landscaping before being disposed into disposal
          pits.
         Debris disposal sites shall be sited away from sensitive locations like settlements, water body,
          forest areas and any other sensitive locations (Appendix – 1 and 13).
         The debris dumpsites have to be suitably rehabilitated by planting local species of shrubs and
          other plants so that the landscape is coherent with the local environment.
         Care should always be taken to maintain the hydrological flow in the area and dumping sites do
          not contaminate the water sources such as rivers and ponds.
The locations of Disposal sites have to be selected such that (Appendix – 1):
       At least 1000 m away from residential area and located leeward side of wind.
       Disposal sites are located at least 1000 m away from sensitive locations like Settlements, forest
        areas (Appendix – 13) and other sensitive locations.
       Disposal sites do not contaminate any water sources, rivers etc for this site should be located
        away from water body.
       Public perception about the location of debris disposal site has to be obtained before finalizing the
        location. Permission from the Village/local community is to be obtained for the Disposal site
        selected.
6.4       Socio-Economic Impact
6.4.1       Positive Impacts
Road projects aim to improve urban and rural area connectivity, which in turn will improve economic
and social welfare of rural communities. Improved pavements will invite transport operators
connecting remote areas improving access to markets, jobs, and education and health services. Crop
pattern may change so that the perishable cash crops have an easy access to the markets and get better
prices for their agricultural products.
Tourism will improve contributing to the local economic activities through sign/information boards
with regarding ecological, tourism and pilgrimage areas (Appendix – 4). Good roads will reduce
travel time, fuel consumption and pollutants emitted by the operating vehicles.
Roads promote social and gender equity through non-traditional channel. Access to transportation on
safe roads has direct impact on economic standing and quality of life in affected community. Road
improvement projects increases buying and selling opportunities, availability of emergency health
care, and promotes stronger familial links. These benefits accrue differently to women than men. With
increase buying and selling opportunities, women become more independent and lessen the risk
associated with their vulnerabilities. Economic empowerment often means life or death for most
vulnerable group in society. With access to better roads maternal mortality in affected communities
due to access to health care, and the cost of transport is reduced, which is one of the key barriers to


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those in need of medical assistance. Usually taken for granted are impacts of roads allowing women to
travel and visit extended family members which has proven to be critical in reducing risk of isolation
and deterrent against domestic violence.
6.4.2     Negative Impacts
Improvement of existing road requires acquisition of agricultural land and also impact on the
agricultural productivity at the fringe of RoW.
A variety of utilities serving the regional needs like electric poles, electric transformers, telephone
poles, telephone junction boxes which are within impact zone shall be impacted. The categories of
such impacted utilities are given in Table – 6-8.
                  Table 6-8: List of utilities being affected by the proposed roads (in Nos.)
      Link                                   Electric          Electric     Telephone        Telephone
                  Link description
       ID                                     poles          Transformer       pole         Junction Box
      T13    Jagalur – NH 13                    64                2             4                 -
      T17    Molakalmuru – SH 19                25                1             6                 -
There are many religious structures such as temples, mosque, church, shrines, and arali kattes along
the subproject corridor. Some of these structures are impacted directly or indirectly during
construction of road project. The impact on religious structures due to project road is shown in
following Table 6.9.
         Table 6-9: The Religious and cultural structures under impact in the project area (in Nos.)
Link                                                            Samadi/      Community        Arali
          Link description     Temple Mosque Church                                                  Shrine
 ID                                                           Graveyard Hall/Ashrama katte
T13     Jagalur – NH 13            2         -          -          -               -           1       -
T17     Molakalmuru – SH 19        3         -          -          -               -            -      -
Some of the community structures such as Schools, hospitals and bus shelters will be disturbed is
shown in following Table 6.10.
              Table 6-10: The Community structure under impact in the project area (in Nos.)
Link                           Primary                  Bus                          Compound
          Link description             Hospital                    Library Arch                          Fence
 ID                             School             Shelter/Stand                        wall
T13     Jagalur – NH 13           -        -             3            -        -          -                 -
T17     Molakalmuru – SH
                                  -        -             -            -        -          -                 -
        19
Mitigation measures
       Concerned owners of the utilities will be informed in advance to shift the utilities in co
        ordination with the project proponents before construction starts to avoid disruption of regional
        services.
       Alignment shift to minimise the impact on the religious and community structures. Where it is
        unavoidable and the community is willing to relocate the religious property, relocation will be
        undertaken after adequate consultations.
       Discussions with the community and various stakeholders shall be conducted for relocation or
        shifting of cultural properties. The details of the cultural properties being relocated are given in
        the RAP.
6.5     Impacts due to Construction Camp and Immigration of Workers
Construction phase



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During construction phase, various types of equipment will be brought to the site. These include D G
Sets, batching plant, drillers, earthmovers, rock bolters, etc. The storing and working space
requirement of these construction equipments would be significant. In addition, land will also be
temporarily acquired for the duration of project construction for storage of the quarried material
before crushing, crushed material, cement rubble, etc.
The proposed road project would envisage construction of temporary camps to accommodate
construction workers from out side. This immigration of the labours for the project is known to cause
the problem for arranging the space for their stay and livelihood. Labour camps require space nearby
construction site to house the laborers.
The immigration of large number of labour force will create problems of storing, treating and
disposing the sewage waste and solid waste management. This may result in discharge of sewage into
the nearby water body.
Some times within the labour camp, increase in breeding sites of mosquitoes, increases the incidence
of spreading various diseases such as malaria and pathogenic diseases. If adequate control measures
are not undertaken, there could be increase in the incidence of malaria, especially during construction
phase. Further, the labour camps could be vulnerable to increased incidence of water-borne diseases.
Labour camps also act as the potential centers for spreading diseases such as HIV by having contact
with local population.
The labors in the labour camps tend to be dependent on fuel wood requirement for cooking and
heating purposes by clearing the nearby trees and vegetation.
Mitigation measures
       A storage area shall be selected in such a way that it leads to minimal impacts on human
        habitations, forest cover, wildlife etc. The operation of these equipment is to take place mostly
        in the underground components, which is not likely to be near habitations.
       It is proposed to commission adequate number of septic tanks for treatment of domestic sewage
        before its disposal in to the water bodies. Therefore, no adverse impacts on water quality are
        anticipated due to discharge of sewage from construction worker camp.
       The credible sources of potential impacts may also arise from uncontrolled runoffs from the
        labour camps and accidental spills of oil etc. into surface and ground water bodies.
       Contractor shall plan for water supply for drinking and other domestic purposes without
        hampering existing water usage by the villagers for drinking, irrigation or other purposes.
        Sufficient and appropriate sanitary facilities should be provided in the labour camps in order to
        maintain hygienic conditions in the labour camps. The contractor shall be obligated to follow
        the stringent procedures so as not to pollute surface and groundwater with respect to disposing
        of liquid and solid wastes generated from labour camps (Appendix – 21).
       The sufficient quantity and timely supply of Liquid Petroleum Gas shall be done to the
        labourers for cooking and cutting of trees and vegetation shall be discouraged.
6.6     Impact on Safety and Health of Construction Workers and Accident Risk to Local
        Communities
6.6.1     Impacts on Occupational Health and Safety
Construction Stage



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Accidents may occur due to lack of knowledge on handling of new equipments, workers functioning
without proper personal protective equipment and without possessing first aid facilities at work sites.
Fire hazard due to absence of fire protective equipment at site of storage of oils, bitumen, diesel and
any other form of chemicals storage may impose safety concerns.
During road paving, workers are subject to physical, chemical and noise hazards due to work
activities as vegetation clearing, placing of the asphalt coat, curing, placing of asphalt mix and
compaction. Workers are exposed to physical hazards from operating machineries and moving
vehicles. Some may be exposed to elevated working condition particularly in clearing vegetation.
Almost all workers will be exposed to weather elements, noise and working in limited area to
minimize traffic obstruction.
Mitigation measures
     All the workers at construction and batching plants shall be compulsorily equipped with
      personal protective equipments like Gum boots, Helmet, Ear plugs, air mask and goggles
      (Appendix – 9).
     Provision of first aid facilities for all the construction workers at construction camps and all
      workplaces first aid equipment and nursing staff must be provided (Appendix – 16).
     Periodical health check-up of the workers are to be arranged by the contactors to ensure good
      health. For those workers working in hot mix plants and with bitumen pavers, health checkups
      for monitoring benzene content in their blood, especially before and after the construction is
      ensured.
     Contractor shall implement road safety plan and attend to issues of health and safety of
      construction workers; maintaining and cleaning up campsites and safeguard the environment in
      the vicinity of project area (Appendix – 16).
     No construction camp shall be located within 1000m of major habitations to avoid disease
      outbreak and communicable diseases. Required health facility shall be arranged for the
      construction labourers to take care of accidents and other treatments (Appendix – 21).
     Adequate sanitary, drainage, toilets with septic tanks, refuse collection and disposal facilities
      shall be provided for the construction workers. The provision of a potable water supply,
      cooking fuel and toilet facilities shall be made as per the stipulated guidelines of the Indian
      labour Act.
     All the workers have to be supplied with potable drinking water at all times without affecting
      the water availability and supply to nearby communities.
     The sewage generated from the construction workers camps shall be properly designed, treated
      and disposed off so that no water pollution takes place. Treated water shall be stored properly
      for subsequent use for gardening and non domestic purposes (Appendix – 21). Solid waste
      generated from the construction workers camps shall be stored properly and treated either by
      composting or by land filling.
     Development and implementation of transportation management plan to ensure work zone
      safety and workers safety training are the principal measures to address occupational safety
      risk. The transportation management plan will be prepared by the contractor at least 45 days
      from the commencement of the construction and submitted to Environmental Engineer, PIU for
      review and approval. The plan will clearly establish work zones to separate workers on foot




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        from traffic and equipment, by rerouting traffic to alternative roads or shoulders and closure of
        lanes and diversion.
       Contractor shall ensure that all workers have undergone training in safety practices and use of
        personal protective equipment at least 30 days before the commencement of work.
       Workers engaged in overhead works will ensure that work place is barricaded for unauthorized
        access. proper training on hoisting/lifting equipment, proper maintenance of lifting equipment,
        strict implementation of equipment lifting procedures, and proper use of ladders.
       Workers shall be protected from exposure to chemical hazards during construction associated
        with dust from paving activities, exhaust from heavy equipment emissions and use of paint and
        diesel. Workers will be supplied with protective clothing when working with mixture of asphalt
        and solvents. Handling and storage of bitumen should be guided by the bitumen materials safety
        data sheet (Appendix – 22).
       Contractor will practice work rotation system among the workers to reduce health impacts
        related to prolonged exposure to noise.
Operation stage
Most of the project road stretch passes through agricultural areas, frequented by transportation of
agricultural equipments, harvested crops and domestic animals for grazing purposes. The common
traffic – animal conflict is accidents by rash driving or breakdown of vehicles leading to death of
cattle and domestic animals.
Accidental chemical spill or indiscriminate disposal of bituminous materials in the project area may
impact the terrestrial ecology and enter surrounding water bodies proving detrimental to local fauna.
Mitigation measures
       Commuters and road using community will be educated on the road safety issues to reduce the
        accidents involving traffic – animal.
       Accident Safety and Hazardous Chemical Spill Management Plan shall be prepared by the
        contractor and submitted to Environmental Engineer, PIU. The plan should also have details of
        detours in case of emergency.
6.6.2     Impacts on Community Health and Safety
Construction Phase
Traffic will be affected causing inconvenience, longer travel time and higher cost. The traffic
diversions on unpaved roads will also increase the dust generation in the surrounding areas. The
accidents are also increase due to traffic disruption.
Communities traversed along the subproject road will be subject to a range of health and safety risk
during road paving. These impacts include dust, noise and vibration from construction vehicle transit,
communicable diseases from influx of temporary migrant workers. The more significant health and
safety issues from road project are pedestrian safety, traffic safety, and emergency preparedness.
Mitigation measures
       Contractor shall at all times carry out construction work on the road in manner creating least
        interference to the free flow of traffic. Contractor shall provide and maintain, during execution
        of the work, a passage for traffic either along a part of the existing carriageway under



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      improvement or along a temporary diversion constructed close to the sub project road
      (Appendix – 14).
     The Contractor shall take all necessary measures for the safety of traffic during construction and
      provide, erect and maintain such barricades, including signs, marking, flags, lights and flagmen
      for the formation and protection of traffic approaching or passing through the section of the
      road under construction.
     Before taking up any construction, an agreed Traffic Management Plan for the diversion of
      traffic on the subproject road shall be drawn up in consultation with Environmental Engineer of
      CSC.
     Upon completion of the works for which the temporary traffic arrangements or diversions have
      been made, the Contractor shall remove all temporary installations and signs and reinstate all
      affected roads and other structures or installations to the conditions that existed before the work
      started, as directed by the Engineer.
     Provision for temporary traffic diversions shall be made on the paved and well compacted
      surfaces to avoid the interruptions to the flow of traffic and minimise the dust generation.
     The contractor will ensure availability of safe corridors and crossings of pedestrian and
      bicyclists where paving activities are located in inhabited areas. Consultations will be made by
      the contractor with affected communities on location preferences of safe crossings. The
      contractor will also install barriers, traffic calming devices, signs, signals and markings to avoid
      pedestrian from crossing hazardous sections.
     Emergency preparedness shall be discussed with the traversed communities and coordinate
      efforts with the PIU, KSHIP through the contractor, local police, and community in addressing
      emergency situations like vehicular accidents, pedestrian accident, or release of oil and
      chemical spills.
Operation Phase
The more significant health and safety issues from road project are pedestrian safety, traffic safety,
and emergency preparedness.
Mitigation Measures
     The KSHIP, in coordination with communities shall be responsible for the maintenance of
      signs, signals, markings, speed limits, warnings of sharp turns, including signs to alert drivers of
      road sections that are known for animal crossing. KSHIP shall create the awareness among the
      communities on emergency preparedness in addressing emergency situations like vehicular
      accidents, pedestrian accident, or release of oil and chemical spills.




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7       STAKE HOLDER CONSULTATIONS
Consultation and participation with various stakeholders is an integral part of the environmental and
social impact assessment and also part of regulatory requirement of EIA Notification, 2006 and ADB
SPS 2009. The stake holders of the project include;
               Project affected communities (on either side of the project road),
               Institutional stake holders such as PCB, local bodies, Water Resource Department,
                Environmental Department, Mines and Geology Department, Forest Department, etc.
Consultations at micro-level (along the road) and macro-level (e.g. District/State level institutional
consultations) help planners integrate short term and long term requirements of the local, regional,
state and national goals in to the planning process. The regional, state and national goals are generally
set by the legislations and policies by controlling or limiting the activities in order to reduce and
nullify the adverse impact generated by infrastructure projects like roads and highways.
7.1     Type of Consultations conducted
Various types of consultations done during the investigations include;
               One to one meetings with affected communities
               Focus group meetings with a group or section of communities
One on one meetings were held with key members of local communities. These consultations focused
specific issues in a given section (link) of the subproject corridor. Wherever possible such type of
consultations were generally held with informed people (those members of the local communities who
in their past had a thorough experience and had geographic, political and general knowledge of the
area and requirements of the communities).
Focus group consultations were conducted with a sample section of the community with a good
representation from the affected communities. Such meetings provided substantial information about
the community concerns.
7.2     Consultation during Environmental Screening
During field reconnaissance for Environmental Screening, care was taken to meet the people in the
roadside teashops or near markets to solicit their opinion on the need for improving the given road and
their willingness to preserve the roadside avenue plantations. Some of the findings from Public
Consultations carried out by the PCC during Environmental Screening are worth noting. Their general
response was in favour of requirement of regular repairing of any road but their main concern was on
width of the proposed project road; land required to be acquired for the project road and compensation
to be given for the land losers. For those who own the commercial establishments such as complexes
and petty shops main concern was on the total width of the project road within the villages;
alternatives for their livelihood and space to shift their establishments. On the social responsibility for
preserving the roadside plantations, some of the villagers expressed their support for avenue plantation
and they preferred fodder trees to other trees as it would help to feed their cattle on a sustainable
manner. They also felt more compelling need to ensure supply of firewood plantations in spaces other
than RoW. During consultation there were also general opinions/suggestions on the project
implementation as follows.
       Most of the people were not happy with the existing road infrastructure and they need
        improvement of the roads.
       People wanted the road of minimum width so that much of their land property is not affected.



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      Road works should be completed at the earliest and people should not be inconvenienced.
      After construction, proper maintenance of the road should be carried out.
      Noise pollution control measures during construction shall be devised at village settlements,
       particularly at schools.
 7.3       Major findings of consultations
 The consultations for the links were held at Donihalli – T13 and Soolenahalli -T17 on 11.07.2010,
 there were 55 participants. Key findings of the consultations are given below.
                        Table 7-1: Major findings of consultations - T13 – Jagalur – NH 13
  Name of
                  Sex     Profession              Issued Discussed                            Response
Stakeholder
M N Borappa       M       Ex- Gram     Compensation of affected properties       It was explained that the project
                          Panchayti    should be according to the demand of      had a policy and compensation
                          member       the people – the people will not accept   would be paid according to the
                                       compensation value as decided by the      policy. The the policy provided for
                                       Project Authorities.                      compensation at market rates. On
                                       He also asked if it possible to reduce    reduction of width of road – it was
                                       the width of the road                     explained that where ever it is
                                       Asked that those losing shops will be     technically feasible it will be done.
                                       affected by loss of business thus more    It was explained that those losing
                                       compensation should be paid.              shops will be assisted by the
                                                                                 project to re-establish their
                                                                                 livelihood.
H                 M       Farmer       Asked for the project outside the         It was explained only where
Hanumanthai                            village as a lot of people lose their     impact was large bypass as an
ah                                     houses, shops. Asked for bypass as it     alternative was looked into.
                                       helps the public
Kotra             M       Business     Wanted to know what compensation          It was explained that those without
Basappa                                will be paid for those losing their       legal title will be assisted by the
                                       shops in govt. land.                      project to re-establish their
                                       Wanted to know what compensation          livelihood.
                                       was there for tenants.                    It was explained that the project
                                                                                 Entitlement Policy addressed the
                                                                                 issue of tenants and assistance will
                                       He asked for compensation for the         be paid to tenants according to the
                                       land acquired and assistance also the     project Policy.
                                       land which he would buy.                  It was explained that land
                                                                                 compensation will be paid
                                                                                 according to negotiation. However
                                                                                 for nay land that the person
                                                                                 purchases     the     stamps      and
                                                                                 registration duty will be waived.
Basavarajapp      M       Ex           Asked whether compensation was            It was explained that compensation
a                         Chairman     related to BPL card. He said a lot of     was not based on the BPL card, but
                          GP           poor did not have BPL card. Asked for     on the type/category of loss.
                                       proper compensation for the poor          It was confirmed that notices will
                                       people.                                   be issued to all losing property.
                                       Wanted to know whether notices will
                                       be issued to all losing property.
Jagadish          M       Farmer       Mentioned that BPL card holders           Those with houses/shops on govt
                                       construct big houses in govt. land –      land will be treated as squatters
                                       and wanted to know what kind of           according to the Policy. Any
                                       valuation will be done for such           assistance to them will be
                                       structures.                               according to the Project Policy.
Kotreshaiah       M       Service      Mentioned that he did not have any        It was explained that that during
                                       property records. His house is on         Section 15 Notification if the
                                       private property. He wanted to know       person had any objection to


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  Name of
                Sex     Profession               Issued Discussed                   Response
Stakeholder
                                      what compensation will be paid.   acquisition he should raise it with
                                                                        the Sp DC LA KSHIP.
There were only two displaced families in Link T17 (Molakalmur – SH 19). No residential or
commercial structures are affected. Majority of the village people did not participate in the
consultation meeting. There were only two persons who agreed to sign the attendance sheet.
7.4    Follow-up consultations
Subsequent to project preparation, a follow up formal consultation should be organized by the project
proponents during the actual implementation of the project to involve the community and develop and
promote the sense of local road ownership for its operation and maintenance.




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8     ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN
8.1    Environmental Management Plan
The environmental management plan (EMP) contains specific mitigation and monitoring actions that
will be carried out by the contractor and proponent. EMP deals with the management measures and
implementation procedure of the guidelines along with enhancement measures recommended to
avoid, minimize and mitigate foreseen environmental impacts of the project. Details of various
management measures to be implemented during pre-construction, construction and operational
phases are presented in the EMAP Table-8.1 and Table -8.2.




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                                                                  Table 8-1: Environmental Management Plan (Part-A)
                                                                                                                                                            Responsibility
              Environmental                                                                                     Approximate          Reference
Sl. No.                                                      Mitigation Measures                                                                      Planning and      Supervision
                  Issue                                                                                           location         law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                       Execution        /Monitoring
PRE-CONSTRUCTION STAGE
Pre-construction activities by PIU, KSHIP
                                The acquisition of land and private properties shall be carried out in          Wherever
                                accordance with the RAP and entitlement framework of the Project.               existing RoW                        KSHIP, Revenue
                                                                                                                                  LA Act 1984 and
P1        Land Acquisition      KSHIP has to ascertain that acquisition of land in the post design phase        is less than                        Dept, Collaborating     KSHIP
                                                                                                                                  its Amendments,
                                are addressed and integrated into the EMP and relevant contract                 proposed                            Agencies
                                documents.                                                                      RoW
                                Advance notice, as per RAP shall be given to the encroachers and                Where
          Clearance of
                                squatters present in the Corridor of Impact, who need to be relocated.          compulsory
          Encroachment/Sq                                                                                                                           PIU, KSHIP and
P2                              All RandR activities shall be undertaken. Entitlements as per KSHIP             resettlement      RAP documents                             KSHIP
          uatters (change in                                                                                                                        Revenue Authority
                                entitlement framework shall be completed before construction starts.            of people is
          land use)
                                                                                                                involved
                                   Trees shall be removed from the Corridor of Impact before the actual         Trees along
                                   commencement of the work with the permission from the state Forest           the subproject
                                   Department. Cutting shall not start until the implementation of the          road falling      MoRTH 201.1       Contractor/Agency       CSC and /
P3          Tree Cutting
                                   project in that particular location of cutting is confirmed.                 within            and 201.6         engaged by KSHIP        KSHIP
                                   Stacking, transport and storage of the wood shall be done as per the         proposed
                                   relevant norms.                                                              RoW
                                   All efforts shall be made to preserve trees including evaluation of minor    At green
                                   design adjustments/alternatives (as applicable) to save trees. Specific      tunnels and
                                   attention shall be given for protecting giant trees, green tunnels and       trees present
                                   locally important trees (religiously important etc.). Detail of the trees    at the toe line
                                   affected due to the proposed project road in given in (Appendix – 10)        of the
                                   Tree cutting is to proceed only after all the legal requirements including   carriage way
                                   attaining of In-principle and Formal Clearances form the Forest              and trees of
            Preservation of        Dept./MoEF are completed and subsequently a written order is issued to       valuable          MoRTH 201.2       Contractor/Agency       CSC and /
P4
            Trees                  the Contractor.                                                              species           and 301.5         engaged by KSHIP        KSHIP
                                   Particular species declared as “protected” by the State Forest Dept. in      having
                                   the private land shall be felled only after due clearance from the Forest    ecological
                                   Dept. is obtained.                                                           value.
                                   In the event of design changes, additional assessments including the
                                   possibility to save trees shall be made.
                                   Systematic corridor level documentation for the trees cut and those
                                   saved shall be maintained by the KSHIP



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                                                                                                                                                         Responsibility
              Environmental                                                                                   Approximate         Reference
Sl. No.                                                      Mitigation Measures                                                                   Planning and      Supervision
                  Issue                                                                                         location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                    Execution        /Monitoring
            Relocation of          All community utilities and properties i.e., hand pumps, open wells,       Throughout
            Community              water supply lines, sewer lines, telephone cables, buildings and health    the corridor                       KSHIP, other
P5          Utilities and          centers shall not be relocated before construction of subproject road                       RAP document      Agencies /            KSHIP
            Common Property        starts.                                                                                                       Contractor
            Resources
                                All religious property resources such as shrines, temples and mosques         Throughout
                                within the project road shall be relocated. A list of cultural properties     the stretch
                                affected is given in the Chapter-2 Summary of Impacts.                        especially
          Relocation of         If there is any relocation of the religious structures may happen then it     nearby
          affected Cultural     shall be identified in accordance with the choice of the community.           settlements                                              CSC/
P6                                                                                                                             MoRTH 110.7       KSHIP/ Contractor
          and Religious         KSHIP in consultation with local people shall finalize those.                                                                          KSHIP
          Properties            The entire process (i.e. selection of relocation sites and design) shall be
                                under supervision of Environmental Specialist of CSC, during the
                                construction stage by the Contractor. The relocation shall be completed
                                before the construction starts in these sites.
Pre-construction activities by the Contractor/Environmental Specialist of CSC
P7                              Field Verification and Modification of the Contract Documents
                                The Environmental Specialist of CSC and the Contractor shall carry out        Throughout
                                                                                                                                                 Contractor/
          Joint Field           joint field verification to ascertain any possibilities of saving trees,      the stretch of
P.7.1                                                                                                                          MoRTH 201.2       Environmental         KSHIP
          Verification          environmental and community resources, and these activities are to be         subproject
                                                                                                                                                 Specialist of CSC
                                taken up by the construction contractor.
          Assessment of         The Environmental Specialist of CSC shall assess impacts and                  Where ever
          Impacts due to        revise/modify the EMP and other required sections of the project              changes are                        Contractor/
P.7.2     Changes/Revision document/s in the event of changes/revisions (including addition or                applicable                         Environmental         KSHIP
          s/additions in the    deletion) in the project’s scope of work.                                                                        Specialist of CSC
          Project Work
                                All construction plants shall be sited sufficiently away from settlements     At all
                                and agricultural operations or any commercial establishments. Such            Crushers,
                                                                                                                               MoRTH 111.1,
                                plants shall be located at least 100m away from the nearest dwelling          Hot-mix
          Crushers, Hot-mix                                                                                                    Air (prevention
                                preferably in the downwind direction.                                         plants and                         Contractor/
          plants and                                                                                                           of control of
P.7.3                           The Contractor shall submit a detailed layout plan for all such sites and     Batching                           Environmental         KSHIP
          Batching Plants                                                                                                      pollution) Act,
                                approval of Environmental Specialist of CSC shall be necessary prior to       Plants opened                      Specialist of CSC
          Location                                                                                                             1981and Noise
                                the establishment.                                                            up for the
                                                                                                                               Rules
                                Arrangements to control dust pollution through provision of                   construction
                                windscreens, water sprinklers, and dust extraction systems shall have to      of subproject



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                                                                                                                                                           Responsibility
              Environmental                                                                                     Approximate        Reference
Sl. No.                                                      Mitigation Measures                                                                     Planning and      Supervision
                  Issue                                                                                           location       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                      Execution        /Monitoring
                                   be provided at all such sites.                                               road
                                   Specifications for crushers, hot mix plants and batching plants shall
                                   comply with the requirements of the relevant emission control
                                   legislations. Consent for the Establishment and Operation from KSPCB
                                   shall be obtained before establishment and operation respectively and a
                                   copy should be submitted to the CSC and KSHIP.
                                   Wherever there is extremely water scarcity areas exist the Water
                                   sprinkling shall be limited to one time in the morning. To balance this
                                   deficient information boards shall be erected at appropriate locations
                                   with a message to “Dust prone area take precautions.
                                   All vehicles, equipment and machinery to be procured for construction        Applicable to
                                   shall confirm to the relevant Bureau of India Standard (BIS) norms. The      all vehicles
            Other                  discharge standards promulgated under the Environment Protection Act,        used in the     Air pollution
            Construction           1986 and Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 shall be strictly adhered to.              construction    Control Act, and   Contractor/
P.7.4       Vehicles,              The silent/quiet equipment available in the market shall be used in the                      Noise Rules and    Environmental         KSHIP
            Equipment and          Project.                                                                                     Motor Vehicle      Specialist of CSC
            Machinery              The Contractor shall maintain a record of PUC for all vehicles and                           Act, 1988
                                   machinery used during the contract period which shall be produced to
                                   EO, KSHIP’s verification whenever required.
P8                                 Identification and Selection of Material Sources
                                   Finalising soil borrowing earth and all logistic arrangements as well as     Borrow sites
                                   compliance to environmental requirements, as applicable, shall be the
                                   sole responsibility of the Contractor.
                                   The Contractor shall not start borrowing earth from selected borrow
                                   area until the formal agreement is signed between landowner and
                                                                                                                                IRC Guidelines
                                   Contractor and a copy is submitted to the CSC.
                                                                                                                                on borrow areas
                                   Locations finalized by the Contractor shall be reported to the                                                  Contractor/
                                                                                                                                and quarries;
.8.1        Borrow Areas           Environmental Specialist of CSC and he shall submit the report to                                               Environmental         KSHIP
                                                                                                                                EPA 1986 and
                                   KSHIP.                                                                                                          Specialist of CSC
                                                                                                                                MoRTH 111.2
                                   Planning of haul roads for accessing borrows areas shall be undertaken
                                                                                                                                and 305.2.2
                                   during this stage. The haul roads shall be routed to avoid agricultural
                                   areas as far as possible and shall use the existing village roads wherever
                                   available.
                                   The environmental personnel of the CSC shall be required to inspect
                                   every borrow area location prior to approval. The CSC should include



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                                                                                                                                                           Responsibility
              Environmental                                                                                    Approximate         Reference
Sl. No.                                                      Mitigation Measures                                                                     Planning and      Supervision
                  Issue                                                                                          location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                      Execution        /Monitoring
                                   the Request for Inspection form for borrow area approval from the
                                   environmental point of view.
                                   Contractor shall finalize the quarry for procurement of construction        Quarry sites
                                   materials after assessment of the availability of sufficient quantity of
                                   materials, quality and other logistic arrangements.
                                   In case the Contractor decides to use quarries other than recommended                                                                  Environment
                                                                                                                                MoRTH 111.3
P.8.2       Quarry                 by DPR consultant, then the Contractor should give substantiation.                                             Contractor              al Specialist
                                   Contractor shall also work out haul road network and report to                                                                         of CSC
                                   Environmental Specialist of CSC and CSC shall inspect and in turn
                                   report to KSHIP before approval.

                                   In view of the special situation in Karnataka, Contractor shall prepare     Throughout
                                   and implement the approved Water Management Plan in accordance              the subproject
                                   with the Appendix-16, Appendix-24 and BoQ Environment mitigation
                                   works
                                   The contractor shall use ground/surface water as a source of water for
                                   the construction and may set up own bore well facility for construction
                                   work.                                                                                        As per the
            Arrangement for        Contractor may take surface water from the Irrigation Canal with the                         contract                                  Environment
P.8.3       Construction           written consent from the Irrigation Department.                                              document and      Contractor              al Specialist
            Water                  To avoid disruption/disturbance to other water users, the Contractor                         Clause No. 1010                           of CSC
                                   shall extract water from fixed locations and consult Environmental                           EPA, 1986
                                   Specialist of CSC before finalizing the locations.
                                   The Contractor shall provide a list of locations and type of sources from
                                   where water for construction shall be extracted.
                                   The Contractor shall need to comply with the requirements of the State
                                   Ground Water Department for the extraction and seek their approval for
                                   doing so and submit copies of the permission to CSC and KSHIP.
                                   The Sand shall be procured from identified sand mines as far as             Sand quarries
                                   possible. If the Contractor wants to obtain from source other than listed   being used                         All riverbeds
                                                                                                                                As per the
                                   in EMP, substitution shall be provided with the details of the aggregates   for the                            recommended for
P9          Sand                                                                                                                contract
                                   source and lead distance.                                                   construction                       sand extraction for
                                                                                                                                document4
                                   The Contractor shall obtain copy of the Lease Agreement of the supplier                                        the project.
                                   and submit to CSC before procuring the sand.
P 10        Labour                 The Contractor shall preferably use unskilled labour drawn from local       Throughout       As per the        Contractor              Environment



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                                                                                                                                                         Responsibility
            Environmental                                                                                     Approximate         Reference
Sl. No.                                                    Mitigation Measures                                                                     Planning and      Supervision
                Issue                                                                                           location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                    Execution        /Monitoring
          Requirements           communities to give maximum benefits to the local community.                 the subproject   Contract                             al Specialist
                                                                                                              road             Document                             of CSC
                               Siting of the construction camps shall be as per the guidelines below          Construction
                               and details of layout to be approved by CSC Resident Engineer and              camps
                               environment specialist.
                               Construction camps shall not be proposed within 500m from the nearest
          Construction         settlements to avoid conflicts and stress over the infrastructure facilities                    As per IRC
                                                                                                                                                                       Environment
          Camp Locations – with the local community.                                                                           guidelines and
P 11                                                                                                                                             Contractor            al Specialist
          Selection, Design    Location for stockyards for construction materials shall be identified at                       contract
                                                                                                                                                                       of CSC
          and Layout           least 300m away from watercourses.                                                              documents.
                               The Sewage Treatment Plant and solid waste treatment for the camp
                               shall be designed, built and operated.
                               Contractor’s camps shall be identified at least 2km away from the Forest
                               Reserves.
                               The Contractor as per prevalent rules shall carry out negotiations with        Construction
                               the landowners for obtaining their consent for temporary use of lands          camps and
          Arrangements for                                                                                                                                             Environment
                               for construction camp/construction/borrow areas etc.                           borrow areas
P 12      Temporary Land                                                                                                       MoRTH 108.3       Contractor            al Specialist
                               Temporary land arrangements shall not be from the forest reserves
          Requirement                                                                                                                                                  of CSC
                               except under special permission circumstances where it is un avoidable
                               due to the vast forest reserves in the PIA.
                               The KSHIP shall organize Orientation Sessions and regular training             Throughout
          Orientation of                                                                                                       EMP and other
                               sessions at all stages of the project. This shall include on-site training     the
          Implementing                                                                                                         training plan     Contractor/ CSC
P 13                           (general as well as in the specific context of a sub-project). These           implementati                                             KSHIP
          Agency and                                                                                                           developed by      and KSHIP
                               sessions shall involve all staff of KSHIP involved in the implementation       on period.
          Contractors                                                                                                          KSHIP
                               of EMP, Environmental Specialists of CSC and Contractors.
          CONSTRUCTION STAGE
          Activities to be Carried Out by the Contractor
C1                             Site Clearance
                               If required vegetation shall be removed from the construction zone             Throughout
                               before commencement of construction. All works shall be carried out            the corridor
                                                                                                                                                                       Environmen
                               such that the damage or disruption of flora other than those identified
          Clearing and                                                                                                                                                 tal Specialist
C.1.1                          for cutting is minimum.                                                                         MoRTH 201         Contractor
          Grubbing                                                                                                                                                     of CSC,
                               Only ground cover/shrubs that impinge directly on the permanent works
                                                                                                                                                                       KSHIP
                               or necessary temporary works shall be removed with prior approval
                               from the Environmental Expert of CSC.



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                                                                                                                                                        Responsibility
            Environmental                                                                                     Approximate        Reference
Sl. No.                                                    Mitigation Measures                                                                    Planning and      Supervision
                Issue                                                                                           location       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                   Execution        /Monitoring
                                 The Contractor, under any circumstances shall not cut or damage trees
                                 and forest reserves. Trees identified under the project shall be cut only
                                 after receiving clearance from the Forest Dept./DoEF/MoEF (as
                                 applicable) and after the receipt of KSHIP’s written permission in this
                                 regard.
                                 Vegetation only with girth size of over 30 cm shall be considered as
                                 trees and shall be compensated, in the event of KSHIP’s instruction to
                                 undertake tree cutting.
                                 Appendix-1 provides guidelines for the preparation of the contractors        All debris
                                 Debris disposal plan. This is mainly to deal with surplus debris             disposal sites
                                 materials that would be available after adjusting for all insitu
                                 applications.
                                 Other debris generated due to dismantling of the existing road shall be
                                 suitably reused in the proposed construction zone, subjected to the
                                 structure suitability of the materials and approval of the Resident
                                 Engineer and Environmental Expert of CSC as follows:
                                 For filling and leveling of School grounds and proposed parking areas.
                                 The sub grade of the existing pavement shall be used as embankment
                                 fill material.
                                 Existing base and sub-base material shall be recycled as sub-base of the                                                             Environmen
          Disposal of Debris     haul road or access roads.                                                                                                           tal Specialist
          from dismantling       The existing bitumen surface may be utilized for the paving of cross                          MoRTH 202                              and Resident
C.1.2                                                                                                                                           Contractor
          structures and         roads, access roads and paving works in construction sites and campus,                                                               Engineer of
          road surface           temporary traffic diversions, haulage routes etc.                                                                                    CSC, EC,
                                 The Contractor shall suitably dispose off unutilized debris materials                                                                KSHIP
                                 either through filling up of borrows areas located in wasteland or at pre-
                                 designated disposal locations, subject to the approval of the
                                 Environmental Expert of CSC.
                                 At locations identified for disposal of bituminous wastes, the disposal
                                 shall be carried out over a 30 mm thick layer of rammed clay so as to
                                 eliminate the possibility of scarified percolation of leachate into the
                                 ground water. The Contractor shall ensure that the surface area of such
                                 disposal pits is covered with a layer of soil and subsequent turfing.
                                 All arrangements for transportation during construction including
                                 provision, maintenance, dismantling and clearing debris, shall be
                                 considered incidental to the work and shall be planned and implemented


   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      61                                                                     Scott Wilson
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                Issue                                                                                          location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                   Execution        /Monitoring
                                 by the Contractor as approved and directed by the Environmental Expert
                                 of CSC.
                                 The pre-designed disposal locations shall be a part of Waste Disposal
                                 Plan in consultation and with approval of Environmental Expert of CSC.
                                 Debris generated from pile driving or other construction activities shall
                                 be disposed such that it does not flow into the surface water bodies or
                                 for mud puddles in the area.
                                 The Contractor shall identify dumping sites as per the Debris Disposal
                                 Plan prepared using the Guidelines provided in the Appendix 1; The
                                 identified locations shall be reported to the Environmental Expert of
                                 CSC. These locations shall be checked on site and accordingly approved
                                 by Environmental Expert of CSC prior to any disposal of waste
                                 materials.
                                 The pre-identified disposal location shall be part of Comprehensive         All waste
                                 Waste Disposal Plan Solid Waste Management Plan to be prepared by           disposal sites
                                 the Contractor in consultation and with approval of Environmental
                                 Specialist of CSC.
                                 Location of disposal sites shall be finalized prior to initiation of the
                                 works on any particular section of the road.
                                 The Environmental Specialist of CSC shall approve these disposal sites
                                 after conducting a joint inspection on the site with the Contractor.
                                 Contractor shall ensure that any spoils or material unsuitable for
                                 embankment fill shall not be disposed off near any water course or
                                                                                                                                                                      Environmen
                Other            agricultural land, Orchards and Natural Habitats like Grasslands. Such                       MoRTH: 202.5
                                                                                                                                                                      tal Specialist
C.1.3        Construction        spoils from excavation can be used to reclaim borrow pits and low-lying                      MoRTH: 301.11     Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                      of CSC,
            Wastes Disposal      areas located in barren lands along the project road (if it so desired by
                                                                                                                                                                      KSHIP
                                 the owner/community and approved by the Environmental Specialist,
                                 CSC).
                                 Non-bituminous wastes shall be dumped in borrow pits covered with a
                                 layer of 30cm soil to ensure that borrow pit is restored to original use.
                                 No new disposal site shall be created as part of the project, except with
                                 prior approval of the Environmental Specialist of CSC.
                                 All waste materials shall be completely disposed and the site shall be
                                 completely cleaned and certified by Environmental Specialist of CSC
                                 before handing over.
                                 The Contractor at his cost shall resolve any claim, arising out of waste


   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                     62                                                                      Scott Wilson
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                Issue                                                                                             location       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                     Execution        /Monitoring
                                 disposal or any non-compliance that may arise on account of lack of
                                 action on his part.
                                 The topsoil from all areas of cutting and all areas to be permanently          At all
                                 covered shall be stripped off to a specified depth of 150 mm and stored        construction
                                 in stockpiles. A portion of the temporarily acquired area and/or Right of      material
                                 Way shall be earmarked for storing topsoil. The locations for stock            storage areas
                                 piling shall be pre-identified in consultation and with approval of
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC. The following precautionary
                                 measures shall be taken to preserve them till they are used:
                                 (a) Stockpile shall be designed such that the slope does not exceed 1:2
                                       (Vertical to horizontal), and height of the pile is restricted to 2 m.
                                       To retain soil and to allow percolation of water, silt fencing shall                     MoRTH: 301.3.2
          Stripping,                                                                                                                                                    Environmen
                                       protect the edges of the pile.                                                           MoRTH: 301.7
          stocking and                                                                                                                                                  tal Specialist
C.1.4                            (b) Stockpiles shall not be surcharged or otherwise loaded and                                 MoRTH: 305.3.3    Contractor
          preservation of                                                                                                                                               of CSC,
                                       multiple handling shall be kept to a minimum to ensure that no                           and
          top soil                                                                                                                                                      KSHIP
                                       compaction shall occur. The stockpiles shall be covered with                             MoRTH: 305.3.9
                                       gunny bags or vegetation.
                                 (c) It shall be ensured by the Contractor that the topsoil shall not be
                                       unnecessarily trafficked either before stripping or when in
                                       stockpiles.
                                 Such stockpiled topsoil shall be utilized for –
                                      Covering all disturbed areas including borrow areas, only in case
                                         where they are to be rehabilitated.
                                      Dressing of slopes of road embankment/agricultural fields of
                                         farmers acquired temporarily land.
                                 The Contractor shall provide safe and convenient passage for vehicles,         Throughout
                                 pedestrians and livestock to and from roadsides and property access            the project
                                 connecting the project road, providing temporary connecting road.              corridor
                                                                                                                                                                        Environmen
                                 The Contractor shall also ensure that the existing accesses shall not be
                                                                                                                                                                        tal Specialist
C.1.5     Accessibility          undertaken without providing adequate provisions.                                                                Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                        of CSC,
                                 The Contractor shall take care that the cross roads are constructed in
                                                                                                                                                                        KSHIP
                                 such a sequence that construction work on the adjacent cross roads are
                                 taken up one after one so that traffic movement in any given area not get
                                 affected much.
C.1.6     Planning for           Temporary diversions shall be constructed with the approval of the             Through out     MoRTH: 112        Contractor            Environmen



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                       63                                                                      Scott Wilson
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            Environmental                                                                                      Approximate        Reference
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                Issue                                                                                            location       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                    Execution        /Monitoring
          traffic diversions     Resident Engineer and Environmental Specialist of CSC. Detailed               the project     and its                              tal Specialist
          and detours            Traffic Control Plans shall be prepared by the Contractor and approved        corridor        Amendments                           and Resident
                                 by Environmental Specialist and Resident Engineer of CSC seven days           especially at                                        Engineer of
                                 prior to commencement of works on any section of road. The Traffic            intersections                                        CSC, EO,
                                 Control Plans shall contain details of temporary diversions, traffic safety   and                                                  KSHIP
                                 arrangements for construction under traffic, details of traffic               settlements
                                 arrangement after cessation of work each day, safety measures for night       and schools
                                 time traffic and precaution for transportation of hazardous materials and
                                 arrangement of flagmen.
                                 The contractor shall ensure that the diversion/detour is always
                                 maintained in running condition, particularly during the monsoon to
                                 avoid disruption to traffic flow.
                                 The Contractor shall also inform local community of changes to traffic
                                 routes, conditions and pedestrian access arrangements with assistance
                                 from CSC and KSHIP. The temporary traffic detours shall be kept free
                                 of dust by sprinkling of water three times a day and as required under
                                 specific conditions (depending on weather conditions, construction in
                                 the settlement areas and volume of traffic).
C.2                              Procurement of Construction Material
                                 No borrow area shall be opened without permission of the                      All borrow
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC. The location, shape and size of the          areas
                                 designated borrow areas shall be as approved by the Environmental
                                 Specialist of CSC and in accordance to the IRC recommended practice
                                 for borrow pits for road embankments (IRC: 10: 1961). The borrowing
                                 operations shall be carried out as specified in the guidelines for siting
                                 and operation of borrow areas.                                                                                                        Environmen
          Earth from
                                 The unpaved surfaces used for the haulage of borrow materials, if                                                                     tal Specialist
C.2.1     Borrow Areas for                                                                                                     MoRTH: 305.2      Contractor
                                 passing through the settlement areas or habitations; shall be maintained                                                              of CSC,
          Construction
                                 dust free by the Contractor. Sprinkling of water shall be carried out                                                                 KSHIP
                                 twice a day to control dust along such roads during their period of use.
                                 During dry seasons (winter and summer) frequency of water sprinkling
                                 shall be increased in the settlement areas and Environmental Specialist
                                 of CSC shall decide the sprinkling time depending on the local
                                 requirements.
                                 Contractor shall rehabilitate the borrow areas as soon as borrowing of



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      64                                                                      Scott Wilson
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            Environmental                                                                                      Approximate       Reference
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                Issue                                                                                            location      law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                   Execution        /Monitoring
                                 soil is over from a particular borrow area in accordance with the
                                 approved Borrow Area Redevelopment Plan.
                                 The Contractor shall obtain materials from quarries only after consent of     At quarries
                                 the Department of Mines and Geology and District Administration. In           and Crushing
                                                                                                                                                                      Environmen
                                 view of special situation of excavation of the hill ward side, Contractor     units.
          Quarry Operations                                                                                                   MoRTH: 111.3                            tal Specialist
C.2.2                            shall get an opportunity to use the same material for road construction.                                       Contractor
          Crushers                                                                                                                                                    of CSC,
                                 This shall require establishment of a number of crushers along the
                                                                                                                                                                      KSHIP
                                 roadsides. The crushers and all related activities shall be under taken as
                                 per the Policy guidelines for installation of stone Crushers.
                                 Except as may be provided in the contract or ordered or authorized by         Quarry sites
                                 the Engineer, the Contractor shall not use explosives.
                                 Where the use of explosives is so provided or ordered or authorized, the
                                 Contractor shall comply with the requirements of the following Sub-
                                 Clauses of MoRTH 302 besides the law of the land as applicable.
                                 The Contractor shall at all times take every possible precaution and shall
                                 comply with appropriate laws and regulations relating to the
                                 importation, handling, transportation, storage and use of explosives. The
                                 contractor shall at all times when engaged in blasting operations, post
                                 sufficient warning flagmen, to the full satisfaction of the Engineer.
                                 The Contractor shall at all times make full liaison with and inform well
                                                                                                                              Sub-Clauses of                          301.9 (i)
C.2.3     Blasting               in advance and obtain such permission as is required from all                                                  MoRTH:302.4
                                                                                                                              MoRTH 302                               304.5
                                 Government Authorities, public bodies and private parties whomsoever
                                 concerned or affected or likely to be concerned or affected by blasting
                                 operations.
                                 Blasting shall be carried out only with permission of the Engineer. All
                                 the statutory laws, regulations, rules etc., pertaining to acquisition,
                                 transport, storage, handling and use of explosives shall be strictly
                                 followed.
                                 Blasting shall be carried out during fixed hours (preferably during mid-
                                 day) or as permitted by the Engineer. The timing should be made known
                                 to all the people within 1000m (200m for pre-splitting) from the blasting
                                 site in all directions.
          Transporting           Contractor shall maintain all roads (existing or built for the project),      All roads      As per IRC                              Environmen
C.2.4     Construction           which are used for transporting construction materials, equipment and         used for       guidelines and    Contractor            tal Specialist
          Materials and          machineries as précised. All vehicles delivering fine materials to the site   haulage of     contract                                of CSC,



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      65                                                                     Scott Wilson
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                Issue                                                                                           location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                    Execution        /Monitoring
          Haul Road              shall be covered to avoid spillage of materials.                             construction     documents                            KSHIP
          Management             All existing roads used by vehicles of the Contractor or any of his          materials
                                 subcontractor or suppliers of materials and similarly roads, which are
                                 part of the works, shall be kept clear of all dust/mud or other extraneous
                                 materials dropped by such vehicles.
                                 Contractor shall arrange for regular water sprinkling as necessary for
                                 dust suppression of all such roads and surfaces.
                                 Contractor need to implement the finally approved contractors                Through out
                                 Construction Water Management Plan as per the guidelines provided in         the project
                                 Appendix 15. This is linked to the contractor’s work plan.                   corridor
                                 Contractor shall arrange adequate supply and storage of water for the
                                                                                                                               Environmental.
                                 whole construction period at his own cost. The contractor shall submit a
                                                                                                                               Protection Act                          Environmen
                                 list of source/s from where water shall be used for the project to CSC
          Construction                                                                                                         1986 and                                tal Specialist
C.2.5                            and KSHIP.                                                                                                      Contractor
          Water                                                                                                                MoRTH Spec.                             of CSC,
                                 The Contractor shall source the requirement of water preferentially by
                                                                                                                               for Roads and                           KSHIP
                                 conjunctive use of Surface water and groundwater but with prior
                                                                                                                               Bridges
                                 permission from the Groundwater Authority. A copy of the permission
                                 shall be submitted to CSC and KSHIP prior to initiation of construction.
                                 The Contractor shall take all precaution to minimize the wastage of
                                 water in the construction process/operation.
C.3                              Construction Work
                                 While working across or close to any perennial water bodies, Contractor      Near major
                                 shall not obstruct/prevent the flow of water.                                cross                                                    Environmen
          River training and
                                 Construction over and close to the non-perennial streams shall be            drainage                                                 tal Specialist
C.3.1     disruption to other                                                                                                  MoRTH:304.3.2     Contractor
                                 undertaken in the dry season. If construction work is expected to disrupt    structures                                               of CSC,
          users of water
                                 users of community water bodies, notice shall be served well in advance      (River                                                   KSHIP
                                 to the affected community.                                                   crossings)
                                 Contractor shall ensure that no construction materials like earth, stone,    Construction
                                 or appendage disposed off in a manner that block the flow of water of        sites of cross
                                 any water course and cross drainage channels.                                drainage                                                 Environmen
                                                                                                                               MoRTH:305.3.7
          Drainage and           Contractor shall take all necessary measures to prevent any blockage to      structures                                               tal Specialist
C.3.2                                                                                                                          MoRTH:306         Contractor
          flood control          the water flow. In addition to the design requirements, the Contractor                                                                of CSC,
                                 shall take all required measures as directed by the Environmental                                                                     KSHIP
                                 Specialist of CSC to prevent temporary or permanent flooding of the
                                 site or any adjacent area.



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      66                                                                      Scott Wilson
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                Issue                                                                                           location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                    Execution        /Monitoring
                                 The Contractor shall not excavate beds of any stream/canals/any other        Construction
                                 water body for borrowing earth for embankment construction.                  sites of cross
                                 Contractor shall construct silt fencing at the base of the embankment        drainage
                                 construction for the entire perimeter of any water body (including           structures
          Siltation of water     springs and wells) adjacent to the project road and around the stockpiles                                                             Environmen
          bodies and             at the construction sites including ancillary sites close to water bodies.                    MoRTH:06                                tal Specialist
C.3.3                                                                                                                                            Contractor
          degradation of         The fencing shall be provided prior to commencement of earthwork and                                                                  of CSC,
          water quality          continue till the stabilization of the embankment slopes, on the                                                                      KSHIP
                                 particular sub-section of the road.
                                 Contractor shall ensure that construction materials containing fine
                                 particles are stored in an enclosure such that sediment-laden water does
                                 not drain into nearby watercourse.
                                 All temporary sedimentation control works and maintenance thereof            At bridge
                                 shall be deemed as incidental to the earth work or other items of work       approaches;
                                 and as such no separate payment shall be made for them.                      high
                                 Contractor shall ensure the following aspects:                               embankment
                                  After construction of road embankment, the side slopes shall be            sections (Low
                                      covered with grass and shrubs (refer Appendix-10 and 18) as per         lying areas)
                                      design specifications.                                                  and borrow
                                                                                                                                                                       Environmen
          Slope protection        Turfing works shall be taken up as soon as possible provided the           pits             MoRTH:
                                                                                                                                                                       tal Specialist
C.3.4     and control of soil         season is favorable for the establishment of grass sods. Other                           305.2.2.2         Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                       of CSC,
          erosion                     measures of slope stabilization shall include mulching netting and                       MoRTH: 306.2
                                                                                                                                                                       KSHIP
                                      seeding of batters and drains immediately on completion of
                                      earthworks.
                                  In borrow pits, the depth shall be so regulated that the sides of the
                                      excavation shall have a slope no steeper than 1 vertical to 2
                                      horizontal, from the edge of the final section of the bank.
                                  Along sections abutting water bodies, pitching as per design
                                      specification shall protect slopes.
C.4                              Pollution
C.4.1                            Water Pollution
                                 The Contractor shall take all precautionary measures to prevent entering     At all surface                                           Environmen
          Water Pollution
                                 of wastewater into streams, water bodies or the irrigation system during     water bodies     MoRTH: 111.4                            tal Specialist
C.4.1.1   from Construction                                                                                                                      Contractor
                                 construction. Contractor shall avoid construction works close to the         intercepting     MoRTH: 111.1                            of CSC,
          Wastes
                                 streams or water bodies during monsoon.                                      with the                                                 KSHIP



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      67                                                                      Scott Wilson
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                Issue                                                                                             location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                         Execution        /Monitoring
                                 Contractor shall not wash his vehicles in river water and shall not enter      project
                                 riverbed for that purpose.                                                     corridor
                                 The Contractor shall ensure that all construction vehicle parking              At all surface
                                 locations, fuel/lubricants storage sites, vehicle, machinery and               water bodies
                                 equipment maintenance and refueling sites shall be located at least 500        intercepting
                                 m away from rivers and irrigation canal/ponds.                                 with the
                                 The Contractor shall submit all locations and layout plans of such sites       project
                                 prior to their establishment and shall be approved by the Environmental        corridor;
                                 Specialist of CSC.                                                             refueling
                                 Contractor shall ensure that all vehicle/machinery and equipment               stations and
                                                                                                                                 MoRTH: 111.4
                                 operation, maintenance and refueling shall be carried out in such a            construction
                                                                                                                                 MoRTH: 111.1
                                 manner that spillage of fuels and lubricants does not contaminate the          camps                                                       Environmen
          Water Pollution                                                                                                        (Oil Interceptors)
                                 ground. Wastewater from vehicle parking, fuel storage areas,                                                                               tal Specialist
C.4.1.2   from Fuel and                                                                                                          Petroleum Act        Contractor
                                 workshops, wash down and refueling areas shall be treated in an oil                                                                        of CSC,
          Lubricants                                                                                                             and Rules
                                 interceptor before discharging it on land or into surface water bodies or                                                                  KSHIP
                                                                                                                                 MoEF/CPCB
                                 into other treatment system.
                                                                                                                                 Notifications
                                 In all, fuel storage and refueling areas, if located on agricultural land or
                                 areas supporting vegetation, the topsoil shall be stripped, stockpiled and
                                 returned after cessation of such storage.
                                 Contractor shall arrange for collection, storing and disposal of oily
                                 wastes to the pre-identified disposal sites (list to be submitted to CSC
                                 and KSHIP) and approved by the Environmental Specialist of CSC. All
                                 spills and collected petroleum wastes shall be disposed off in
                                 accordance with Petroleum Rules and PCB guidelines.
C.4.2     Air Pollution
                                 The Contractor shall take every precaution to reduce the level of dust         Construction
                                 from construction plants, construction sites involving earthwork by            sites and
                                 sprinkling of water, encapsulation of dust source.                             construction     MoRTH:111.1                                Environmen
                                 Due to the acute water scarcity in certain areas, Contractor should limit      establishment    MoRTH:111.5                                tal Specialist
                                 water sprinkling once in the early morning hours. Contractor should            such as          MoRTH:111.9                                of CSC, EO,
C.4.2.1   Dust Pollution                                                                                                                              Contractor
                                 erect warning boards on dust nuisance to the road users.                       batching         MoRTH:111.10                               KSHIP
                                 The Contractor shall procure the construction plants and machinery,            plants, hot      Contract                                   through
                                 which shall conform to the pollution control norms specified by                mix plants       Agreement                                  Engineer
                                 MoEF/CPCB/KSPCB.
                                 The concentration of suspended particulate matter at a distance of 40m



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                       68                                                                          Scott Wilson
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                Issue                                                                                            location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                     Execution        /Monitoring
                                 from a construction plant located in a cluster of industries should be less
                                 than 500 µg. The environmental monitoring is to be conducted as per
                                 the monitoring plan.
                                 Alternatively, only crushers licensed by the KSPCB shall be used. The
                                 Environmental Specialist, EO and KSHIP through the Engineer shall
                                 submit required certificates and consents.
                                 Contractor shall ensure that all vehicles, equipment and machinery used       The Air
          Emission from
                                 for construction are regularly maintained and confirm that pollution          (prevention                                              Environmen
          Construction
                                 emission levels comply with the relevant statutory requirements of            and control of   Annexure ‘A’ to                         tal Specialist
C.4.2.2   Vehicles,                                                                                                                               Contractor
                                 CPCB and/Motor Vehicles Rules.                                                pollution)       MoRTH 501                               of CSC,
          Equipment and
                                 The Contractor shall submit PUC certificates for all                          Act, 1981 and                                            KSHIP
          Machineries
                                 vehicles/equipment/machinery used for the Project.                            EPA, 1986
C.4.3                            Noise Pollution
                                 The Contractor shall confirm the following:                                   Trhough out
                                  All Construction plants and equipment used in construction shall            the project
                                      strictly conform to the MoEF/CPCB noise standards.                       corridor and
                                  All Vehicles and equipment used in construction shall be fitted with        other
                                      exhaust silencers.                                                       construction
                                  Servicing of all construction vehicles and machinery shall be done          establishment
                                      regularly and during routine servicing operations, the effectiveness     s
                                      of exhaust silencers shall be checked and if found defective shall be
                                      replaced.
          Noise Pollution:                                                                                                      The noise
                                  The equipment available in the market should be procured, if the                                                                     Environmen
          Noise from                                                                                                            pollution
                                      Contractor plans to purchase new equipment. For the old                                                                           tal Specialist
C.4.3.1   Vehicles, Plants                                                                                                      (regulation and   Contractor
                                      equipment, necessary or possible alterations must be carried out to                                                               of CSC,
          and                                                                                                                   control) rules,
                                      reduce the noise levels to the possible extent.                                                                                   KSHIP
          Equipments                                                                                                            2000
                                  Maintenance of vehicles, equipment and machinery shall be regular
                                      and up to the satisfaction of the Environmental Specialist of CSC to
                                      keep noise levels at the minimum.
                                 At the construction sites within 150 m of the nearest habitation, noisy
                                 construction work such as crushing, operation of DG sets, use of high
                                 noise generation equipment shall be stopped during the night time
                                 between 10.00 pm to 6.00 am. Working hours of the construction
                                 activities shall be restricted around educational institutions/Health
                                 Centers (silent zones) up to a distance of 100 m from the sensitive



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      69                                                                       Scott Wilson
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            Environmental                                                                                      Approximate        Reference
Sl. No.                                                    Mitigation Measures                                                                     Planning and      Supervision
                Issue                                                                                            location       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                    Execution        /Monitoring
                                 receptors i.e., School, Health Centers and Hospitals etc.
                                 Contractor shall provide noise barriers to the suggested locations of
                                 select Schools. List of locations for noise barriers is given in (Appendix-
                                 6).
                                 Noise monitoring shall be carried out at the locations specified in
                                 monitoring plan by the KSHIP and the Engineer through the approved
                                 monitoring agency.
C.5                              Safety
                                 Contractor shall provide:                                                     Throughout
                                  Protective footwear, protective goggles and nose masks to the               the project
                                      workers employed in asphalt works, concrete works, crusher etc.          corridor and
                                  Welder’s protective eye-shields to workers who are engaged in               construction
                                      welding works                                                            phase of the
                                  Earplugs to workers exposed to loud noise, and workers working in           project
                                      crushing or compaction
                                                                                                                               Building and
                                  The Contractor shall comply with all regulations regarding safe
                                                                                                                               other
                                      scaffolding, ladders, working platforms, gangway, stairwells,
                                                                                                                               Construction
                                      excavations, trenches and safe means of entry and egress.
                                                                                                                               Workers                                 Environmen
          Personnel Safety       The Contractor shall comply with all the precautions as required for
                                                                                                                               (regulation of                          tal Specialist
C.5.1     Measures for           ensuring the safety of the workmen as per the International Labour                                              Contractor
                                                                                                                               Employment and                          of CSC,
          Labour                 Organization (ILO) Convention No. 62 as far as those are applicable to
                                                                                                                               Conditions of                           KSHIP
                                 this contract.
                                                                                                                               Services) Act,
                                 The Contractor shall make sure that during the construction work all
                                                                                                                               1996;
                                 relevant provisions of Building and other Construction Workers
                                 (regulation of Employment and Conditions of Services) Act, 1996 are
                                 adhered to.
                                 The Contractor shall not employ any person below the age of 14 years
                                 for any work and no woman shall be employed on the work of painting
                                 with products containing lead in any form
                                 The Contractor shall also ensure that paint containing lead or lead
                                 products is used except in the form of paste or readymade paint.
                                 The Contractor shall take all necessary measures for the safety of traffic    Throughout      MoRTH: 112.4                            Environmen
                                 during construction and provide erect and maintain such barricades,           the project     MoRTH: 112.1                            tal Specialist
C.5.2     Traffic and Safety                                                                                                                     Contractor
                                 including signs, markings, flags, lights and flagmen as proposed in the       corridor        IRC: SP:55                              of CSC,
                                 Traffic Control Plan/Drawings and as required by the Environmental            especially at                                           KSHIP



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      70                                                                      Scott Wilson
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                                                                                                                                                          Responsibility
            Environmental                                                                                      Approximate        Reference
Sl. No.                                                    Mitigation Measures                                                                      Planning and      Supervision
                Issue                                                                                            location       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                     Execution        /Monitoring
                                 Expert of CSC for the information and protection on traffic approaching       intersections
                                 or passing through the section of any existing cross roads.                   and
                                 The Contractor shall ensure that all signs, barricades, pavement              settlements
                                 markings are provided as per the MoRTH specifications. Before taking
                                 up of construction on any section of the existing lanes of the highway, a
                                 Traffic Control Plan shall be devised and implemented to the
                                 satisfaction of the Environmental Expert of CSC.
                                 The Contractor shall take all required precautions to prevent danger          Construction    The Building and
                                 from electrical equipment and ensure that –                                   sites and       Other
                                  No material shall be so stacked or placed as to cause danger or             storage areas   Construction
                                      inconvenience to any person or the public.                                               workers
          Risk from               All necessary fencing and lights shall be provided to protect the                           (Regulation of                           Environmen
C.5.3     electrical                  public in construction zones.                                                            Employment and     Contractor            tal Expert of
          equipments             All machines to be used in the construction shall conform to the relevant                     Conditions of                            SC, PIU
                                 Indian Standards (IS) codes, shall be free from patent defect, shall be                       Service) Act,
                                 kept in good working order, shall be regularly inspected and properly                         1996 and
                                 maintained as per IS provision and to the satisfaction of the                                 Factories Act,
                                 Environmental Expert of CSC.                                                                  1948
                                 Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions to prevent danger to the     Throughout
                                 workers and public from fire, flood etc. resulting due to construction        the             Contract
                                                                                                                                                                        Environmen
                                 activities.                                                                   construction    Agreement and
          Risk force                                                                                                                                                    tal Specialist
C.5.4                            Contractor shall make required arrangements so that in case of any            phase           Annexure ‘A’ to    Contractor
          measure                                                                                                                                                       of CSC,
                                 mishap all necessary steps can be taken for prompt first aid treatment.                       MoRTH Clause
                                                                                                                                                                        KSHIP
                                 Construction Safety Plan prepared by the Contractor shall identify                            501
                                 necessary actions in the event of an emergency.
                                 The Contractor shall arrange for –                                           Construction     The Building and
                                 A readily available first aid unit including an adequate supply of           sites; labour    Other
                                 sterilized dressing materials and appliances as per the Factories Rules in   camps and        Construction
                                                                                                                                                                        Environmen
                                 every work zone.                                                             construction     workers
                                                                                                                                                                        tal Specialist
C.5.6     First Aid              Availability of suitable transport at all times to take injured or sick      establishments   (Regulation of     Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                        of CSC,
                                 person(s) to the nearest hospital.                                                            Employment and
                                                                                                                                                                        KSHIP
                                 Equipment and trained nursing staff at construction camp.                                     Conditions of
                                                                                                                               Service) Act,
                                                                                                                               1996
C.5.7     Informatory Signs      The Contractor shall provide, erect and maintain informatory/safety Construction              MoRTH:801          Contractor            Environmen



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      71                                                                       Scott Wilson
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                                                                                                                                                      Responsibility
            Environmental                                                                                  Approximate         Reference
Sl. No.                                                    Mitigation Measures                                                                  Planning and      Supervision
                Issue                                                                                        location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                 Execution        /Monitoring
          and Hoardings          signs, hoardings written in English and local language (Kannada), sites and                MoRTH:802                            tal Specialist
                                 wherever required or as suggested by the Environmental Specialist of construction                                               of CSC,
                                 CSC.                                                                      establishments                                        KSHIP
C.6                              Flora and Fauna: Plantation/Preservation/Conservation Measures
                                 The Contractor shall do turfing on embankment slopes, plantation of Throughout
                                 shrubs as specified in the Contract.                                       the length of
                                 The compensatory plantation shall be carried out by the State Forest project
                                 Department.                                                                corridor        As per the                              Environmen
          Road side
                                 Minimum 80 percent survival rate of the saplings shall be acceptable                       contract                                tal Specialist
C.6.1     Plantation                                                                                                                          Contractor
                                 otherwise the Contractor/Forest Department shall replace dead plants at                    document and                            of CSC,
          Strategy
                                 his own cost.                                                                              MoRTH 301.3.3                           KSHIP
                                 The Environmental Specialist of CSC shall inspect regularly the
                                 survival rate of the trees planted by the Contractor in accordance with
                                 the plantation strategy suggested.
                                 The Contractor shall take reasonable precaution to prevent his workmen Throughout
                                 or any other persons from removing and damaging any flora project
                                 (plant/vegetation) and fauna (animal) including fishing in any water corridor
                                 body and hunting of any animal. If any animal is found near the especially                                                         Environmen
          Flora and chance       construction site at any point of time, the contractor shall immediately near forest                                               tal Specialist
C.6.2                                                                                                                                         Contractor
          found Fauna            upon discovery thereof acquaint in the Environmental Specialist of CSC stretches                                                   of CSC,
                                 and carry out his instructions for dealing with the same.                  including                                               KSHIP
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC shall report to the near by forest office surface water
                                 (range office or divisional office) and shall take appropriate bodies
                                 steps/measures, if required in consultation with the forest officials.
                                 All fossils, coins, articles of value of antiquity, structures and other Throughout
                                 remains of archaeological interest discovered on the site shall be the project
                                 property of the Government and shall be dealt with as per provisions of corridor
                                                                                                                            The Ancient
                                 the relevant legislation.
                                                                                                                            Monuments and                           Environmen
          Chance Found           The Contractor shall take reasonable precautions to prevent his
                                                                                                                            Archaeological                          tal Specialist
C.6.3     Archaeological         workmen or any other persons from removing and damaging any such                                             Contractor
                                                                                                                            Sites and                               of CSC,
          Property               article or thing. He shall, immediately upon discovery thereof and
                                                                                                                            Remains                                 KSHIP
                                 before removal acquaint the Environmental Specialist of CSC of such
                                                                                                                            Act, 1958
                                 discovery and carry out the CSC’s instructions for dealing with the
                                 same, waiting which all work shall be stopped. The CSC shall seek
                                 direction from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) before



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                Issue                                                                                           location      law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                   Execution        /Monitoring
                                 instructing the Contractor to recommence the work in the site. The
                                 Archaeological structures identified along the road sides should be
                                 protected/ preserved or enhanced as per the law.
                                 Contractor shall follow all relevant provisions of the Building and the      Labour camps
                                                                                                                             The Building and
                                 other Construction Workers (Regulations of Employment and
                                                                                                                             Other
                                 Conditions of Service) Act, 1996 for construction and maintenance of
                                                                                                                             Construction
                                 labour camp.
                                                                                                                             workers                                  Environmen
                                 The location, layout and basic facility provision of each labour camp
                                                                                                                             (Regulation of                           tal Specialist
C.7.1     Accommodation          shall be submitted to CSC and KSHIP prior to their construction.                                               Contractor
                                                                                                                             Employment and                           of CSC,
                                 The Construction shall commence only upon the written approval of the
                                                                                                                             Conditions of                            KSHIP
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC.
                                                                                                                             Service) Act,
                                 The Contractor shall maintain necessary living accommodation and
                                                                                                                             1996
                                 ancillary facilities in functional and hygienic manner and as approved
                                 by the CSC.
                                 The Contractor shall construct and maintain all labour accommodation         Construction
                                 in such a fashion that uncontaminated water is available for drinking,       site, Labour
                                 cooking and washing.                                                         camp
                                 The Contractor shall also provide potable water facilities within the
                                 premises of every camp at an accessible place, as per standards set by
                                 the Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of
                                                                                                                             The Building and
                                 Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1996.
                                                                                                                             Other
                                 The Contractor shall also guarantee the following:
                                                                                                                             Construction
                                      a) Supply of sufficient quantity of Potable Water (as per IS) in
                                                                                                                             workers                                  Environmen
                                           every workplace/labour camp (Site at suitable and easily
                                                                                                                             (Regulation of                           tal Specialist
C.7.2     Potable Water                    accessible places and regular maintenance of such facilities.                                        Contractor
                                                                                                                             Employment and                           of CSC,
                                      b) If any water storage tank is provided that shall be kept such
                                                                                                                             Conditions of                            KSHIP
                                           that the bottom of the tank at least 1 m above the surrounding
                                                                                                                             Service) Act,
                                           ground level.
                                                                                                                             1996
                                      c) If water is drawn from any existing well, which is within 30 m
                                           proximity of any toilet, drain or other source of pollution, the
                                           well shall be disinfected before water is used for drinking.
                                      d) All such wells shall be entirely covered and provided with a
                                           trap door, which shall be dust proof and water proof.
                                      e) A reliable pump shall be fitted to each covered well. The trap
                                           door shall be kept locked and opened only for cleaning or



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                      73                                                                     Scott Wilson
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Sl. No.                                                    Mitigation Measures                                                                    Planning and      Supervision
                Issue                                                                                           location      law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                   Execution        /Monitoring
                                           inspection, which shall be done at least once in a month.
                                     f)    Analysis of water shall be done every month as per parameters
                                           prescribed in IS 10500-1991.
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC shall be required to inspect the labour
                                 camp once in a week to ensure the compliance of the EMP
                                 The Contractor shall ensure that –                                          Labour camps
                                  The Sewage system for the camp are designed, built and operated in                        The Building and
                                      such a manner that no health hazards occurs and no pollution to the                    Other
                                      air, ground water or adjacent water courses take place                                 Construction
                                  Separate toilets/bathrooms, wherever required, Screened from those                        workers                                  Environmen
          Sanitation and              form men (marked in vernacular) are to be provided for women                           (Regulation of                           tal Specialist
C.7.3                                                                                                                                           Contractor
          Sewage System           Adequate water supply is to be provided in all toilets and urinals                        Employment and                           of CSC,
                                  Night soil can be disposed of with the help of local municipal                            Conditions of                            KSHIP
                                      extractor or disposed of by putting layer of it at the bottom of a                     Service) Act,
                                      permanent tank prepared for the purpose and covered with 15 cm                         1996
                                      layer of waste or refuse and then covered with a layer of earth for                    MoRTH:114.14
                                      fortnight.
                                 The Contractor shall provide garbage bins in the camps and ensure that      Labour camps                                             Environmen
                                                                                                                             Annexure 'A' to
                                 these are regularly emptied and disposed off in a hygienic manner as per                                                             tal Specialist
C.7.4     Waste Disposal                                                                                                     MoRTH Clause       Contractor
                                 the Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan approved by the                                                                        of CSC,
                                                                                                                             501
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC.                                                                                                     KSHIP
C.8                              Contractor’s Demobilization
                                 The KSHIP shall undertake seasonal monitoring of air, water and noise       Representative
                                 and soil quality through an approved monitoring agency. The                 locations as   Environmental                             Environmen
          Environmental          parameters to be monitored, frequency and duration of monitoring as         directed by    Protection Act,                           tal Specialist
C.8.1                                                                                                                                           Contractor
          Conditions             well as the locations to be monitored shall be as per the Monitoring Plan   Environmental 1986                                       of CSC and
                                 prepared. National Standard of Air, Noise and Water given in                Engineer, CSC.                                           KSHIP
                                 Appendix-7.
                                 The Environmental Specialist of CSC shall have continuous interactions      Along the
                                                                                                                                                                      Environmen
          Continuous             with local people around the project area to ensure that the construction   project
                                                                                                                                                Environmental         tal Specialist
C.8.2     Community              activities are not causing undue inconvenience to the locals residing in    corridor
                                                                                                                                                Specialist of CSC     of CSC and
          Participation          the vicinity of project site under construction due to noise, dust or
                                                                                                                                                                      KSHIP
                                 disposal of debris etc.
          Clean-up               Contractor shall prepare site restoration plans, which shall be approved    Throughout      MoRTH 111.9,                             Environmen
C.8.3                                                                                                                                           Contractor
          Operations,            by the Environmental Specialist of CSC. The clean-up and restoration        the project     111.10 and                               tal Specialist



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                     74                                                                      Scott Wilson
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            Environmental                                                                                       Approximate       Reference
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                Issue                                                                                             location      law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                       Execution        /Monitoring
          Restoration and        operations are to be implemented by the Contractor prior to                    corridor       111.11                                  of CSC,
          Rehabilitation         demobilization. The Contractor shall clear all temporary structures;                                                                  KSHIP
                                 dispose all garbage, night soils and POL (Petroleum, Oil and
                                 Lubricants) wastes as per Comprehensive Waste Management Plan and
                                 as approved by CSC.
                                 All disposal pits or trenches shall be filled in and effectively sealed off.
                                 Residual topsoil, if any shall be distributed on adjoining/proximate
                                 barren land or areas identified by the Contractor and approved by the
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC in a layer of thickness of 75 mm – 150
                                 mm. All construction zones and facilities including culverts, road side
                                 areas, camps, Hot Mix plant sites, Crushers, batching plant sites and any
                                 other area used/affected due to the project operations shall be left clean
                                 and tidy, at the Contractor’s expense, to the entire satisfaction to the
                                 Environmental Specialist of CSC.
C.9                              Construction Activities by KSHIP
                                 The plantation at the following locations shall be implemented by the          Throughout
                                 KSHIP through the State Forest Department;                                     the project
                                 3. Road side                                                                   corridor
                                                                                                                               Karnataka Tree
                                 4. Enhancement sites                                                                                              State Forest
C.9.1     Tree Plantation                                                                                                      Preservation Act,                          KSHIP
                                 5. Forest land                                                                                                    Department
                                                                                                                               1976
                                 6. Community Forestation
                                 A forest area management plan is provided in Appendix-13 and 11 is
                                 the list of various enhancements sites included in the project.
          Oxbow lands and        Development of the enhancement sites identified where PWD land is              Minor
          other left over        already available is provided in Appendix-11.                                  realignments   As per the MoU
C.9.2     portions of the                                                                                       and space      with Forest         State PWD              KSHIP
          existing project                                                                                      within         Department
          road                                                                                                  existing RoW
          OPERATION STAGE
          Activities to be Carried Out by the KSHIP
                               The KSHIP shall monitor the operational performance of the various               Throughout
          Monitoring           mitigation/enhancement measures carried out as a part of the project.            the project    As per the
O.1       Operation            The indicators selected for monitoring include the survival rate of trees;       corridor       contract            KSHIP                  KSHIP
          Performance          utility of enhancement provision made under the project; status of                              document
                               rehabilitation of borrow areas; and effectiveness of noise barriers.



   Corridor T13 and T17                                                                       75                                                                        Scott Wilson
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                                                                                                                                                        Responsibility
           Environmental                                                                                    Approximate         Reference
Sl. No.                                                   Mitigation Measures                                                                     Planning and      Supervision
               Issue                                                                                          location        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                   Execution        /Monitoring
                                PWD shall ensure that all drains (side drains, median drain and all cross   Throughout
          Maintenance of
O.2                             drainages) are periodically cleared especially before monsoon season to     the project                         KSHIP                 KSHIP
          Drainage
                                facilitate the quick passage of rainwater and avoid flooding.               corridor
                                The periodic monitoring of the ambient air quality, noise level, water      At               Environmental
                                (both ground and surface water) quality, soil quality in the selected       representative   Protection Act,
                                locations as suggested in pollution monitoring plan through the KSPCB       locations as     1986 and The
          Pollution                                                                                                                             Pollution
O.3                             or its approved monitoring agency.                                          per the          noise pollution                          KSHIP
          Monitoring                                                                                                                            Monitoring Agency
                                                                                                            instructions     (regulation and
                                                                                                            of Env.          control) rules,
                                                                                                            Engineer         2000
                                Visual Monitoring and inspection of soil erosion at borrow areas,           Borrow areas
          Soil Erosion and                                                                                                   MoRTH
                                quarries (if closed and rehabilitated), embankments and other places        and
O.4       Monitoring of                                                                                                      305.2.2.2 and      KSHIP                 KSHIP
                                expected to be affected, shall be carried out once in every three months    embankment
          Borrow Areas                                                                                                       306.3
                                as suggested in monitoring plan.                                            slopes
                                However the public shall be advised to construct the noise barriers such    Throughout
          Public awareness
                                as walls, double glazed windows and tree plantation between the roads       the project
          on Noise levels                                                                                                    Corporate Social
O.5                             and their property. The public awareness is necessary regarding the         corridor                            KSHIP                 KSHIP
          and Health                                                                                                         Responsibility
                                human health through the news papers and consultations and
          Affects
                                distribution of pamphlets during the operation stage.




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                                                        Table 8-2: Environmental Management Plan – Bridges (Part-B)
                                                                                                                                                     Responsibility
            Environmental                                                                                                     Reference
Sl. No.                                                         Mitigation Measures                                                           Planning and    Supervision/
                Issue                                                                                                       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                               Execution      Monitoring
PRE-CONSTRUCTION STAGE
Pre-construction activities by Construction Management Unit
          Permission from      Permission from Irrigation Department shall be taken prior to start of construction
                                                                                                                           Contract                               CSC and
P.1       Irrigation           work on bridges                                                                                               EO, KSHIP.
                                                                                                                           Agreement                              KSHIP
          Department
                               Water Quality upstream and down stream of bridges shall be tested prior to initiation                         KSHIP through
                               of any work at the site of new construction of Bridges to establish baseline.               Environmental     approved
          Pollution
P.2                                                                                                                        Protection Act    Pollution            EO, KSHIP
          Monitoring
                                                                                                                           1986              Monitoring
                                                                                                                                             Laboratory
Contractor/Environmental Expert of TA Consultant/CMU (KSHIP)
                               The contractor as per prevalent rules shall carry out negotiations with the
                               landowners for obtaining their consent for temporary use of lands for traffic detours,
            Arrangements for material storage, construction machinery and equipment, vehicle parking etc.
                                                                                                                                                                  CSC and
P.3         Temporary Land     Contractor shall enter into a written agreements with land owners for all such sites        MoRTH 108.3       Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                  KSHIP
            Requirement        and Environmental Officer shall be required to ensure that the rehabilitation/clearing
                               up of the sites prior to handling over to the owners have been carried out as per
                               written agreement.
CONSTRUCTION STAGE
Activities to be Carried Out by the Contractor
                               The contractor shall identify disposal sites and shall report the same to the
                               Environmental Officer. These locations shall be checked on site and accordingly
                               approved by Environmental Officer prior to any disposal of waste materials.
                               Contractor shall prepare Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan in
                               consultation with Environmental Officer and after approval of plan by EO debris
            Dismantling of                                                                                                                                        CSC and
                               shall be disposed off accordingly. This plan also should include ways and means to
            Structures/Compo                                                                                                                                      Environmental
C.1                            dispose off the Municipal Garbage’s dumped on the bridge side of the existing               MoRTH 2802.5      Contractor
            nents and Debris                                                                                                                                      Officer,
                               alignment to the make the area congenial for working.
            Disposal                                                                                                                                              KSHIP
                               No dismantling work shall be carried out at night, or during storm or heavy rain. No
                               dismantling shall be carried out without identification and approval of site by
                               Environmental Officer of CSC. Dismantled material shall not be stored in canal bed,
                               embankment slopes except material which shall be reused in Construction. All
                               debris requiring disposal shall be directly taken to the Pre identified disposal site and



 Corridor T13 and T17                                                                     77                                                                         Scott Wilson
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           Environmental                                                                                                      Reference
Sl. No.                                                         Mitigation Measures                                                           Planning and    Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                        law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                               Execution      Monitoring
                                deposited as per approved Comprehensive Waste Disposal Locations.
                                Debris generated shall be reused in the construction of temporary diversion of
                                traffic, filling in embankment, slope protection work etc subject to the suitability of
                                the materials and approval of the Engineer and Environmental Officer.
                                All arrangements for dismantling, clearing debris and its transportation shall be
                                considered incidental to the work and shall be planned and implemented by the
                                Contractor as approved and directed by the Environmental Officer.
                                Construction of temporary traffic diversions shall be carried out in accordance with
                                the plans prepared and approved during pre-construction stage.
                                Temporary diversions shall be constructed after receipt of approval from concerned
                                authorities and under supervision of Environmental Officer.
                                Warning boards should be placed at least 500 m and 200 m from the construction
                                sites on both sides along with battery operated lamp/retro reflective lamps.
                                Flashlights are provided at least 200 m before the construction site on either side
                                giving warning to drivers before reaching construction sites.
                                Signs, lights, barriers, cones, and other traffic control devices, as well as the riding
                                surface of diversions shall be maintained in a satisfactory condition till such time
                                they are required as directed by the engineer.
                                                                                                                                                                  CSC and
          Construction of       Contractor shall keep the temporary traffic diversions free of dust by sprinkling of       IRC:SP 55;
                                                                                                                                                                  Environmental
C.1.2     temporary traffic     water three times a day and as required under specific conditions (depending on            MoRTH 112.4       Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                  Officer,
          diversions            weather conditions, construction in the settlement areas and volume of traffic).           and 5
                                                                                                                                                                  KSHIP
                                Contractor shall prepare a Detailed Traffic Control Plans and shall submit it to the
                                Environmental Officer for approval, five days prior to commencement of works on
                                any bridge. The traffic control plans shall contain details of temporary diversions,
                                traffic safety arrangements i.e. lighting arrangement, signage, arrangement of
                                flagmen etc. The Contractor shall provide specific measures for safety of pedestrians
                                and workers as a part of traffic control plans. The Contractor shall ensure that the
                                diversion/detour is always maintained in running condition, particularly during the
                                monsoon to avoid disruption of traffic flow.
                                The Contractor shall also inform local community of changes to traffic routes,
                                conditions and pedestrian access arrangements with assistance from local bodies and
                                KSHIP.
          Handling and          Contractor shall not store/dump the construction material in water course.                                                        CSC and
                                                                                                                           IS: 7293
C.1.3     storing of            Area of storage of material near the work site shall be earmarked in consultation                            Contractor           Environmental
                                                                                                                           IS: 7969
          materials             with Environmental Officer of CSC. This area shall not be at a distance of less than                                              Officer,



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                                                                                                                                                    Responsibility
           Environmental                                                                                                     Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                           Planning and    Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                              Execution      Monitoring
                                50 from bank of the water course.                                                                                           KSHIP
                                The access road should be free from water logging.
                                Storage area should be leveled ground; stacking area should be planned and have
                                racks, stands, sleepers, access traces etc and properly lighted, all materials
                                consumables, including raw steel or fabricated materials shall be stored properly on
                                platforms, skids or other supports IS: 7293 and IS: 7969 dealing with handling of
                                materials and equipment for safe working should be followed.
                                Contractor shall prepare a plan for handling and storing of material at bridge
                                construction site and shall submit it for approval from Environmental
                                Officer/Engineer.
                                Contractor shall no obstruct the flow of water while constructing/rehabilitating
                                bridges. Contractor shall ensure that velocity in the constructed portion does not
                                increase more then twice the lean season velocity. This shall help turbidity control in
                                downstream and minimum disruption of flora and fauna.
                                Contractor shall carry out the excavation for foundation and construction of
                                substructures during lean season to reduce turbidity levels and soil erosion, which
                                may cause disruption to flora and fauna.
                                Construction over and close to the non-perennial streams shall be undertaken in the
                                dry season.
                                Contractor shall construct river training and protection work i.e. construction of
                                guide bunds, guide walls, bank protection, flooring and approach embankment
          Water Training                                                                                                                                         CSC and
                                protection etc. as given in engineering design/drawing in such a fashion that shall
          and Disruption to                                                                                                                                      Environmental
C.1.4                           provide safety to the bridge structure and its approaches against damage by               MoRTH 2501        Contractor
          Other Users of                                                                                                                                         Officer,
                                flood/flowing water and at the same time shall not pollute water.
          Water                                                                                                                                                  KSHIP
                                Contractor shall prevent the soil erosion by minimizing the amount of exposed soil,
                                minimizing the time the soil is exposed, avoiding steep cutting of slope (steeper than
                                1:2), and constructing all slope protection measures whether incidental or payable,
                                temporary or permanent in time.
                                The Contractor shall serve notice to the down stream users well in advance if
                                construction work is expected to disrupt users of community water bodies or flow of
                                surface water body is diverted. The Engineer/CMU shall ensure that contractor has
                                served the notice to the downstream users of water well in advance.
                                The Contractor shall take prior approval of the Irrigation Department or CMU
                                (KSHIP) for any such activity.




Corridor T13 and T17                                                                     79                                                                         Scott Wilson
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and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads
                                                                                                                                                        Responsibility
           Environmental                                                                                                     Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                              Planning and     Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                                 Execution       Monitoring
                                Since the rivers along the project road are most of the time dry, Aquatic Fauna are                                             CSC and
                                very limited. Any impacts to the aquatic fauna shall be avoided.                                                                Environmental
          Aquatic Fauna                                                                                                   MoRTH 111            Contractor
                                                                                                                                                                Officer,
                                                                                                                                                                KSHIP
                                Minimum required labour should stay at night at bridge site and Contractor shall
                                                                                                                          AS per the Labour
          Labour                make necessary arrangement of toilets, waste sanitation, and Drinking Water
                                                                                                                          laws of the Nation
                                requirement at site.
C.2       Pollution
C.2.1     Water Pollution
                                The Contractor should not discharge wastewater, generated during construction, into
                                streams, water bodies or the irrigation system without preliminary treatment and
                                                                                                                          Clause No 501.86
                                should conform to Karnataka State Pollution Control Board.
                                                                                                                          MoRTH
                                Cofferdams or formwork shall be such as to ensure still water conditions. All waste
                                                                                                                          Specification for                         CSC and
          Water Pollution       arising from the bridges construction activity is to be disposed off in the manner that
                                                                                                                          Road and Bridge                           Environmental
C.2.1.1   from Construction     is acceptable to the State Pollution Control Board and as per approved                                         Contractor
                                                                                                                          Works                                     Officer,
          Wastes                Comprehensive Waste Management Plan.
                                                                                                                          W (PandC) P Act                           KSHIP
                                Wastes must be collected, stored and reused in the construction/taken to approved
                                                                                                                          1981
                                disposal sites.
                                The Environmental Officer shall certify that all wastes generated on bridge site have
                                been disposed off as per norms or in environment friendly manner.
                                To avoid contamination from fuel and lubricants, the vehicle and equipments shall         Clause No 501.8.6
                                be properly maintained and refueling/maintenance of vehicles shall not be done near       MoRTH                                     CSC and
          Contamination of
                                the bridge sites.                                                                         Specification for                         Environmental
C.2.1.2   water from fuel                                                                                                                      Contractor
                                Diesel Generator set shall be placed on a cement concrete platform with oil and           Road and Bridge                           Officer,
          and lubricants
                                grease trap to control the oil ingress into soil/water bodies.                            Works W (PandC)                           KSHIP
                                                                                                                          P Act 1981
                                Contractor shall ensure that no construction materials like earth; stone or any other
                                obstructing construction material is disposed in watercourse and shall take all
                                                                                                                                                                    CSC and
                                necessary measures to prevent the blockage of water flow blocking the flow of
          Drainage and                                                                                                    MoRTH:305.3.7                             Environmental
C.2.1.3                         water.                                                                                                         Contractor
          runoff                                                                                                          MoRTH:306                                 Officer,
                                In addition to the design requirements, the Contractor shall take all required
                                                                                                                                                                    KSHIP
                                measures as directed by the Environmental Officer to prevent temporary or
                                permanent flooding of the site or any adjacent area.
          Siltation of Water    The Contractor shall not excavate beds of any stream/canals/nala for borrowing                                                      CSC and
C.2.1.4                                                                                                                   MoRTH:06             Contractor
          Bodies and            earth for embankment construction.                                                                                                  Environmental



Corridor T13 and T17                                                                     80                                                                            Scott Wilson
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           Environmental                                                                                                   Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                            Planning and    Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                     law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                               Execution      Monitoring
          Degradation of        Silt fencing shall be provided at bridge locations where rehabilitation /New                                                 Officer,
          Water Quality         construction is proposed as per drawing and locations attached in Appendix-3 to                                              KSHIP
                                avoid siltation of water bodies.
C.2.2     Air Pollution
                                The Contractor shall follow good engineering practices during demolishing of
                                bridges or part thereof and during Construction and rehabilitation of bridges. (Refer
                                                                                                                        Clause No 111
                                Appendices EA and EMP)
                                                                                                                        and 501.8.6
                                The Contractor should provide screen around the demolition sites wherever feasible.
                                                                                                                        MoRTH                                     CSC and
                                The Contractor shall reduce dust nuisance from construction sites by sprinkling of
                                                                                                                        Specifications for                        Environmental
C.2.2.1   Dust Pollution        water, encapsulation of dust source and by erection of screen/barriers.                                      Contractor
                                                                                                                        Road and Bridge                           Officer,
                                Vehicle delivering material shall be covered. End boards in loaders shall be provided
                                                                                                                        Works Air                                 KSHIP
                                to prevent spillage. Water shall also be sprayed on temporary access roads and
                                                                                                                        (PandCP) Act
                                diversions.
                                The air pollution monitoring shall be carried out as per monitoring and reporting
                                programme detailed in Environment Assessment and Management Plan.
C.2.3     Noise Pollution
                                The demolition of bridges/rehabilitation of bridges shall be done using good            The noise
          Noise Pollution:                                                                                                                                        CSC and
                                engineering practices so that noise levels are kept at acceptable levels.               pollution
          Noise from                                                                                                                                              Environmental
C.2.3.1                         If required screens shall be erected around the construction sites.                     (regulation and      Contractor
          Vehicles, Plants                                                                                                                                        Officer,
                                                                                                                        control) rules,
          and Equipments                                                                                                                                          KSHIP
                                                                                                                        2000
C.3       Safety
                                Tool box meeting shall be held at least once a week in order to brief workers about
                                safety, do’s and don’t during construction. Toolbox safety meetings are on the job
                                meetings and shall keep employees alert to work related accidents and illness. A
                                toolbox meeting helps alert employees to workplace hazards, and by preventing
          Tool Box              accidents, illness and on the job injuries. The meeting should involve groups of
                                                                                                                        MoRTH 2804.10
          Meetings              people who work together and face same sort of injury risks. The meetings should be
                                so designed to raise employee’s awareness following hazardous incidents, a recent
                                injury or near miss. Toolbox meeting improve workplace safety and health, provide
                                information and instructions, improve consultation and help identify hazards and
                                deciding what action needs to be taken to reduce the risks.
          Personal Safety       Contractor shall provide:                                                                                                         CSC and
C.3.1     Measures for           Protective footwear, goggles and clothing to all workers employed on laying of        MoRTH 2804.10        Contractor           Environmental
          Labour                     wearing coat, preparing cement mortars for brick work, concreting, painting etc.                                             Officer,



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           Environmental                                                                                                  Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                       Planning and    Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                    law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                          Execution      Monitoring
                                    Welder’s protective eye shields to workers who are engaged in welding works                                        KSHIP
                                    Earplugs to workers exposed to loud noise, and workers working with jack
                                     hammer, joint cutting machines, vibrators etc.
                                 Adequate safety measures for workers during handling of materials at site are
                                     taken up.
                                 The Contractor shall comply with all regulations regarding safe scaffolding,
                                     ladders, working platforms, gangway, stairwells, excavations, trenches and safe
                                     means of entry and egress.
                                 At every workplace, good and sufficient water supply shall be maintained to
                                     avoid waterborne/water related/water based diseases to ensure the health and
                                     hygiene of workers.
                                 Persons working should wear safety helmets and rubber gloves
                                 Contractor at his own expenses shall put up necessary shoring, shuttering and
                                     planking or cut slopes to a safer angle or both with due regard to the safety of
                                     personnel and workers and to the satisfaction of the Engineer
                                The Contractor shall comply with all the precautions as required for ensuring the
                                safety of the workmen as per the International Labour Organization (ILO)
                                Convention No. 62 as far as those are applicable to this contract.
                                The Contractor shall make sure that during the construction work all relevant
                                provisions of the Factories Act, 1948 and the Building and other Construction
                                Workers (regulation of Employment and Conditions of Services) Act, 1996 are
                                adhered to.
                                The Contractor shall not employ any person below the age of 14 years for any work
                                and no woman shall be employed on the work of painting with products containing
                                lead in any form.
                                The Contractor shall also ensure that no paint containing lead or lead products is
                                used to except in the form of paste or readymade paint.
                                Contractor shall provide facemasks for use to the workers when paint is applied in
                                the form of spray or a surface having lead paint dry is rubbed and scrapped.
                                The Contractor shall mark ‘hard hat’ and ‘no smoking’ and other ‘high risk’ areas
                                and enforce non-compliance of use PPE with zero tolerance. These shall be reflected
                                in the Construction Safety Plan to be prepared by the Contractor during mobilization
                                and shall be approved by SC
                                Contractor shall install a warning device in the area to be used to warn the workers
                                in case of mishap/emergency.
                                Contractor shall provide Safety Helmets conforming to IS 2925 to all the workmen


Corridor T13 and T17                                                                    82                                                                  Scott Wilson
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           Environmental                                                                                                     Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                           Planning and    Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                       law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                              Execution      Monitoring
                                engaged in dismantling work.
                                The shed and tool boxes should be located away from work site.
                                Goggles preferably made up of celluloid’s and gas masks shall be worn at the time
                                of dismantling, especially where tools like jack hammers are deployed to protect
                                eyes from injuries form flying pieces, dirt, dust etc.
                                The workers shall wear leather or rubber gloves during demolition of RCC work.
                                Screens made up GI sheets shall be placed wherever necessary to prevent the flying
                                pieces from injuring the workers
                                Water should be sprayed to reduce the dust while removing concrete wearing course
                                with jackhammer.
                                No work shall be taken up under the span when dismantling work is in progress.
                                Contact numbers of Police, Fire Brigade, Ambulance, Police Station, Engineer, EO
                                CSC Consultant and KSHIP should be displayed at every bridge Site.
                                Any skin contacts with epoxy materials; solvents and epoxy strippers should be
                                avoided. Epoxy resin can cause irritation of skin particularly epoxy hardeners (B
                                component) may cause a rash on skin in sensitive persons if incorrectly handled. The
                                resin and hardener should not be allowed to come into direct contact with skin. The
                                most effective protection is achieved by wearing polythene gloves, rubber gloves,
                                with a cloth liner, and protective clothing.
                                The official toxicity classification on container labels may be looked for before
                                starting work.
                                Barrier creams are recommended but are not substitutes for protective clothing. Eyes
          Handling of           shall be protected where splashing could occur while spraying. Good ventilation                                                  CSC and
          Hazardous             shall be ensured and inhalation of vapors avoided. If materials are sprayed, a                                                   Environmental
C.3.2                                                                                                                     MoRTH 111.6       Contractor
          Materials /           respirator shall be used. If skin contact occurs, it shall be immediately washed with a                                          Officer,
          Chemicals             cleaner, followed by soap and water. Should eye contact occur, it shall be flushed                                               KSHIP
                                immediately with plenty of water for 15 minutes and a doctor called for
                                If contact occurs with the clothing, it shall be immediately changed to prevent
                                further skin contact, and if the contact occurs with component A or B, the clothing
                                shall be thrown away. Hardened epoxy is not harmful but shall break the clothing.
                                All emptied used buckets; rags and containers shall be removed from site. These
                                shall be stored in waste disposal bags and suitable disposed.
                                The Contractor shall prepare a hazardous waste management and disposal plan and
                                shall submit a copy of it to Environmental Officer (KSHIP) for review and
                                supervision.



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           Environmental                                                                                                    Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                            Planning and    Supervision/
               Issue                                                                                                      law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                               Execution      Monitoring
                                The Contractor shall ensure that temporary bridges constructed for diversion of
                                traffic are as per norms and safe and approved by Environmental Officer.
                                Speed limits shall be set for movement of traffic on temporary bridges.
                                The Contractor shall take all necessary measures for the safety of traffic during
                                construction and provide, erect and maintain such barricades, including sign,
                                markings, flags, lights, warning boards and flagmen as proposed in the Traffic
                                Control Plan/Drawings and as required by the Environmental Officer for the                                                        CSC and
          Traffic                                                                                                        IRC:SP 55;
                                information and protection of traffic approaching or passing the bridge under                                                     Environmental
C.3.3     Management and                                                                                                 MoRTH 112.4         Contractor
                                construction or through the temporary diversion.                                                                                  Officer,
          Safety                                                                                                         and 5
                                The Contractor shall ensure that all signs, barricades markings are provided as per                                               KSHIP
                                the MoRTH specifications. Before taking up of construction on any bridge site, a
                                Traffic Control Plan shall be devised and implemented to the satisfaction of the
                                Environmental Expert. The Contractor shall take all necessary measures for the
                                safety of traffic during construction and provide, erect and maintain such
                                barricading, including signs, markings lights and flagmen etc. For the information
                                and protection of traffic.
                                A readily available first aid unit including an adequate supply of sterilized dressing                                            CSC and
                                materials and appliances as per the Factories Rules at every Bridge Construction                                                  Environmental
C.3.4     First Aid                                                                                                      MoRTH 121.3.1       Contractor
                                site.                                                                                                                             Officer,
                                                                                                                                                                  KSHIP
                                The Contractor shall provide, erect and maintain informatory/safety signs, hoardings                                              CSC and
                                                                                                                         IRC:SP 55;
          Informatory Signs     written in English and Hindi, wherever required or as suggested by the                                                            Environmental
C.3.5                                                                                                                    MoRTH 112.4         Contractor
          and Hoardings         Environmental Officer.                                                                                                            Officer,
                                                                                                                         and 5
                                                                                                                                                                  KSHIP
                                CMU shall monitor water quality both upstream and downstream of bridges thrice a         Environmental
                                year at the site of new bridges.                                                         Protection Act,     CMU through
                                                                                                                         1986 and The        approved
          Pollution
C.3.6                                                                                                                    noise pollution     Pollution            EO KSHIP
          Monitoring
                                                                                                                         (regulation and     Monitoring
                                                                                                                         control) rules,     Laboratory
                                                                                                                         2000
C.4       Contractor’s Demobilization
          Cleanup          Contractor shall prepare site restoration plans, which shall be approved by the               As per the                               CSC and
C.4.1     Operations,      Environmental Officer. The clean-up and restoration operations are to be                      contract document   Contractor           Environmental
          Restoration and  implemented by the Contractor prior to demobilization. All spaces excavated and not           and RAP                                  Officer,



Corridor T13 and T17                                                                     84                                                                          Scott Wilson
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            Environmental                                                                                                    Reference
Sl. No.                                                        Mitigation Measures                                                            Planning and    Supervision/
                Issue                                                                                                      law/guidelines
                                                                                                                                               Execution      Monitoring
           Rehabilitation       occupied by the foundation or other permanent works shall be refilled with earth up                                          KSHIP
                                to surface of surrounding ground.
                                The Contractor shall clear all temporary structures; dispose all surplus material
                                laying in waterway or around bridge site as per Comprehensive Waste Management
                                Plan and approved by Environmental Officer.
                                The bridge construction site shall be left clean and tidy, at the contractor’s expense,
                                to the satisfaction to the Environmental Officer.
OPERATION STAGE
Activities to be Carried Out by the CMU (Construction Management Unit)
                               The KSHIP shall monitor the operational performance of the various mitigation
            Monitoring
                               measures carried out in the form of river training works as a part of the project          As per the
O.1         Operation                                                                                                                         KSHIP            KSHIP
                               The indicators selected for monitoring include the water quality status, Soil erosion      contract document
            Performance
                               etc.
                               The periodic monitoring of the surface water quality at the selected locations as                              Pollution
                                                                                                                          Environmental
            Pollution          suggested in pollution monitoring plan shall be responsibility of KSHIP. These                                 Monitoring
O.2                                                                                                                       Protection Act,                      KSHIP
            Monitoring         locations shall be monitored once during operation stage.                                                      Agency through
                                                                                                                          1986
                                                                                                                                              KSHIP
                                Contractor shall submit Accident Safety and Hazardous Chemical Spill Management
O.3        Safety Measures      Plan and shall get it approved by the “EO KSHIP”. The plan should also have details       MoRTH 111.6
                                of detours in case of emergency.




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8.2     Other Mitigation Plans
8.2.1    Resettlement Plan
Social Impact Assessment (SIA) has been undertaken wherein the project authority will adopt the
Resettlement and Rehabilitation (R & R) Policy of the project and prepare Resettlement Plan to
address the adverse impacts arising out of the project. The R & R policy is in line with the National
Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation 2007 and Asian Development Banks Safeguard Policy
2009.
8.2.2    Emergency Response Plan
Project Proponents shall prepare site specific Emergency Response Plans to face and address any
emergency situation with respect to vehicular accidents, heavy floods and spillage of oil or other
hazardous materials. It requires establishing and developing a communication and response system to
minimize the impacts of these situations and also minimize the time required to respond to these
situations in order to safeguard people, property and environmental resources. Contractor shall submit
approved Accident Safety and Hazardous Chemical Spill Management Plan. The plan should also
have details of detours in case of emergency.
8.2.3    Construction Water Management Plan
It is the responsibility of the contractor to arrange adequate supply and storage of water for the whole
construction period and submit a list of sources from where water shall be used for the project as per
the Construction Water Management Plan (Appendix 15). Contractor shall source the required water
preferentially by conjunctive use of Surface water and groundwater but with prior permission from
the Groundwater Authority. All precaution shall be taken to minimize the wastage of water during
construction process.
8.3     Grievance Redressal Mechanism
A joint social and environmental redress mechanism will be implemented under the project.
Grievances and suggestions from local and affected people may come-up related to inappropriate
implementation of the project and components of EMP. Grievance re-dress mechanism shall be
translated in Kannada language and posted to the respective village/Panchayat office by Contractor in
behalf of the KSHIP at least 30 days prior to commencement of construction works. The expected
range of grievances to be handled through this mechanism will encompass but not limited to the
following: i) nuisance from noise, dust, and temporary blocking of access; ii) contamination of
receiving water from runoff; iii) emissions from increase vehicular traffic and stationary sources like
hot mix plant; iv) conflict between local residents and migrant workers; v) ownership of vegetation
for clearing; and vi) damage compensation. These issues will be addressed through acknowledgement,
evaluation and corrective action and response approach. Grievances from public or stakeholders
concerning the project and EMP implementation will be received by the concerned Executive
Engineer of KSHIP division. The Executive Engineer shall refer the application to Construction
Supervision Consultants (CSC) who then assess the grievances/suggestions and if they are found to be
genuine and acceptable, will be resolved at division level itself within 15 to 30 days from the date of
receipt. In case, the issue is unable to be resolved, the matter will be forwarded to the Social and
Environmental cell, KSHIP (Head quarter). This mechanism is non-judicial in nature and does not
preclude the affected people coursing their grievances to the courts. The corrective action will be
started as per the action plan indicated to the stakeholder. The action taken and the outcome shall
form a part of quarterly report to ADB.



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8.4       Environmental Monitoring programme
Monitoring is an essential component for sustainability of any developmental project. It is an integral
part of any environmental assessment process. Any development project introduces complex inter-
relationships in the project area between people, natural resources, biota and other developing forces.
Thus, a new environment is created. It is very difficult to predict with complete certainty the exact
post-project environmental scenario. Hence, monitoring of critical parameters is essential in the post
project phase.
The monitoring programme consists of performance indicators, reporting formats (Appendix – 12)
and necessary budgetary provision. Out of this, the budgetary provisions are confidential and are not
supposed to be part of the disclosure statement. The budgetary statements are provided in section 8.9
for the purpose of evaluation of the EMP.
The contractors monitoring plan should be in accordance with the baseline environmental monitoring
locations provided in the environmental impact assessment report.
The monitoring plan has the following objective
         To ensure effective implementation of EMP
         To comply with all applicable environmental, safety, labour and local legislation
         To ensure that public opinions and obligations are taken in to account and respected to the
          required satisfaction level
         To modify the mitigation measures or implementing additional measures, if required
For each of the environmental condition indicators, the monitoring plan specifies the parameters to be
monitored, location of the monitoring sites, frequency and duration of monitoring. The monitoring
plan also specifies the applicable standards, implementation and supervising responsibilities. The
monitoring plan and details of monitoring locations for environmental condition indicators of the
project during the construction and operation stage are presented in Table 8.3. The monitoring will be
carried out by PIU through the approved agency and will be supervised by the Environmental Experts
of the Construction Supervision Consultants and PIU.




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                                                  Table 8-3: Environmental monitoring for Air, Water, Noise and Soil
                                                                                                                                                  No of
Attribute          Parameter             Special guidance           Standards         Frequency        Duration             Location                           Implementation
                                                                                                                                                 samples
Air          CO, NOx, SPM, RPM,        High volume sampler      Air (prevention     Once in every      Two          Construction Sites and      24 or as      KSHIP
             Pb and SO2                to be located 50m        and control of      four months        years        major establishments        directed
                                       from the plant in the    pollution) Rules.   during                          along the subproject
                                       down wind direction.     CPCB, 1994          construction and                including base line
                                       Use method specified                         operation stage.                monitored stations
                                       by CPCB for 24 hr
                                       sampling
Water        Please refer Appendix     Grab sample              IS for Inland       Once in every      Two          Drinking water samples      24 or as      KSHIP
             7 for water quality       collected from source    surface waters      four months        years        from the labour camps       directed
             parameters      to   be   and analyze as per       (IS:2296,1982)      during                          and from hand pumps,
             monitored            or   standard methods for     and for drinking    construction and                Surface water from the
             parameters as decided     examination              water (IS:          operation stage.                water courses along the
             by the Environmental                               10500-1991)                                         road project.
             Specialist of the CSC
Noise        Noise quality as per      Equivalent noise         MOEF Noise          Once in every      Two          Near the construction       24 or as      KSHIP
             National       Ambient    levels using and         Rules 2000          four months        years        camps, working zones,       desired
             Noise Standards on db     integrated noise level                       during                          sensitive receptors at
             (A) scale                 meter kept at a                              construction and                major           human
                                       distance of 15m from                         operation stage.                settlements along the
                                       edge of pavement                                                             road.
                                       Leq in db (A) of day
                                       time and night time
*Soil        Monitoring of pH,         Sample of soil           Threshold for       One sample         Two          Construction       camp     16 or as      KSHIP
             Nitrogen,                 collected and            each                each during the    years        /plant sites, Labour        desired
             Phosphorus,,              analyzed using           contaminant set     pre and post                    camps, Batching plants
             Potassium, Sodium,        absorption               by IRIS             monsoon for                     and           productive
             Chloride,    Organic      spectrometer             database of         construction and                agricultural       lands
             Carbon and Lead                                    USPEA until         operation stage.                abutting traffic detours
                                                                standards are                                       and traffic diversions
                                                                available to use.                                   and major intersections.

  *Accidental spillage of hazardous and non-hazardous substances need to be dealt with as special cases largely depends on the circumstances including state of the
  substance (liquid or solid)
  Monitoring shall be carried out at all locations used for collection of primary data in the study
  .



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8.5    Performance indicators
Environmental components identified of a particular significance in affecting the environment at critical
locations have been suggested as performance indicators (PIs).
                             Table 8-4: Performance Indicators and monitoring plan
          Monitoring
  S.         plan/
                                     Description of Item              Indicator          Stage        Responsibility
  No     Performance
           indicators
   1    Monitoring              No. of trees planted (Total)         Road side    Post               Forest
        plan                    No. of trees under Compensatory      and other    construction       Department
                                 Afforestation                        plantation   stage              and PIU
                                No. of Trees planted along Road      areas
                                 sides
                                No. of Trees planted at other
                                 locations (such as camps, borrow
                                 areas, debris disposal sites and
                                 plant areas)
                                No. of trees planted at
                                 enhancement sites
   3    Performance             No. of Borrow Areas identified       Borrow       Pre -              Contractor
        indicators               and verified                         Area         Construction
                                No. of sites for which restoration                and Post-
                                 plans have been prepared                          Construction
                                No. of Sites restored and
                                 rehabilitated
                                No. of sites handed over
   4    Performance             No. of Quarry Areas identified       Quarry       Pre –              Contractor
        indicators               and verified                                      Construction
                                No. of sites for which restoration                and Post
                                 plans have been prepared                          Construction
                                No. of sites restored and
                                 rehabilitated
                                No. of sites handed over
   5    Performance             Quantity of Debris and spoils to     Disposal     Construction       Contractor
        indicators               be disposed off                      sites        and Post
                                No. of locations finalized for                    Construction
                                 Debris disposal
                                Quantity of Debris and spoils
                                 disposed off
                                No. of locations for which
                                 Rehabilitation works have been
                                 completed
   6    Performance             No. of locations identified for      Constructi   Pre-               Contractor
        indicators               the construction camp and            on camps     construction
                                 construction plant sites             and plant    and Post
                                No. of locations approved            sites        Construction
                                Lay-outs approved
                                No. of sites for which site
                                 Restoration and Rehabilitation
                                 has been completed
   7    Performance             No. of Trees to be cut               Tree         Pre                PIU



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          Monitoring
  S.         plan/
                                     Description of Item            Indicator        Stage        Responsibility
  No     Performance
           indicators
        indicators            No. of Trees cut                     cutting       construction
                              % Progress on the tree removal
   8    Performance         No. of locations identified for         Storage of    Pre             Contractor
        indicators          temporary storage of the excavated      excavated     construction
                            materials to be used in embankment      materials     and
                            and sub grade                                         construction
   9    Monitoring          Statutory environmental monitoring as   Environme     Construction    Contractor
        plan                per the conditions stipulated in the    ntal status
                            consents/ permission issued by PCB      at
                                                                    constructio
                                                                    n Sites
  10    Monitoring          Environmental parameter monitoring      Air, Noise,   Construction    PIU through
        plan                in accordance with the frequency and    Soil and      and             external
                            duration of monitoring as well as the   Water         Operation       agency
                            locations as per the Monitoring plan    quality
                            given in Table 8.3
  11    Monitoring          Before the onset of monsoon all the     Silting of    Construction    Contractor
        plan                debris/excavated materials shall be     water                         supervised by
                            cleaned from the work sites and         bodies                        the
                            disposed of at the pre –identified                                    Environmental
                            approved locations                                                    specialist of
                                                                                                  CSC
  12    Performance         Implementation   of     enhancement     Enhancem      Construction    Contractor
        indicators          measures for                            ents
                              Parking areas
                              Cultural properties
                              Religious properties
                              Other oxbow land development

  13    Performance             No.    of    Training   sessions   Training      Construction    PIU
        indicators               organized for                      Imparted      and
                                   - Department staff                             Operational
                                   - Contractors                                  Phase
                                   - Combined
                             No. of people trained
                                   - Department staff
                                   - Contractors
  14    Performance         Slope protection measures               Work sites    Construction    Contractor
        indicators           Length (by type)
                             No. of Locations
  15    Performance         Drainage                                Work sites    Construction    Contractor
        indicators           Length
                             No. of Locations
  16    Performance         Safety provisions                       Work sites    Construction    Contractor
        indicators           Signage (by type and No.)
                             Guard Rails
                             Guide Rails
  17    Performance         No. of chute drains provided            Work sites    Construction    Contractor
        indicators
  18    Performance         Soil erosion prevention measures        Work sites    Construction    Contractor



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            Monitoring
  S.           plan/
                                     Description of Item               Indicator         Stage        Responsibility
  No       Performance
             indicators
          indicators             Silt fencing (No. of locations and
                                  quantity)
                              Stone pitching (No. of locations
                                  and quantity)
                              Any other (Grass seeding etc.,)
  19      Performance       Utility ducts                              Utility        Construction    Contractor
          indicators          Length provided                         ducts
                              No. of Locations
  20      Performance       Water sources                              Work sites     Construction    Contractor
          indicators          No. of sources protected
                              No. of sources relocated
  21      Performance       No. of HIV awareness sessions              Labours        Construction    PIU
          indicators        conducted                                                 Stage
  22      Performance       No. Safety awareness sessions              Labours        Construction    PIU
          indicators        conducted                                                 Stage
  23      Monitoring        No. of awareness sessions for              Public in      Construction    PIU
          plan              educating the public about road safety     the vicinity   Stage
                            and other environmental aspects (such      of project
                            as waste dumping, preservation of          road.
                            enhanced sites, pollution and health
                            impacts etc.)
8.6      Reporting system
Reporting system for the suggested monitoring programme operates at two levels
1) Reporting for environmental condition indicators and environmental management indicators
2) Reporting for operational performance indicators at the PIU level.
Environmental monitoring involves regular checking of the environmental management issues detailed in
the EMP and to ascertain whether the mitigation measures are achieving their objectives, according to the
EMP, with the progress of the works. It provides the necessary feedback for project management to keep
the programme on schedule will still achieving the expected outcomes.
The contractor, CSC and PIU operate the reporting system for environmental conditions and
environmental management indicators. The reporting system is presented in Table 8.4. Reporting formats
(Appendix – 12) for contractors and CSC have been prepared, which will form the basis of the
implementation by the Contractor and monitoring by the CSC and PIU. The list of reporting formats
prepared for the project is presented in Table 8.6 and formats are presented in Appendix – 12.
       The reporting system will start with the construction contractor who is the main executor of the
        implementation activities. The contractor will report to the CSC who in turn shall report to the PIU.
        The Contractor will submit monthly and quarterly environmental compliance reports along with
        formal monthly and quarterly reporting to the CSC.
       The CSC will submit separate quarterly environmental monitoring reports to PIU in addition to
        submission of the summary of the activities of the month in the formal monthly report including
        any deviations and corrective actions.



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    PIU will be responsible for the preparation of the targets for identified non-compliances for the
     EMP compliance.
A full record of construction activities will be kept as a part of normal contract monitoring system.
Reporting and Monitoring Systems for various stages of construction and related activities have been
proposed are to ensure timely and effective implementation of the EMP. The operation stage monitoring
reports may be annual or biannual, provided the Project Environmental Completion Report shows that the
implementation was satisfactory.
This reporting will be as follows:
                  Reporting by the contractor to the CSC
                  Reporting by CSC to PIU
                  Reporting by PIU for the information of all interested parties.
                                           Table 8-5: Reporting System
                                                       Construction Supervision              PIU to oversee
               Item                 Contractor            consultant (CSC)                    compliance
                                                  Supervision     Reporting to PIU            monitoring
   Construction Stage
   Monitoring of                  Before start of   Regular          Quarterly            Regular
   construction site and          work
   construction camp
   Pollution monitoring           As required       As required      Quarterly            Quarterly
   Debris disposal area           Weekly            As required      Quarterly            Quarterly
   Monitoring                     Implementation    Regular          Quarterly            Quarterly
   Enhancements
   Top soil preservations         Weekly            Weekly           Monthly              Quarterly
   Borrow area/quarry area /      Regular           Weekly           Monthly              Quarterly
   Debris disposal area
   Tree cutting                   Weekly            Weekly           Monthly              Quarterly
   Tree plantation                Monthly           Monthly          Monthly              Quarterly
   Operation stage
   Pollution Monitoring           Quarterly         Quarterly        Quarterly            As per monitoring
                                                                                          plan
                                Table 8-6: Summary Details of Reporting Formats
                                                                                             Construction
                                                                            Forest
                                                      Contractor                         Supervision Consultant
                                                                          Department
Format                                                                                           (CSC)
                      Item              Stage
  No.                                               Implementation      Implementation
                                                                                                       Reporting
                                                     and Reporting       and Reporting   Supervision
                                                                                                        to PIU
                                                      to Engineer           to PIU
EMS1         Approval of            Pre-            One time                   -         One time      One time
             construction camp/     construction
             plant site and its
             management plan
EMS2         Approval of Borrow     Pre-            General- One                 -       Regular       Quarterly
             Management Plan        construction    time
             (General and                           Specific
             Specific)                              redevelopment
                                                    plan – One for
                                                    each borrow



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                                                                                          Construction
                                                                        Forest
                                                      Contractor                      Supervision Consultant
                                                                      Department
Format                                                                                        (CSC)
                   Item                Stage
  No.                                               Implementation   Implementation
                                                                                                    Reporting
                                                     and Reporting    and Reporting   Supervision
                                                                                                     to PIU
                                                      to Engineer        to PIU
                                                    area
           Identification of        Pre-            One time                -         One time      One time
           temporary storage        construction
           yards and
           Management plan
           Solid waste              Pre-            General- One            -         Regular       Quarterly
           Management Plan          construction    time
           (General and                             Specific
           Specific)                                redevelopment
                                                    plan – One for
                                                    each camp or
                                                    plant site
EMS3       Construction camp        Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           and plant site
           management
EMS 4      Top Soil                 Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           management
EMS 5      Construction plants      Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           and pollution
           control Monitoring
EMS 6      Vehicles and             Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           Pollution Control
EMS 7      Details of the DG        Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           sets and pollution
           control
EMS 8      Details of oil           Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           Storage
EMS 9      Working at water         Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           courses and
           pollution control
EMS10      Details of Water         Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           Extraction
EMS11      Details of personal      Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           protective
           Equipment
EMS12      Status of consent for    Construction    Half yearly             -         Half yearly   Half
           water extraction                                                                         yearly
EMS13      Deviations and           Construction                            -         Monthly       Quarterly
           corrective Actions
EMS14      Tree plantation          Construction                        Quarterly                   Quarterly
                                    and
                                    Operation
EMS15      Plantation of shrubs     Construction    As applicable       Quarterly     As            As
           and grass                and                                               applicable    applicable
                                    Operation
EMS16      Implementation of        Construction    Monthly                 -         Regular       Quarterly
           Enhancement
           measures for
           cultural properties,



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                                                                                           Construction
                                                                         Forest
                                                      Contractor                       Supervision Consultant
                                                                       Department
Format                                                                                         (CSC)
                   Item                Stage
  No.                                               Implementation    Implementation
                                                                                                     Reporting
                                                     and Reporting     and Reporting   Supervision
                                                                                                      to PIU
                                                      to Engineer         to PIU
           parking areas and
           incidental spaces
           Status Regarding         Operation                                -                       Half
           Rehabilitation of                                                                         yearly
           Borrow Areas
           Noise barrier            Operation       As applicable            -         Quarterly     Quarterly
           construction
           Survival rate of         Operation                            Quarterly                   Quarterly
           plants
EMS17      Debris generated         During          Through out the          -         Regular       Quarterly
           due to road              construction    construction
           widening                                 period during
                                                    widening
The Environmental officer of CSC can make required changes in the formats specified in Appendix 12 to
ensure effective reporting of environmental issues. Some of the formats should be included in the request
for inspection such as Debris disposal area approval request. For making any required changes in the
frequency of reporting and change in the contents of the report for effective and simple for
implementation and monitoring, CSC should discuss the reporting formats with the Contractor and PIU.
This will not only ensure that the environmental provisions are addressed but also link the satisfactory
compliance to environmental procedures prior to approval of the Interim Payment Certificate (IPC) by the
Engineer. In the regular monthly meeting the environmental aspects should also be discussed and the staff
responsible for the implementation of the environmental management from the contractor, PIU and CSC
should also be present.
8.7    INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Project Implementation Unit is responsible for implementing the road improvement project to ensure and
achieve certain level of quality in the project, during implementation of project and in turn will make sure
that the statutory requirements are not violated during the pre construction, construction and Operational
(defect liability period) stages of the project. Organizational setup for PIU and EMPIU is illustrated in the
Figure 1.1.
The Chief Project Officer heads KSHIP. He will be responsible for the successful implementation of the
Project. The Chief engineer is also the Project Director in the KSHIP set up for the implementation of the
project. The project director (PD) is assisted by Project Implementation Unit (PIU), Environmental and
Social wings at the head office. Various sub units are functioning under PIU such as Environmental
Social Management Unit (ESMU); Environmental Management Plan Implementation Unit (EMPIU) and
Social Development Resettlement Cell (SDRC). The SDRC is headed by a Chief Administrative Officer
(CAO). The Project Director will be heading the overall functioning of the Environmental and Social
Management Unit (ESMU).
The Executive Engineers (EEs) and supporting staff as employer’s representatives nominated for the
project will be responsible for the implementation of the project under the divisions. The Executive



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Engineer (Environment) and Social Development Officer of KSHIP will look after the environmental and
social issues during the project preparation, implementation and operation with the assistance of the
Environmental Specialist of Project Design and Environmental Officer (EO) of the CSC.
During the operation stage monitoring will be carried out by PIU with the help of environmental
monitoring agencies approved by the State or Central Pollution Control Board.
Relationship among Environmental Specialist of construction supervision consultancy (CSC), Karnataka
Road Improvement Project (KSHIP) and the contractor with respect to supervision and monitoring of
EMP is depicted in the following Figure 8.1.
         Figure 8-1: Relationship among Environmental Specialist of CSC, KSHIP and the contractor


            Chief Engineer/Project Director,                          Team Leader, CSC,
                PIU, KRIP, Bangalore.                                     Bangalore

                 Environmental Engineer                            Environmental Specialist




                Executive Engineer and                               Resident Engineer and
             Asst. Environmental Engineer,                        Sr. Environmental Engineer,
                 KRIP Project Division                                CSC, Project Division




            Asst. Executive Engineer and                          Asst. Resident Engineer and
           Asst. Engineer, (Envtl. In charge)                        Asst. Envtl. Engineer,
                  KRIP Sub division                                    Project site office.




                                                    Contractor,
                                            Environmental Engineer, EHS


8.8    Institutional Capacity Building
The Environmental Officers/Engineers at PIU, Environmental experts of the Supervision Consultancy and
the Concessionaire, who would be responsible for the implementation of the EMP, need to be trained on



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environmental issues of specific road development project. To ensure the success of the proposed
implementation set up, there is need for training and skill up-gradation.
8.8.1 Training Components:
The Environmental training should encompass the following:
       Understanding of the relevant environmental regulations and their application to the project.
       Main impacts of the project on the environment.
       Mitigation measures as given in the EMP and their implementation.
       Duties and responsibilities of the Contractors, Supervision Consultants and staff of PIU involved in
        the project.
       Public/community consultation and its role during the implementation of the project.
       Supervision of the implementation of the EMP and environmental issues during construction.
       Monitoring during construction stage.
       Weekly, monthly and quarterly report preparations and submission.
8.8.2     Training Programme:
A training programme needs to be worked out incorporating the project needs as well as the intermediate
term capacity building needs. The programme should consist of a number of training modules specific to
target groups. The training would cover the basic principles and postulates of environmental assessment,
mitigation plans and programmes implementation techniques, monitoring and management methods and
tools. Looking into the potential requirements of each of the target groups, several training modules have
been suggested. The training modules are given in Table-8.7.
                          Table 8-7: Training Modules for Environmental Management
                                                                        Environmental              Training
                                                         Mode of
    Sl. No.            Training Recipients                           Aspects to be covered        Conducting
                                                         Training
                                                                      in training modules          Agency
 SESSION-I
 Module-I        Environmental staff of PIU          Lecture         Environmental              External
                 involved in the project, staff of   Sessions,       overview and               trainers,
                 construction        supervision     Workshops and   Environmental              Environmental
                 consultant, contractor, and         Presentation    Regulations and Acts       specialist,
                 collaborating      Government
                 Agencies
 Module-II       Environmental staff of PIU          Lecture         Environmental Impact       External
                 involved in the project, staff of   Sessions,       Assessment: Road           trainers,
                 construction        supervision     Workshops and   Projects and               Environmental
                 consultant and contractor           Presentation    Environment Issues         specialist,
 Module-III      Environmental staff of PIU          Lecture         Environmental              Specialist
                 involved in the project, staff of   Sessions,       Management Plan for        Trainers;
                 construction        supervision     Workshops and   Road Projects              Environmental
                 consultant                          Presentation                               Specialist
 SESSION-II
 Module-IV       Environmental staff of PIU          Lecturers;      Environmental Issues in    External
                 involved in the project, staff of   Group           the Project                Agency
                 construction        supervision     Discussions
                 consultant, contractor, and
                 collaborating      Government



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                                                                            Environmental                Training
                                                         Mode of
      Sl. No.           Training Recipients                              Aspects to be covered          Conducting
                                                         Training
                                                                          in training modules            Agency
                  Agencies
 Module-V         Environmental staff of PIU          Lecturers;        Environmentally Sound          External
                  involved in the project, staff of   Demonstration     Construction                   Agency
                  construction         supervision    sessions; Group   Management
                  consultant and contractor           Discussions
 Module-VI        Environmental staff of PIU          Lecturers;        Planning for                   External
                  involved in the project             Group             Environmentally                Agency
                                                      Discussions       Sustainable Operation
                                                                        of Roads
 Module-VII       Environmental staff of PIU          Lecturers;        Long Term                      External
                  involved in the project             Demonstration     Environmental Issues in        Agency
                                                      sessions; Group   Road Management
                                                      Discussions
8.9     ENVIRONMENTAL BUDGETARY PROVISIONS
The budgetary provision for the implementation of the environmental management plan of the subproject
road is presented in Table 8.8 and Table 8.9 and can be categorized in to two types.
          A) Environmental Management Plan Works to be implemented by the contractor under civil
          works contract (not included in civil works BOQ)
          B) Environment Management Plan Works to be implemented by Government Departments or
          other agencies as per the regulatory requirements.
 Table 8-8 : Bill of Quantities for Implementation of Environmental Management Action Plan to be executed
                                              under Civil Works Contract
Sl.
                                Description                             Unit    Quantity    Rate (Rs) Amount (Rs)
No.
 1       A. Carting away the unserviceable materials from work          Cum      4,938            58              284,429
         site to the nearest disposal site (up to a lead of 5km) and
         disposing the same in disposal pits or borrow areas
         including depositing unserviceable materials in layers and
         manual compaction. Appendix: 1
         B. The 30 cm top layer of disposal pit shall be provided       Sqm.     27,434           28              761,294
         with good earth, suitable for development of
         vegetation/plantation. All work shall be carried out as per
         specifications and approval of the Engineer in Charge
  2      Turfing at ground level at disposal pits for un-serviceable    Sqm      27,434           27              740,718
         material      as per specifications and approval of the
         Engineer in Charge.
  3      Regular water sprinkling (at least 4 times) per day at all     Km       14.38      12,000                172,560
         construction sites for suppression of visible dust levels.
         Note: This item is to be operated after the completion of
         earthwork to suppress the visible dust levels. Cost of
         watering during compaction of earthwork is deemed to be
         already covered under civil works.
  4      Construction of Recharge pits within the selected water        Nos.       7        26,000                182,000
         bodies along the project road as per approved design and
         drawing as developed by Central Ground Water Board
         (Ref Appendix-2 for details).




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Sl.
                               Description                            Unit   Quantity   Rate (Rs) Amount (Rs)
No.
 5     Construction of silt traps at the discharge points of           M        7        1,250            8,750
       channels into to fresh water bodies across the project road
       as per the Standard Details provided in the Appendix-3
  6    Providing informatory sign boards (informatory /caution        Sqm       2       10,192           20,384
       messages) for road users for providing information about
       ecologically sensitive areas, wild life crossing points (if
       any), important tourist locations, etc as applicable. The
       specifications of sign boards shall conform to relevant
       IRC specifications. The probable               locations for
       informatory sign boards are given in Appendix-4
  7    Construction of 30cm thick clay lined (at bottom and           Nos.      7       83,410         583,870
       sides) pits for safe disposal of scarified bitumen including
       carriage (up to a lead of 10km), depositing bitumen in
       layers of 15 Cms with manual compaction and covering
       the pit with 20cm thick good earth as top layer at ground
       level all complete as per specifications and details given
       in the Appendix-5
  8    Turfing at ground level at disposal pits for scarified         Sqm     2,366       28             65,657
       bitumen as per specifications and approval of the
       Engineer in Charge.
  9    Periodic air quality monitoring during construction stage      Nos.     24        7,500         180,000
       at construction camp sites, bitumen hot mix plants,
       crusher plants (if specifically established for Project), at
       major settlement areas along project road. The parameters
       to be monitored are SPM, RPM, SO2, NOx and CO,
       Lead. Each monitoring schedule shall be over a duration
       of 24 hours (in 8 hour shifts), once in four months for 2
       Years). The tests are to conducted in accordance CPCB
       norms at locations given in Appendix - 7)
 10    Water quality monitoring during construction phase at          Nos.     24        2,000           48,000
       locations given in Appendix - 7. The sampling shall be
       carried out once four months for 2 years and cover all
       parameters as per IS10500 including heavy metals as per
       details given in Appendix-7.
 11                                                                   Nos.     24         500            12,000
       Noise quality monitoring at specified silent receptors
       along Project Road, at construction camp sites, bitumen
       hot mix plants, crusher plants(if specifically established
       for Project), and at major settlement areas along project
       road. – Each monitoring schedule shall be over a duration
       of 12hours (6Am to 6PM), once in four months for 2
       Years). The monitoring shall be carried out in accordance
       with CPCB norms at locations given in Appendix-7)
 12    Soil quality monitoring at Construction camp /plant sites,     Nos.     16        3,500           56,000
       Labour camps, Batching plants and productive
       agricultural lands abutting traffic detours and traffic
       diversions and major intersections along Project Road.
       Parameters shall include pH, Nitrogen, Phosphorus,
       Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Organic Carbon and Lead
       and carried out twice in a year (Pre and Post Monsoon) at
       all locations for 2 years as per details given in Appendix-7
 13    Providing Oil Interceptors at the fuel/oil storage camps or    Nos.      1        5,000            5,000
       Construction camps. Typical Drawing given in Appendix-



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Sl.
                               Description                            Unit     Quantity   Rate (Rs) Amount (Rs)
No.
       8
 14                                                                   cost/      100        1,000         100,000
       Providing Personal Protective Equipment to the labours
                                                                     person/
       during the construction phase of the project. Appendix-9
                                                                     annum
 15    Provision for two health check ups for the carcinogens         cost/      100        1,500         150,000
       from bituminous fumes, which may inhaled during road          person
       paving works. The first health check up prior to induction
       of the personnel into the construction works and the last
       health check up prior to the discharge of the personnel
       from the construction works
 16    Utilisation of unserviceable material obtained from Road       Cum        494         77             38,038
       way excavation for widening and construction of cross
       roads.
                                             Total (Rs.)                                                3,408,699
      Table 8-9: Bill of Quantities for Environmental Management Action Plan - Mandatory Works to be
             implemented by Government Departments/ agencies as per regulatory requirements.
Sl.                                                                                                     Amount
                               Description                            Unit     Quantity Rate (Rs)
No.                                                                                                       (Rs)
 1     Raising Avenue Plantation along the project road length        Km        14.38     143,400       2,062,092
       @ 200 tress per Km. The Plantation programme shall be
       prepared, implemented and maintained for total of 7
       (2+5) years.
  2    Raising of Median Plantation along selected stretches of       Km.       0.00       65,000                 0
       project road. The plantation program shall be prepared,
       implemented and maintained for total of 4 (1+3) years.
  3    Construction of noise barrier(s) at specified locations         M         655       4,200        2,751,000
       along Project Road as per the specifications and drawing
       given in the Appendix -6
  4    Raising of Plantation to act as vegetative noise barrier at     M          0         490                   0
       select locations as per specifications and details given in
       Appendix - 6. The plantation program shall be prepared,
       implemented and maintained for 6 years as per plan.
  5    Enhancement of roadside pond including gardening,              Nos.        0       4,120,000               0
       construction of parking lots, internal roads, as per
       drawing No.       Complete with all leads and lift and as
       directed by the Engineer.
  6    Re-Development of oxbow land with and other left over          Ha        1.00       94,000           94,000
       land at realignment locations along project road as per
       standard tree plantation program approved by the Forest
       Department, Government of Karnataka. The plantation
       program shall be prepared, implemented and maintained
       for total of 4 (1+3) years.
  7    Compensatory Afforestation in lieu of forestland diverted      Ha        0.00       94,000                 0
       Project Road as per the Forest Conservation Act.
       Compensatory Afforestation works is to be implemented
       by Forest Department.
  8    Compensatory Provision in terms of Net Present value           Ha        0.00      730,000                 0
       (NPV cost) of the Forestland diverted for the Project
       Road (NPV to be borne by PIU, KSHIP).
  9    Providing short term Environmental Management                  Nos.        0       143,000                 0
       Training for Staff of PIU, contractor’s personnel by the
       Construction Supervision Consultant. The responsibility



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Sl.                                                                                                   Amount
                               Description                           Unit   Quantity Rate (Rs)
No.                                                                                                    (Rs)
       of developing and conducting the training program shall
       be of construction supervision consultant but the cost will
       be borne by contractor. Training shall cover for pre-
       construction, construction and post construction phase.
                                             Total (Rs.)                                              4,907,092

                        Total cost estimate for implementation of EMP works of the Link
                                         Total of Table 8.8                                           3,408,699
                                         Total of Table 8.9                                           4,907,092
                                         Grand Total (Rs.)                                            8,315,791




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9    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The proposed Jagalur – NH 13 and Molkalmuru – SH 19 subprojects (T13 and T 17) are existing state
highways and it is proposed to be up-graded with no new alignment except for realignments at some
locations for improving the road geometrics and meet the project objectives. The subproject road is of less
than 30 km in length and does not attract the EIA Notification, 2006 by MoEF.
The Initial Environmental Examination report attempts to identify significant potential environmental
impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of the proposed road Project. Apart from
positive impacts road projects could also generate some adverse direct and indirect environmental
impacts. Direct environmental impacts are usually due to construction activities, while indirect
environmental impacts are usually related to the operation of improved roads.
Subprojects T13 and T17 are of 9.25 km and 5.13 km in length and most of the adverse impacts of road
project during construction period are temporary in nature. Most of these impacts can be minimized
through specific engineering solutions, construction methodology incorporated into the project design and
by planning adequate and timely mitigation measures such that, the overall impact on environmental
attributes by the proposed project works are unlikely to cause any significant adverse environmental
impacts and no further detailed study is required.
Any major change in the project proposal and setup will require updating the environmental assessment
document as per the requirement. The updated assessment will have to be submitted to concerned
Government authorities and ADB for concurrence before the actual construction commence.
Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan may be updated if deemed necessary as per the
requirements.




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                          ANNEX 1: PHYSIOGRAPHY OF THE PROJECT AREA




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                       ANNEX 2: CLIMATIC CONDITION OF THE PROJECT AREA.




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                ANNEX 3: DRAINAGE AND RIVER BASINS OF THE PROJECT AREA




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             ANNEX 4: IRRIGATION AND HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE PROJECT AREA




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                       ANNEX 5: ROCKS AND MINERALS IN THE PROJECT AREA.




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                              ANNEX 6: SOIL TYPE OF THE PROJECT AREA




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     ANNEX 7: GENERAL LAND USE AND CROPPING PATTERN OF THE PROJECT AREA.




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                        ANNEX 8: FORESTLAND TYPE IN THE PROJECT AREA.




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       ANNEX 9: RAPID ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (REA) CHECKLIST –ROADS and
                                  HIGHWAYS
                Jagalur – NH 13 (T13) and Molkalmuru – SH 19 (T 17) Subprojects
 Instructions:
      This checklist is to be prepared to support the environmental classification of a project. It is to be
        attached to the environmental categorization form that is to be prepared and submitted to the
        Chief Compliance Officer of the Regional and Sustainable Development Department.
      This checklist is to be completed with the assistance of an Environment Specialist in a Regional
        Department.
      This checklist focuses on environmental issues and concerns. To ensure that social dimensions
        are adequately considered, refer also to ADB checklists and handbooks on (i) involuntary
        resettlement, (ii) indigenous peoples planning, (iii) poverty reduction, (iv) participation, and (v)
        gender and development.
      Answer the questions assuming the “without mitigation” case. The purpose is to identify potential
        impacts. Use the “remarks” section to discuss any anticipated mitigation measures.

 Country/Project Title: KRIP T 13 (Length – 9.25 km)
 Sector Division: Jagalur – NH 13
       SCREENING
                                  Yes      No                                   REMARKS
       QUESTIONS
A. Project Siting - Is the Project area adjacent to or within any of the following Environmentally sensitive areas?
   Cultural heritage site                  X     There are no cultural heritage sites identified on the project corridor.
   Protected Area                                There is no Protected area within 10 km of radius. The nearest
                                            X     protected area Ranebennur Blackbuck sanctuary is located
                                                  approximately 60 km away from the sub project road.
   Wetland                                       There are no natural wetlands. The sub-project road intercepts
                                            X     wetlands irrigated by underground water and not protected for
                                                  biodiversity
   Mangrove                                X     None.
   Estuarine                               X     None.
   Buffer zone of protected                      None.
                                            X
    area
   Special area for                              None.
                                            X
    protecting biodiversity
B. Potential Environmental Impacts - Will the Project cause…
   Encroachment            on                    There are no cultural heritage sites on the subproject road.
    historical/cultural areas;
    disfiguration           of
                                            X
    landscape      by     road
    embankments, cuts, fills,
    and quarries?
   Encroachment            on
    precious ecology (e.g.                        There are no ecologically sensitive or protected areas along the
                                            X
    sensitive or protected                        subproject road.
    areas)?
   Alteration of surface                         The sub project crosses small river Chinna hagari along with few
    water hydrology of                            ponds. and no major changes in surface water hydrology of waterway
    waterways crossed by                    X     is envisaged as construction of bridges (cross drainage structures) will
    roads,     resulting    in                    be taken up during lean stream flow periods (summer) to avoid
    increased sediment in                         diversion of stream flow, soil erosion and flooding in the adjacent



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   streams affected by                          areas. All existing cross drainages have been reviewed for impact on
   increased soil erosion at                    surface water hydrology; reconstruction and replacement of distressed
   construction site?                           cross drainage structures along with new constructions will minimize
                                                the impact of subproject on the surface water hydrology. Two bridges
                                                are widened and one new bridge is constructed and 2 culverts are
                                                replaced with larger diameter and 4distressed culverts are replaced.
  Deterioration of surface                     Several mitigation measures will be taken to minimize the silt runoff
   water quality due to silt                    by constructing by setting worker camps and construction camps away
   runoff and sanitary                          from the surface water bodies and providing silt trap trenches across
   wastes from worker-                    X     the natural drains. Toilets will be provided with Septic tanks, Sullage
   based     camps      and                     water will be connected to soak pits, paved platform will be provided
   chemicals      used    in                    for vehicle service area, chemicals, and oil spills will be collected in
   construction?                                oil interceptors and stored separately for recycling.
  Increased     local   air                    Air pollution due to construction activities is very less as the
   pollution due to rock                        construction period is limited to approximately 9 months and total
   crushing, cutting and                        length of subproject is only 9.25 km .
   filling   works,     and                     Impacts on air quality during construction stage are transitory in
   chemicals from asphalt                       nature and can be largely limited by mitigating measures. Crushing
   processing?                            X     units, hot mix plant and wet mix plants will be located away from the
                                                human settlements and sensitive ecosystems. SPCB consents will be
                                                obtained and conditions laid there will be complied for establishing
                                                and operating these plants. Grubbing, clearing and wetting of sites
                                                will be done for cutting and filling works at construction sites as well
                                                as at borrow area.
  Noise and vibration due                      No blasting sites will be selected nearer to settlements. Blasting
   to blasting and other                        timings will be decided by consulting locals. All precautions such as
   civil works?                                 cordoning the area, sirens, manning with flags etc will be taken up
                                          X     before blasting operations. Noisy equipments such as DG sets will be
                                                provided with enclosures and mufflers. People working near excess
                                                noise producing equipments and machinery will be provided with ear
                                                plugs
  Dislocation           or                     Only 4 families will be dislocated due to the subproject. The project
   involuntary resettlement                     will adopt the Resettlement and Rehabilitation (RandR) Policy of the
   of people                                    project to address the adverse impacts arising out of the project. This
                                 X
                                                policy is in line with the National Policy on Resettlement and
                                                Rehabilitation 2007 and Asian Development Banks Safeguard Policy
                                                2009.
  Other social concerns                        Social concerns relating to inconveniences in living conditions in the
   relating               to                    project areas is minimal as total length of the subproject is only 9.25
   inconveniences in living                     km and short construction period of approximately 9 months.
   conditions in the project                    However, all precautionary and mitigation measures for dust
   areas that may trigger                       mitigation measures such as sprinkling water on all the haul roads on a
   cases       of     upper               X     regular basis during construction period; siting of construction
   respiratory problems and                     establishments away from the human habitats; Pollution control
   stress?                                      devices (cyclone separators /scrubbers) and increasing the stack height
                                                to control and dilute emissions from hot mix plants and batching
                                                plants; covering the truck loads of materials to avoid dust and spillage
                                                on the roads, etc will be taken up.
  Hazardous         driving                    Site specific traffic management plans will be prepared. Assistance
   conditions         where                     from local police will be taken. Temporary diversions will be provided
   construction interferes                      by maintaining adequate carriage way for diversion traffic.
                                          X
   with pre-existing roads?                     Barricades, Traffic Safety Signs, Caution boards, markings, flags,
                                                lights and flagmen as may be required will be provided to avoid
                                                interference to the flow of traffic at pre-existing roads.
  Poor sanitation and solid              X     Construction camps will be provided with sanitary latrines and urinals.



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   waste     disposal    in                     The sewage system will be operated properly to avoid health hazards,
   construction camps and                       ground water and soil contamination. Compost pits will be constructed
   work sites, and possible                     for the disposal of the garbage and other biodegradable wastes
   transmission          of                     generated from the camps. Proper collection, transportation and
   communicable diseases                        disposal of the wastes will be ensured. Construction and labour camps
   from workers to local                        will be sited away from human settlements to avoid possible
   populations?                                 transmission of communicable diseases from workers to local
                                                populations.
  Creation of temporary
                                                Better sanitation will be provided in construction and labour camps.
   breeding habitats for
                                          X     Open pits near settlements will be filled with construction debris and
   mosquito vectors of
                                                covered with soil.
   disease?
  Gaseous     and     odor                     As the size of subproject is only 9.25 km (length) and construction
   emissions     to      the                    period is short (approx. 9 months), quantity of gaseous and odor
   atmosphere          from               X     emissions to the atmosphere are very less.
   processing operations?                       Hot Mix Plants and Batch Mixing Plants will be sited away from
                                                settlements. Chimney height will be raised as per design.
  Dislocation           and                    Subproject involves compulsory resettlement of only 2 people living
   compulsory resettlement                      within right of way near settlements along the project road.
   of people living in right-                   Resettlement Plan is prepared in accordance with the guide-lines of
                                 X
   of-way?                                      National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation 2007 and Asian
                                                Development Banks Safeguard Policy 2009 to address dislocation and
                                                compulsory resettlement.
  Uncontrolled           in-
   migration with opening                       Sub project do not open any new roads to forest area. Hence, the
   of roads to forest area                X     question of uncontrolled in–migration and overloading of social
   and      overloading of                      infrastructure on the sub project doesn’t arise.
   social infrastructure?
  Accident             risks
   associated            with
                                                Should an accidental spill occur, the applicable emergency spill
   increased        vehicular
                                                procedure such as stopping the flow; removing ignition source;
   traffic,    leading     to             X
                                                initiating emergency response; cleanup and safe disposal will be
   accidental spills of toxic
                                                followed.
   materials and loss of
   life?
  Increased noise and air                      After the completion of sub project, there will be a reduction in noise
   pollution resulting from                     and air pollution due to smooth and uniform flow of traffic. However,
   traffic volume?                              there will be a gradual increase in air pollution due to increased
                                          X
                                                number of vehicles on the improved roads. Proposed avenue and
                                                median plantation along the road sides and in medians should help to
                                                control dust, fugitive emissions and noise from reaching the receptors.
  Increased risk of water                      There is no increased risk of water pollution from small quantities of
   pollution    from     oil,                   oil, grease and fuel spills and other materials from vehicles using the
   grease and fuel spills,                      road. The accidental spills of oils, fuels and other hazardous chemicals
   and other materials from                     from the vehicles using the road during operational phase will pollute
   vehicles using the road?                     nearby water courses of the area.
                                          X
                                                Small quantities of oil and fuel get emulsified in large quantities of
                                                runoff and cannot be removed effectively by oil interceptors. Oil
                                                interceptors have been proposed for all the construction camps.
                                                Emergency Services will be engaged for the containment, cleanup and
                                                disposal of contamination release into the environment.




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Country/Project Title: KRIP T 17 (Length 5.13 km)
Sector Division: Molkalmur – SH 19
 SCREENING QUESTIONS                Yes      No                                  REMARKS
A. Project Siting - Is the Project area adjacent to or within any of the following Environmentally sensitive areas?
   Cultural heritage site                          There are no cultural heritage sites identified on the project
                                             X
                                                    corridor.
   Protected Area                                  The nearest protected area Daroji Sloth Bear Sanctuary is located
                                             X
                                                    approximately 70 km away from the proposed project corridor.
   Wetland                                         There are no natural wetlands. The sub-project road intercepts
                                             X      some stretch of wetlands irrigated by chinahagari river and are
                                                    not protected for biodiversity.
   Mangrove                                 X      None.
   Estuarine                                X      None.
   Buffer zone of protected                        None.
                                             X
    area
   Special area for protecting                     None.
                                             X
    biodiversity
B. Potential Environmental Impacts - Will the Project cause…
   Encroachment               on                   There are no cultural heritage sites on the subproject road.
    historical/cultural areas;
    disfiguration of landscape               X
    by road embankments,
    cuts, fills, and quarries?
   Encroachment on precious
                                                    There are no ecologically sensitive or protected areas along the
    ecology (e.g. sensitive or               X
                                                    subproject road
    protected areas)?
   Alteration of surface water                     The sub project crosses two small ponds. and no major changes in
    hydrology of waterways                          surface water hydrology of waterway is envisaged                    as
    crossed by roads, resulting                     construction of bridges (cross drainage structures) will be taken
    in increased sediment in                        up during lean stream flow periods (summer) to avoid diversion
    streams       affected     by                   of stream flow, soil erosion and flooding in the adjacent areas. All
    increased soil erosion at                       existing cross drainages have been reviewed for impact on
                                             X
    construction site?                              surface water hydrology; reconstruction and replacement of
                                                    distressed cross drainage structures along with new constructions
                                                    will minimize the impact of subproject on the surface water
                                                    hydrology.
                                                    Replacement of 10 distressed culverts will be taken up for the
                                                    subproject.
   Deterioration of surface                        Several mitigation measures will be taken to minimize the silt
    water quality due to silt                       runoff by constructing by setting worker camps and construction
    runoff and sanitary wastes                      camps away from the surface water bodies and providing silt trap
    from worker-based camps                         trenches across the natural drains. Toilets will be provided with
                                             X
    and chemicals used in                           Septic tanks, Sullage water will be connected to soak pits, paved
    construction?                                   platform will be provided for vehicle service area, chemicals, and
                                                    oil spills will be collected in oil interceptors and stored separately
                                                    for recycling.
   Increased        local     air                  Air pollution due to construction activities is very less as the
    pollution due to rock                           construction period is limited to approximately 8 months and
    crushing, cutting and                           total length of subproject is only 5.13 km.
    filling       works,      and                   Impacts on air quality during construction stage are transitory in
    chemicals from asphalt                   X      nature and can be largely limited by mitigating measures.
    processing?                                     Crushing units, hot mix plant and wet mix plants will be located
                                                    away from the human settlements and sensitive ecosystems.
                                                    SPCB consents will be obtained and conditions laid there will be
                                                    complied for establishing and operating these plants. Grubbing,



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                                                    clearing and wetting of sites will be done for cutting and filling
                                                    works at construction sites as well as at borrow area.
   Risks and vulnerabilities                       Risks and vulnerabilities related to health and safety due to
    related to occupational                         physical, chemical, biological and radiological hazards during
    health and safety due to                        project road construction are addressed through risk prevention
    physical,        chemical,                      and reduction by onsite safety monitoring and management;
    biological,            and                      imparting training and skill development on occupational health
    radiological       hazards                      and safety to construction workers; insisting contractor to comply
    during              project      X              with all the applicable labour laws applicable to the construction
    construction and operation                      workers employment, health, safety and welfare; ensuring
    during              project                     provision of Personnel Protective Equipments (PPE); conducting
    construction           and                      periodical safety audits; preparing transportation management
    operation?                                      plans; taking necessary precautions to maintain the health and
                                                    safety of the construction workers and ensuring medical staff and
                                                    first aid facilities at the construction site.
   Noise and vibration due to                      No blasting sites will be selected nearer to settlements. Blasting
    blasting and other civil                        timings will be decided by consulting locals. All precautions such
    works?                                          as cordoning the area, sirens, manning with flags etc will be taken
                                             X      up before blasting operations. Noisy equipments such as DG sets
                                                    will be provided with enclosures and mufflers. People working
                                                    near excess noise producing equipments and machinery will be
                                                    provided with ear plugs
   Dislocation or involuntary                      About 2 families will be dislocated due to the subproject. The
    resettlement of people                          project will adopt the Resettlement and Rehabilitation (RandR)
                                                    Policy of the project to address the adverse impacts arising out of
                                     X
                                                    the project. This policy is in line with the National Policy on
                                                    Resettlement and Rehabilitation 2007 and Asian Development
                                                    Banks Safeguard Policy 2009.
   Dislocation           and                       Subproject involves compulsory resettlement of single squatter
    compulsory resettlement                         living within right of way near settlement along the project road.
    of people living in right-                      Resettlement Plan is prepared in accordance with the guide-lines
                                     X
    of-way?                                         of National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation 2007 and
                                                    Asian Development Banks Safeguard Policy 2009 to address
                                                    dislocation and compulsory resettlement.
   Disproportionate impacts                        There are no disproportionate impacts on the poor, women and
    on the poor, women and                          children, Indigenous Peoples or other vulnerable groups by the
    children,      Indigenous                       proposed up-gradation of KSHIP roads. Indigenous People
    Peoples      or      other                      Development Plans shall be prepared to address the issues raised
    vulnerable groups?                              due to the implementation of the proposed project.
                                             X
                                                    Proposed project roads provide safe access to markets, health care
                                                    and other necessary services thus improving the quality of life of
                                                    poor, women and other vulnerable groups.
                                                    Children below the age of 14 years of age shall not be allowed to
                                                    employ in the project.
   Other social concerns                           Social concerns relating to inconveniences in living conditions in
    relating to inconveniences                      the project areas is minimal as total length of the subproject is
    in living conditions in the                     only 5.13 km and short construction period of approximately 8
    project areas that may                          months.
    trigger cases of upper                          Construction activities near to settlements including plying of
    respiratory problems and                        construction vehicles may generate in few cases respiratory
                                             X
    stress?                                         problems.
                                                    All precautionary and mitigation measures for dust mitigation
                                                    measures such as sprinkling water on all the haul roads on a
                                                    regular basis during construction period; siting of construction
                                                    establishments away from the human habitats; Pollution control
                                                    devices (cyclone separators /scrubbers) and increasing the stack


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                                                    height to control and dilute emissions from hot mix plants and
                                                    batching plants; covering the truck loads of materials to avoid
                                                    dust and spillage on the roads, etc will be taken up.
   Hazardous           driving                     Site specific traffic management plans will be prepared.
    conditions            where                     Assistance from local police will be taken. Temporary diversions
    construction      interferes                    will be provided by maintaining adequate carriage way for
    with pre-existing roads?                 X      diversion traffic. Barricades, Traffic Safety Signs, Caution
                                                    boards, markings, flags, lights and flagmen as may be required
                                                    will be provided to avoid interference to the flow of traffic at pre-
                                                    existing roads.
   Poor sanitation and solid                       Construction camps will be provided with sanitary latrines and
    waste      disposal     in                      urinals. The sewage system will be operated properly to avoid
    construction camps and                          health hazards, ground water and soil contamination. Compost
    work sites, and possible                        pits will be constructed for the disposal of the garbage and other
    transmission            of               X      biodegradable wastes generated from the camps. Proper
    communicable      diseases                      collection, transportation and disposal of the wastes will be
    from workers to local                           ensured. Construction and labour camps will be sited away from
    populations?                                    human settlements to avoid possible transmission of
                                                    communicable diseases from workers to local populations.
   Creation of temporary
                                                    Better sanitation will be provided in construction and labour
    breeding habitats      for
                                             X      camps. Open pits near settlements will be filled with construction
    mosquito     vectors    of
                                                    debris and covered with soil.
    disease?
   Gaseous      and      odor                      As the size of subproject is only 5.13 km (length) and
    emissions      to      the                      construction period is short (approx. 8 months), quantity of
    atmosphere           from                X      gaseous and odor emissions to the atmosphere are very less..
    processing operations?                          Hot Mix Plants and Batch Mixing Plants will be sited away from
                                                    settlements. Chimney height will be raised as per design.
   Uncontrolled in-migration
    with opening of roads to                        Sub project do not open any new roads to forest area. Hence, the
    forest       area        and             X      question of uncontrolled in–migration and overloading of social
    overloading of social                           infrastructure on the sub project doesn’t arise.
    infrastructure?
   Accident risks associated
                                                    Should an accidental spill occur, the applicable emergency spill
    with increased vehicular
                                                    procedure such as stopping the flow; removing ignition source;
    traffic,     leading      to             X
                                                    initiating emergency response; cleanup and safe disposal will be
    accidental spills of toxic
                                                    followed.
    materials and loss of life?
   Increased noise and air                         After the completion of sub project, there will be a reduction in
    pollution resulting from                        noise and air pollution due to smooth and uniform flow of traffic.
    traffic volume?                                 However, there will be a gradual increase in air pollution due to
                                             X      increased number of vehicles on the improved roads. Proposed
                                                    avenue and median plantation along the road sides and in
                                                    medians should help to control dust, fugitive emissions and noise
                                                    from reaching the receptors.
   Increased risk of water                         There is no increased risk of water pollution from small quantities
    pollution from oil, grease                      of oil, grease and fuel spills and other materials from vehicles
    and fuel spills, and other                      using the road. The accidental spills of oils, fuels and other
    materials from vehicles                         hazardous chemicals from the vehicles using the road during
    using the road?                                 operational phase will pollute nearby water courses of the area.
                                             X
                                                    Small quantities of oil and fuel get emulsified in large quantities
                                                    of runoff and cannot be removed effectively by oil interceptors.
                                                    Oil interceptors have been proposed for all the construction
                                                    camps. Emergency Services will be engaged for the containment,
                                                    cleanup and disposal of contamination release into the



Corridor T13 and T17                                  115                                                    Scott Wilson
Karnataka State Highways Improvement Project - II                                                Detailed Project Report
Consultancy Services for Preparation of DPR, Bid Documents                                      Volume IV – IEE Report
and Associated Safeguard Instruments – ADB Funded Roads
                                                    environment.
   Social conflicts if workers                     Construction labourers shall be hired locally to avoid any sort of
    from other regions or                           conflicts. If workers are hired from other regions, construction
                                             X
    countries are hired?                            camps shall be located away from human habitations to avoid the
                                                    social conflicts rising between locals and labourers.
   Large population influx                         All attempts shall be made to hire local construction labourers to
    during              project                     avoid any sort of conflicts. If workers are hired from other
    construction and operation                      regions, construction camps shall be located away from human
    that causes increased                           habitations to avoid the increased burden on social infrastructure
    burden       on      social              X      and services such as water supply and sanitation systems, etc.
    infrastructure and services
    (such as water supply and
    sanitation systems)?

   Risks to community health                       Statutory rules such as Hazardous Waste (Management and
    and safety due to the                           Handling) Rules, 1989 governing transport, storage and handling
    transport, storage, and use                     of hazardous chemicals shall be strictly adhered.
    and/or      disposal     of                     Hazardous Waste Management and Disposal Plan shall be
    materials       such     as                     prepared to avoid risks associated with transport, storage, and use
    explosives, fuel and other                      and/or disposal of materials such as explosives, fuel and other
                                             X
    chemicals            during                     chemicals during construction and operation.
    construction            and                     Accident Safety and Hazardous Chemical Spill Management Plan
    operation?                                      including details of detours in case of emergency shall be
                                                    prepared for an accidental release or spill of such chemicals.
                                                    Training and awareness shall be given to transport crews and
                                                    personnel handling such substances.
   Community safety risks                          If the project activities pose potential safety risks to the members
    due to both accidental and                      of the affected family by structural elements used in the project it
    natural causes, especially                      shall be disclosed along with relevant project-related information
    where      the     structural                   to enable the affected communities to understand these risks and
    elements or components                          potential impacts, all efforts shall be made for prevention,
    of    the     project     are                   mitigation including emergency response measures.
    accessible to members of                        Efforts shall also be made to design, construct, operate and
    the affected community or                       decommission the structural elements of the project giving
                                             X
    where their failure could                       special consideration to potential exposure to natural hazards,
    result in injury to the                         especially where the structural elements are accessible to
    community        throughout                     members of the affected community.
    project        construction,                    All necessary measures for the safety of affected community and
    operation                and                    traffic during construction by providing, erecting and maintaining
    decommissioning.                                barricades, signboards, pavement markings, flags, lights and
                                                    flagmen as proposed in the Traffic Control Plan and MoRTH
                                                    specifications.




Corridor T13 and T17                                  116                                                    Scott Wilson

				
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