Document Sample
douglas Powered By Docstoc
David M. Fix

Enclosed is an anecdotal and random-observation summary of birds of Diamond
Lake Ranger District, Umpqua National Forest. This material is unpublished and
not copyrighted. Duplication, rebroadcast, or retransmission of any of the
pictures or accounts of this material in part or in entirety for any purposes
related to USDA Forest Service work, or in response to official inter- or intra-
agency information requests, without express written consent of the District
Wildlife Biologist of North Umpqua Ranger District --or the Commissioner of
Major League Baseball, whomever might be DG'd, phoned, shouted up, or
sticky-noted first-- is heartily approved, endorsed, and encouraged.

Permission for duplication and/or publication under any name but the author's,
for merit or profit, is denied.

An abbreviated, tabular summary of the observations cited and discussed within
this document appeared in published form in OREGON BIRDS, journal of
Oregon Field Ornithologists, in 1991. Co-authors were David Fix and Martha
Sawyer. A copy of this issue may be requested from OFO, P.O. Box 10373,
Eugene 97440, or from the Editor, Owen Schmidt, 3007 N.E. 32nd Ave., Portland

It is suggested that, in accordance with the format used within the species
accounts given here, the addition of SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER be made to
the list. Two birds in alternate plumage were studied at close range at the
Diamond Lake sewage ponds on 12 May 1991 by the Mark Seitz, Jeff Feen,
Kathryn Pearce, and myself, for the first record for the area. Status is Casual in
Spring. Habitat is marsh. Breeding status is [no symbol shown]. If I've counted
correctly, this is the 236th species.

David Fix
18782 North Umpqua Highway
Glide, Oregon 97443

[current address, fall, 1998: Box 4331, Arcata CA 95521]

Diamond Lake Ranger District is the easternmost district of the Umpqua
National Forest, located in the southern Cascade Range of northeastern Douglas
County, Oregon. It extends from the Calapooya Mountains south to the Rogue-
Umpqua Divide and Crater Lake National Park, and from Boulder Creek and
Copeland Creek east to the crest of the Cascade Range. Elevations, on the district
range from about 1600' to nearly 9200'. Within this area, forest and brushland
communities, lakes and reservoirs, and various human-altered habitats combine
to create a broad mosaic of avian environments.

This paper reviews the status of 235 species of birds known to have occurred on
Diamond Lake R.D. during the 1980s. Accounts of species documented for this
area are presented in the taxonomic order most recently adopted by the
American Ornithologists' Union. Breeding status, relative abundance at each
season of the year, and preferred habitats are noted for each species.

In preparing this summary, I have relied chiefly upon personal notes reflecting
extensive time spent birding the District in the seven years 1984-1990. During
this period, I lived at Toketee R.S., the administrative center for Diamond Lake
R.D., and performed silvicultural and biotechnical work which saw me
observing birds on a near-daily basis, primarily from March into mid-December.

The set of summary statements on habitat preferences, arrival of local and
migratory populations, and seasonal abundance are based on random
observation; that is, they are not supported by results gained through application
of scientific method. However, such random observation as was summarized in
this review totals greater than 7000 hours of actual time watching birds. It should
be noted that waterfowl counts were conducted on many occasions in 1987-90 at
the two principal use areas within the region discussed.

In creating the habitat key, as well as in gauging the perceived preference of a
given bird for one habitat type over another, I have applied the practical
knowledge gained in the course of five seasons' work in the Silviculture
department at Toketee. Discussion of owls has been made less difficult through
the lessons of two seasons leading Spotted Owl monitoring and inventory teams
on the District.

Every attempt has been made to craft the statements within the accounts in such
a manner that the reader will recognize, and discriminate between, those which
summarize gathered fact-of-observation and those which put forth the opinion
or suggestion of the writer.

In order to present as complete a picture as possible of the birdlife of this area, I
have collected pertinent observations related in the Western Oregon Field Notes
of Oregon Birds and in the Northern Pacific Coast regional report of American
Birds from 1980-1990. Additionally, Martha Sawyer of Roseburg and Ron Maertz
of Glide, leading birders in their respective areas, passed on to me their own
sightings and those of other reliable observers.

If this summary imparts to the reader a better understanding of the diverse
avifauna of Diamond Lake R.D., or simply provides interesting browsing, then it
will have been worth the time and effort invested in maintaining and collating
the notes which comprise it.

David Fix
Lead Biological Technician
Toketee Ranger Station
27 September, 1990

Key to Seasonal Abundance

The four seasons of the year have been used to categorize bird activity in time.
Generally, the following guideline applies: March through May is Spring; June
through August is Summer; September through November is Fall, and December
through February is Winter.

Birds do not, however, migrate or reside in an area in strict accordance with such
arbitrary designations. Spring migration for waterfowl commences as early as
February, but some tropical-wintering songbirds do not arrive until mid-May, or
even June. Similarly, while most songbirds depart southward during August and
September, the fall passage of waterfowl and some birds of prey usually does not
peak until October or even November. Shorebirds which nest in the high
latitudes begin appearing here in fall migration as early as the fourth week in
June, during. the tail-end of the breeding season for most locally-nesting species
[Although these waders may appear during mid-summer, their occurrence at
this time of year have, as a rule, been indicated under the Fall season heading] .

ABUNDANCE is defined as follows:

A - abundant.        Occurs in large numbers throughout preferred habitats.

C - common. Less numerous than above, but predictably distributed throughout
most or all of preferred habitats .

U - uncommon.        Occurs either in low density over a large area, or is restricted
to habitats covering only a small portion of the district.
R - rare.      Occurs in very small numbers during the season indicated. Usually
restricted to specialized or scarce habitat types.

Ca - casual. Status indefinite; generally either somewhat out-of-range or out-of-
habitat. Refers to many water- and shorebirds for which limited habitat is
available. As a rule, one to three local records, sometimes four or five.

(?)    Indicates a season of the year for which there have been no sightings, or
the status of the species is very poorly known. To be looked for.

** -   Breeds on Diamond Lake Ranger District
(Nest, offspring, food-carrying and scolding, territorial or agitated behavior,
persistent singing, or is resideht)

*-     May breed on Diamond lake Ranger District

Key to Abbrevations [sic]
      DL - Diamond Lake                          [LL- Lemold Lake]
      DLSP Diamond Lake sewage ponds
      TL    Toketee Lake
      TRS Toketee Ranger Station
      LSD latest spring departure
      EFA earliest fall arrival
      LFD latest fall departure

Key to Preferred Habitats

The habitats in which each species is most frequently or readily found are listed
below. This tentative guideline, based upon major plant communities, is
presented for its possible use as a bird-finding aid, and as an indicator of the
subtle distinctions in habitats chosen by birds on the District.

1.     Coniferous forest; no marked preference to type.

1a.    Lower- and middle-elevation Douglas-fir/associated conifer forest.

1b.   Lower subalpine forest: Mountain Hemlock/Shasta Red Fir/associates.
mostly above 4500' on E one-third of district, locally westward.

1c.   Mixed lower-elevation conifers/hardwoods/shrubs, mostly below 3000'
on W one-third of district.
1d.     Lodgepole Pine forest and openings, mostly above 4000' on E one-third of

1e.   Forest/timber harvest-unit edge, mostly at lower and middle elevations .

1f.   Ponderosa Pine forest or pine-dominated forest, and forest edge. Mostly
below 4000' on W one-third of district, but locally around Kelsay Valley and

2.     Temperate riparia: Black Cottonwood/willow/Red Alder/shrub
associates, around lakes and streams, mostly below 3500'.

2a.    Montane riparia: willows/Sitka Alder/Red-Osier Dogwood/shrub and
forb associates, around lakes and streams and adjacent to meadows, mostly
above 3500' .

3.    Brush associations with some characteristics of Upper Sonoran Zone
chaparral of southwest Oregon, including one or more of the following plants:
Oregon White Oak, Poison-Oak, Tall Oregon-Grape, Oceanspray, Deerbrush,
Wedgeleaf Buckbrush, or Hairy (White) Manzanita. Very local; a few patches
below 2000' in North Umpqua River canyon at W edge of district.

4.     Clearcuts or similar semi-open areas within the forest; no marked
preference to type.

4a.     Clearcuts on drier sites, often southern exposures, grown to Snow- brush
(Slickleaf Ceanothus), currant, Greenleaf Manzanita, Mountain Whitethorn, etc.,
with or without scattered conifer saplings.

5.    Water; no marked preference to type.

5a.   Streams.

5b.   Lakes, reservoirs, hydropower forebays, and sewage treatment ponds.

5c.   Marshes, wet meadows, bogs, grassy shorelines, etc.

6.    Large vertical rock outcrops or heads; mostly below 3500' in canyons of
Clearwater and North Umpqua Rivers,

7.    At or about human habitations or constructions.
7a.    Fields, meadows, lawns, spillways, sewage-pond dikes, powerline
corridors, etc.

8.    Timberline and alpine areas, mostly above 7000' along Cascade crest at E
edge of district, locally westward.

9.    Most often seen flying over.

As greater than 95% of all waterfowl occurring on the District are found at
Diamond Lake, seasonal abundance given below is meant to pertain to that site.
Smaller bodies of water reflect similar relative abundance for many species;
however, most of the uncommon species may be encountered in numbers only at
DL and sparingly elsewhere.

Underscoring of the first letter in a species name indicates it was among 88
encountered on the District during a portion of a "Big Day", 14 May 88. The
itinerary of this tour was DL, DL marsh,. the DLSP, Toolbox Meadows, Thorn
Prairie, TL, and Eagle Rock,.

Species Accounts

RED-THROATED LOON Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Gavia stellata  Ca 5b

Casual late fall migrant. Individuals were seen at the north end of DL 11 Nov 88
and 9 Oct 89, and at the south end of DL 8 Nov 89 (R. Maertz). It was felt that the
two seen in 1989 were different birds.

Although Red-throated Loons are primarily coastal birds in the Northwest, and
are rare in the Cascades, the two records are not surprising. Surveys of the larger
lakes in Western Oregon will occasionally reveal one or two of these birds.

PACIFIC LOON        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Gavia pacifica        Ca 5b

Casual fall migrant. An individual of the Pacific / Arctic Loon superspecies was
near the north end of DL 16 Oct 89. It was seen at close range through a
telescope. The bird was still in about 60% alternate plumage despite the date.
Those members of the complex occurring in North America are generally
assumed to be the Pacific Loon, although Arctic Loon of the Old World has been
recorded from British Columbia.

This is one of few sight records of the species in the Oregon Cascades.

COMMON LOON Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Gavia immer R Ca R 5b

A regular, sparse spring and fall migrant on DL and LL. Has appeared several
times in spring on TL. To be expected occasionally on all other open bodies of
water, i.e., the various smaller hydropower forebays, from which there presently
are no records. As many as 15 in one day have been counted on DL. Pairs of
loons in spring around the northern half of DL are frequently heard vocalizing
during the day (D.Gleven).

On 23 Aug 89 two ads, and a fully-grown juvenile judged capable of flight were
seen at the northwest corner of DL. Although it is concievable that breeding may
have occurred here, these birds were judged exceptionally early fall migrants.
There have been no winter records.

ESA 15 Apr / LSD 17 May / EFA 23 Aug / LFD 17 Nov

PIED-BILLED GREBE           Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Podilymbus podiceps         R R U R   5b,c       *

Very uncommon to rare spring and sparse fall migrant on DL and LL. Occurs
regularly in spring and fall on the Stinkhole marsh adjacent to TL, with a
maximum of four or five birds there on several unrecorded dates. Has attempted
to winter on LL and TL (4, 21 Dec 86), and probably does so infrequently.
[sic] fairly young juv. along the reedbeds in the northwest corner of DL 30 Jul 89
furnished suggestive evidence for breeding; however, young birds of this species
will migrate while still in at least partial juvenile plumage, so this is ambiguous.

HORNED GREBE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Podiceps auritus R R 5b

A very uncommon but certainly regular migrant in both spring and fall on DL
and probably on LL, as it is generally on other large bodies of water on the west
side of the Cascades. Maximum: 20 birds scattered on DL 16 Oct 89. Two very
late spring migrants were near the northwest corner of DL 26 May 88.

ESA 25 Apr / LSD 26 May / EFA 9 Oct / LFD 21 Nov

RED-NECKED GREBE      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Podiceps grisegena Ca 5b

Casual fall migrant. An ad. in basic plumage was well seen near the boat docks
off LL Lodge 17 Nov 87, and a first-winter bird was seen on DL from Thielsen
View CG 9 Oct 89.

This is another waterbird of primarily coastal distribution in Oregon which is
occasionally detected inland.

EARED GREBE          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Podiceps nigricollis   U 5b

Regular uncommon to quite numerous fall migrant on DL. This lake has
historically supported numbers of Eared Grebes in fall (Gabrielson and Jewett,
Birds of Oregon, 1940). Maximum was 120, 16 Oct 89. Although scattered grebes
appear everywhere on the lake, primary use area is the north-central portion and
in the northwest corner. There are no spring records.

A single bird on LL 4 Nov 84 is the only sighting away from DL.

It is felt that Eared Grebes congregate on DL to glean wind-blown insects.
However, they may be seen diving as well as picking from the surface.
Abundance from year to year may be affected by availability of stranded insects.

EFA 4 Sep / LFD 4 Nov

WESTERN GREBE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat    .
Aechmophorus occidentalis R           R 5b

This grebe is quite common on some other Cascade lakes and reservoirs, so its
comparative scarcity on the District is puzzling. Although never common, it is
certainly a regular spring and fall migrant on DL and LL. There is one record
from TL, in fall. Maximum: 22 at DL 16 Oct 89.
CLARK'S GREBE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Aechmophorus clarkii  Ca 5b

The only record is of one bird showing the characteristic field marks of long
orange bill, eye below cap, restricted black on hind-neck, and pale sides, on DL 9
Oct 89. This sibling species of Western Grebe is far outnumbered by the latter
form in Western Oregon, including the Cascades, from where there have to date
been only a handful of records. It should be anticipated to show up in spring and
fall migration occasionally on DL and LL.

AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                      Preferred Habitat
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Ca 9

A flock of fourteen overflew TRS 4 Aug 89 (D. Thrall, R. Belloir), headed slowly
northward several thousand feet above the station. This may represent the only
record for the Western Cascades away from reservoirs in e. Jackson Co. in recent

It is interesting to note that an unusually large concentration of pelicans (up to
120) used lakes in Jackson Co. during early fall 1989.

DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT                 Sp/Su/Fa/WiPreferred Habitat
Phalacrocorax auritus U U U               5b,c **

Regular summer visitor to DL, LL, and TL. Although not known to the writer to
have definitely nested at DL, numbers up to 50 or more are often seen in June,
July, and August. Peak use area is the north end of the lake, with a conspicuous
and well-known daytime roost in a dead ponderosa pine along the immediate
lakeshore between DL Lodge and the Lake Creek outlet.

Double-crested Cormorants also summer at LL. Numbers using that site are not
well known, although as many as fifteen have been seen from one spot in July.

A group of some two dozen cormorants summers each year on TL, appearing in
April and remaining through September. During the period 1987-90, their roost
and general center of activity was in tall Douglas-firs along the south shore of the
reservoir northwest of TRS. It is possible that this group may be the nucleus of a
breeding colony. On 30 May 88, a clutch of four or five cormorant eggs was
discovered on a log protruding above the water at TL, just north of the outflow
of the Clearwater No. 2 Generator (C. Lundfelt, D. Fix et al.). The clutch was
never incubated. It was felt that sufficient numbers of cormorants, and
consequent social interaction, occurred to stimulate copulation and egg-laying,
but the poor and unimproved nest site pointed to what might be considered a
"panic nest." To date, this is the only evidence of actual nesting on the District.

The cormorants at both DL and TL ought to be monitored in coming seasons, as
breeding at either site is a strong possibility, if not already taking place. Birds in
pale-breasted first-spring plumage make up a fair percentage of the total Toketee
group upon arrival each year.

GREAT BLUE HERON    Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Ardea herodias U U U Ca 5     *

Uncommon resident, possibly absent from the District in some winters. A few
Great Blue Herons may be seen on almost any body of water, including the
North Umpqua River and other open watercourses, nearly throughout the year.
Has wintered around TL, but apparently does not do so annually.

Great Blue Herons may nest in close proximity to human residence or activity
with remarkable secrecy. It is quite likely that individual pairs or very small
colonies exist in the vicinity of DL, LL, TL, Stump Lake, Lemolo No. 2 Forebay,
Fish Creek Reservoir, and possibly elsewhere, although firm evidence of
breeding is lacking.

GREAT EGRET       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Casmerodius albus Ca   5b,c

Casual spring visitor. One was seen at the upper end of TL on 17 Apr 88 (P.
Foster, R.Menke, described to the writer).

SNOWY EGRET          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Egretta thula Ca     Ca5b,c

Casual spring visitor. A Snowy Egret in high breeding condition was at the north
end of the DLSP on 28 May 88 (S.Gordy, D.Fix). It flew off to the south toward
DL. It was not seen again.

CATTLE EGRET     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Bubulcus ibis Ca 5b,c
Casual fall visitor. A Cattle Egret at Soda Springs Reservoir 24 Oct 87 furnished
the only sighting for the area (E. Paulson).

GREEN-BACKED HERON                Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Butorides striatus Ca Ca ?        5b,c *

Casual visitor. About four sightings of single birds have been made at the upper
end of TL and at the Stinkhole marsh, on unrecorded dates in spring and early
summer. One overflew TRS 10 Jun 90, becoming the 150th species recorded in the
immediate vicinity of the ranger station and bunkhouses.

Plausible nesting habitat exists in the upper TL / Stinkhole ecosystem. It is
highly isolated from other pockets of habitat in this part of the state. This may
inhibit colonization of the Toketee area, as may a general lack of migrant recruits
through this section of the Western Cascades.

BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON                Sp/Su/Fa/WiPreferred Habitat
Nycticorax nycticorax Ca 5b,c

Casual fall visitor. An immature night-heron at the Stinkhole marsh 19 Aug 84 (S.
Heinl, H. [M?] Hunter, D. Fix), and an unseen bird, heard at TL and over TRS on
two unrecorded dates during the first week of Aug 90, probably reflected post-
breeding dispersal of juveniles, which often brings small numbers into Western
Oregon in July and August.

TUNDRA SWAN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Cygnus columbianus Ca Ca Ca              Sb

Occasional visitor in fall, winter, and spring. Very small groups of swans
occasionally visit TL in fall. One 20 May 85 was extraordinarily late for Western
Oregon (R.Maertz). Fall records span the period 27 Oct - early Dec. A flock of 24
swans, not critically identified but assumed this species, set down at TL for one
day on an unrecorded date in mid-January 89, for the only mid-winter sighting.
The only sighting for DL known to the writer was of three swans on 4 Nov 87
(M. Sawyer). It is indeed remarkable that no flyover of migrant Tundra Swans
has been noted locally.

ESA 5 Apr / LSD 20 May / EFA 27 Oct
WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Anser albifrons A  A5b; 9

Commonly-seen migrant. Flocks of White-fronts overfly the District in large
numbers in spring and fall (e.g., 105 flocks totalling >20,000 birds counted during
two weeks in spring 1988). Generally, lesser numbers are seen in fall. This may
be due to the autumn passage across southwestern Oregon taking place over a
more extended period. However, flocks surely totalling thousands over-flew the
central portion of the District during day and well into the evening 25 Sep 90.

The flight path of birds seen in spring is almost always northwest to north-
northwest. Many flocks watched in fall follow an antipodal heading, but less is
known about deviation from that path in fall. Flock size has ranged from five to
1200 birds, and usually runs from forty to 200. The flight line used in spring takes
the birds from the vicinity of DL and Mt. Bailey across the middle of Fish Creek
Valley, just west of TRS, and toward the upper portion of Boulder Creek

Small flocks, often what seem to be family groups of three to six birds, sometimes
set down at the upper end of TL, at Toketee dam, and at DL and the sewage

ESA 17 Apr / LSD 5 May / EFA 18 Sep / LFD 7 Nov

SNOW GOOSE        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Chen caerulescens    Ca 5b; 9

Casual, irregular fall migrant. This species probably overflies the District at
altitude at night; thus it is seldom detected (pers. suppos.). Flocks overflew TRS
several times in fall 1987. On 8 Oct 88 a flock of about a dozen birds was watched
flying northward between Elephant Mtn. and Watson Butte. Two Snow Geese
put down on TL 22 Oct 87 for the only local sighting of this species on the water.

CANADA GOOSE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Branta canadensis

"Cackling" Canada RR  5b; 9
 "Lesser" Canada  R R RU    5b; 9**
Uncommonly-detected migrant in spring and fall. A few pairs are conspicuous
nesting birds during March, April, and May. Broods are easily seen on TL and
the Stinkhole marsh in May (e.g., two broods out 2 May 90 with two more broods
24 May 90 at TL). It is interesting that the nesting geese abandon their breeding
sites as soon as the young are capable of flight. Migrants which also appear to be
Lesser Canada Geese reappear in small numbers at most of the lakes and
reservoirs in mid-fall. The Cackling Canada Geese (there may be other smaller
forms involved as well) which overfly the District in April and October have
never been seen "on the ground." Their flight path takes some of them over the
DLSP and the north end of DL in October.

A flock of some 30-45 medium-sized, pale Canada Geese (but 89, 10 Jan 89)
usually overwinter on TL, the only site at which the species does so on the
District. The birds use the upper end of the lake and bottom-feed rather than
graze, in contrast to most wintering honkers in Oregon. They depart in March.

Flocks occasionally put down on the upper end of TL, the south end of DL, and
at the DLSP. These are usually discreet family groups of three to six birds, but
occasionally larger flocks.

WOOD DUCK       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Aix sponsa U U U ?   5b,c                            **

Regular migrant and summer resident. Arrives in late March (exceptional were
ten at TL 7 Mar 86), departs in September. Most frequently seen at TL, the
adjacent Stinkhole marsh, and at the DLSP; breeds at all three locations, and
probably elsewhere. Maximum number of adults: about a dozen at the DLSP on
various unrecorded dates in spring and early summer.

Although TL is within the conceivable winter range for this species, affording
reasonably temperate conditions, the annual ice-up of the shallow-water
shoreline at the upper end may preclude reliable foraging conditions. There have
been no winter records at this writing.

GREEN-WINGED TEAL Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Anas crecca U Ca C Ca 5b,c*

Regular spring and fall migrant on nearly all bodies of water with suitable rushy
edge habitat. Most common at the DLSP, where numbers peak, generally in
September, at scores of birds. Maximum 160 there 16 Oct 89. Appears early in the
fall migration, usually by mid-to late July. Lingers well into late fall, and has
attempted to overwinter on TL. Less numerous but routine in spring on the
DLSP, occasionally at TL and elsewhere.

It is possible that Green-winged Teal nests on the District. A male was seen at the
DLSP during spring 1990 as late as 31 May, a pair was there 3 Jul 87, and one was
in DL marsh 10 Jun 89 and 12 Jun 89. This habitat is similar to that at Gold Lake
Bog about 30 miles to the north, where teal have nested within the past decade.


MALLARD Sp/Su/Fa/Wi     Preferred Habitat
Anas platyrhynchos U U U Ca 5b,c                                     **

Mallards breed on most or all of the lakes and reservoirs on the District. Broods'
appear in May and June (outside dates: 19 May and 16 July). From four to six
broods are brought off at the DLSP each summer. While a regular migrant in
spring and fall on practically all bodies of water, no concentrations of any size
have been noted. Perhaps fifty or sixty birds from time to time in mid-fall on the
DLSP is the maximum. Only very small numbers use DL. A few occasionally
winter on TL.

Two pairs on a small pool of open water off the inflow of Silent Creek, at the
southwest corner of otherwise frozen DL, 22 Mar 89 indicated spring migration.

A nest found in a salal thicket in dense forest north of the Stinkhole marsh
8 Apr 86 (B.Waite, J.Gonzales) was lined selectively with cast needles of Sugar

NORTHERN PINTAIL           Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Anas acuta Ca Ca U         5b

Appears in fall in very small numbers among the large waterfowl flock at the
south end of DL and at the DLSP (maximum: 50 at the DLSP, early Sep 87,
exceptional). Although scarce, this species is one of the earliest migrant ducks to
show up on the District, often appearing during mid-July, concurrent with a
general increase at the upper reaches of Oregon estuaries. Has appeared there as
early as 1 Jul. Summer seasonal status refers to such occurrences. There is but a
single spring record, of six birds at the DLSP on the notably late date of 13 May
BLUE-WINGED TEAL                  Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Anas discors  Ca B. 5b,c

Although sightings have been few, this species is probably a regular spring and
fall migrant at the DLSP. A pair was at TL 29 May 89, and two basic plumaged
teal were there 2 Oct 86, Birds in eclipse or basic plumage, closely studied and
attributed to this species, have also been seen several times at the DLSP in mid-

CINNAMON TEAL SP/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Anas cyanoptera R Ca Ca 5b,c

Regular, scarce spring migrant at the DLSP and occasionally on the upper end of
TL. Maximum six birds, several dates, May 90, at the sewage ponds; present on
seven o~ seventeen visits. Individuals have been noted in early June there, and a
male was noted 3 Jul 87. Appears in late summer and into early fall in similar
token numbers at the DLSP and on TL.

An male teal which was obviously a hybrid Blue-winged X Cinnamon Teal was
at the DLSP 28 May 90.

NORTHERN SHOVELER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Anas clypeata R   C    5b,c

Common migrant on the DLSP during August, September, and October
(maximum 150, 19 Oct 87 and 1 Oct 88). Appears on the ponds beginning in mid-
to late July. A few dozen birds use the south end of DL during mid-fall, but seem
to depart well before the en masse. exodus of waterfowl just before freeze-up.
Scarce but regular spring migrant at the DLSP and occasionally on TL; there have
been no records at that season elsewhere in the area.

Shovelers may be expected at least infrequently at LL, where uncommon in fall,
and on other larger bodies of water on the District.

GADWALL Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Anas strepera Ca  R               5b

Rare fall migrant on DL, where a very few may be looked for among the great
assemblage of dabbling and diving fowl around the south end of the lake during
mid- and late fall (maximum: five, 7 Nov 87). Occasional in spring and fall in
similar tiny numbers on the DLSP (1-2 present on four of seventeen visits there
iuring May 90). There have been no records elsewhere on the District

EURASIAN WIGEON     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Anas penelope Ca Ca 5b,c

Casual fall migrant in company of American Wigeon on the south end of DL.
Two were seen 4 Nov 87 (M. Sawyer), 7 Nov 87, and 17 Nov 87. On 21 Nov 87
only one was present. A male was there 6 Nov 88, and a female 14 Oct and [sic]
Nov 89 (identified by both plumage and voice). A female was with a small group
of wigeon at TL 21 Dec 86, and a male and female were among wigeon there
4-12 Dec 88 (R.Maertz, K.Graves, D.Fix), but apparently none of these ducks
overwintered. There are no spring records.

AMERICAN WIGEON      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Anas americana Ca Ca A R 5b,c

Abundant fall migrant on the south end of DL, where a flock of 1500-2000 stages
in company of American Coots and other waterfowl. Common at the DLSP,
uncommon on LL, and scarce but regular at TL during fall. A few birds appear in
spring on the DLSP. A few usually show up early in fall migration (thus the
notation for the summer season).

A token flock usually overwinters, or attempts to do so, on TL (maximum: 48,
winter 1986-87).

To be expected in small numbers in fall on any open body of water, even in
marginal or poor habitat, as is generally true for most migrant dabbling ducks.

CANVASBACK         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Aythya valisineria    R 5b

Rare fall migrant, appearing among the big flocks of staging waterfowl around
the south end of DL and on the DLSP. No records elsewhere on the District. At
DL, two birds were present in Oct 87, ten 4 Nov 87 (M. Sawyer), 14 7 Nov 87 and
17 Nov 87, and 40 on 21 Nov 87; a male 11 Nov 88, and what was probably the
same female or immature male there 9 Oct - 19 Nov 89. A pair was on the DLSP
29 Sep - 2 Oct 87, four birds were there 12 Oct 87, and an ad. male was present 1-
3 Oct 89.
Diamond Lake appears to be either somewhat off this species' Southwest Oregon
flyway, or else the birds simply elect to overfly it and rely upon other sites for
fall feeding and staging.

REDHEAD Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Aythya americana Ca R Ca           5b

Rare but regular fall migrant. A flock of from twenty to fifty Redhead appear in
October and November on DL. Use is split between the south end and in the
northwest corner near the Lake Creek outflow. A very few birds appear in fall on
the DLSP as well. Pairs at the DLSP 1 May and 4 May 90 constitute the only
spring records. A female wintered on TL in 1987-88 for the only occurrence at
that time of year. There have been no sightings elsewhere on the District, but this
duck is probably occasional in fall on LL, TL, Stump Lake, and elsewhere.

RING-NECKED DUCK                           Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred
Aythya collaris                    U Ca C U                     5b , c

Regular migrant in spring and fall on all of the sizable bodies of water. The DLSP
are the most favored site in spring (maximum: 100, 2 May 90) as are the south
portion and west shoreline of DL during fall migration (maximum: about 200,
several dates, Oct 89). Considerable numbers also gather in October on LL but
have not been closely counted. Those birds frequent the south shoreline east of
Poole Creek inflow. Stump Lake is also heavily used (flock of up to 58 birds, May
90). A flock of variable size (maximum about 60) winters each year on TL in
company of goldeneyes and Bufflehead.

This duck may breed on the District, A pair lingered for several weeks at the
southwest corner of Stump Lake in spring 89, seen as late as 12 June, but not
later. There is potential nesting habitat there, as well as in the northwest corner of
DL. Unseasonal was a male at the DLSP 3 Jul 87, possibly a local summering
bird, but felt most likely to be a very early fall migrant.

LSD 15 Jun / EFA 3 Jul

GREATER SCAUP Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Aythya marila Ca R 5b
Casual spring migrant and rare but probably more or less regular fall migrant on
DL and the DLSP. Has been noted twice in spring on TL. Records are as follows:
a female at TL 17 Apr 86; two first-winter males at the DLSP 12 Oct 87; a male
and female at the DLSP 19 May 88; ad. male and ad. female together at DLSP 22
Oct 88, with that male or another there 25 Oct, 88; three birds at the south end of
DL 6 Nov 88; two ad. males on TL 28 Mar 89; an ad. female on DLSP 3 Oct 89;
two on DL 9 Oct 89, six birds there 6 Oct 89, with two still there 11 Oct 89; a
female there 21 Oct 89, and seven or eight birds on DL near the lodge, 8 Dec 89. It
is quite likely that a few Greater Scaup occur occasionally on LL in fall.

 Identifications of this species, which is very uncommon in the Western Cascades
(though regular in fall and winter at some sites, e.g., Dexter Res., Lane Co.) were
based on a combination of subtle features, which together provide the distinctive
look of Greater Scaup. These include an evenly-rounded crown with no trace of
"peak" or break in the feathering of the hind-crown; large, tubular-looking bill,
with minimal break in profile from base of bill to forecrown; eye set close to the
crown relative to Lesser Scaup; size; and, when discernable, te extensive white.
stxipe in the wing~ with white extending through the secondaries onto the

ESA 28 Mar / LSD 19 May / EFA 3 Oct / LFD 8 Dec

LESSER SCAUP        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Aythya affinis      U Ca A Ca 5b

Regular migrant in spring at the DLSP and in much smaller numbers on other
bodies of water (maximum at the ponds in spring, 100, 1 May and 2 May 90; in
fall, 200, 25 Oct 88). An abundant fall migrant on DL, uncommon elsewhere. A
few birds occasionally linger into early June at the sewage ponds.

Lesser Scaup become common around the southwest shoreline of DL in
November, with numbers remaining until shortly before freeze-up (maxima,
about 1100, 7-17 Nov 87; at least 800, possibly 1000, 11 Nov 88; and about
1000, 19 Nov 89). Smaller assemblages occur on LL concurrently; 30 were just off
the area of the lodge 13 Dec 88. Has wintered, or attempted to do so, on TL.

LSD 15 Jun / EFA 19 Jul

HARLEQUIN DUCK              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Histrionicus histrionicus   Ca   5a   *
Casual late spring migrant or summer visitor. May breed. An ad. male and
female together immediately below the Fish Creek bridge on FS Rd. 3701 in T.27
5, R.3E, S.l0, 28 May 85 (C.Knutson, D.Fix) is the only sighting for the District.
This pair was in appropriate breeding habitat but was never seen again.

It is quite possible this duck breeds locally on Fish Creek, Copeland Creek, or
other sizable streams. The present southern limit of breeding for this species in
the Pacific States is apparently within the upper Willamette River watershed in
the west-central Cascades, though the species is suspected of breeding once
again in the central Sierra Nevada.

OLDSQUAW          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Clangula hyemalis Ca   5b

A female appeared on TL 29 Jan - 1 Mar 87, and constitutes the only record for
the District.

SURF SCOTER          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Melanitta perspicillata      Ca 5b

Casual to very rare fall migrant. One was seen on the DLSP on an unrecorded
date in October 87. One was there 22 Oct 88. Five were on the north end of DL 11
Oct 89, 11 were there 16 Oct 89 (probably the original five plus six new arrivals),
and what was probably a bird uninvolved in the two last-mentioned sightings
was on the lake 8 Nov 89. Additionally, single Surf Scoters were shot at Fish
Creek Forebay and at Stump Lake during hunting season one year in the early
1980s (G.Knutson, described to the writer).

WHITE-WINGED SCOTER               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Melanitta fusca Ca 5b

Casual fall migrant. Two ad. males were together on DL at the southeast corner
of the lake (South Shore) 22 Oct 87. A female or imm. male was at the north-West
corner of the lake 11 Dec 89.

This species occurs sparingly away from the coast in Oregon during late fall, thus
these sightings were not especially surprising.

COMMON GOLDENEYE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Bucephala clangula UU U 5b

Uncommon to fairly common fall migrant and winter visitor. Appears in token
numbers in late October or early November and increases rapidly. Departs
during March; northward passage is difficult to discern. DL, LL, TL, and Lemolo
No. 2 Forebay are favored sites. Small numbers may be expected on all bodies of
water of any size during ice-free periods from late October to late March
Maximum: at least 150 on DL 11 Nov 88.

Winters on TL (usually 50 or so- maximum 70. early February 1988), and may
attempt to do so elsewhere on the District, whenever sufficient open water
persists .

By early February, Common Goldeneyes on TL may be heard vocalizing at some
distance as they engage in spirited courtship displays. At any distance, their calls
bear a remarkable resemblance to the flight note of the Common Nighthawk;

An impressive sight was a pure flock of about 300 goldeneyes of mixed species at
the northwest corner of DL, crowded into the last ten acres or so of open water,
13 Dec 88, the only waterfowl remaining as winter began to set in.

An adult male goldeneye which was obviously a hybrid Common X Barrow's
Goldeneye was studied at close range near the dam at TL during late January
and early February 1988.

LSD 20 Apr / EFA 19 Oct

BARROW'S GOLDENEYE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Bucephala islandica U U C U 5b                               **

Population dynamics somewhat complex. Uncommon permanent resident
species whose numbers fluctuate through the year. Status on high lakes of the
northeast side of the District uncertain. Regularly nests on DL and at the DLSP.

Migrants occur on all bodies of water, favoring the above-mentioned sites as well
as LL, TL, and Lemolo No.2 Forebay. Winters wherever open water remains; in
most years this may be restricted to TL, where a flock begins to build up in
October, peaks at 50-75 birds, and disappears by mid-April. A pair of adults
there 21 May 87 was anomalous.

Maxima recorded at the DLSP- spring: 185, 29 Apr 90; summer: 30, on several
dates in June 1989 and June 1990; fall: 110, 19 Oct 87.
On DL- spring: no counts; summer: 89, 30 Jul 89; fall: about 300, 11 Dec 89.

Breeding records: Brood of four young, less than one week old, at the DLSP 24
Jun 88; brood of seven young there 18 Jul 89; broods of seven and thirteen young
there 25 Jun 90, with two more broods (exact data unrecorded) during July 1990.
Boat survey of entire DL shoreline on 30 Jul. 89 by J. Lewis, B. Taylor, and D. Fix
encountered nine broods totalling 56 young. Average number of ducklings per
brood was six, and ranged from two to fourteen. Ages of the nine broods ranged
from a week. old to nearly adult size.

 Breeding has not been recorded elsewhere on the District although surely this
species must nest on other lakes such as LL, or Stump Lake, and possibly on the
subalpine lakes on the northeast portion of the District below Windigo Pass.

BUFFLEHEAD        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Bucephala albeola U R A U 5b                                  **

Uncommon to fairly common spring migrant and common fall migrant on all
bodies of water of any size. Among the most common waterfowl during late fall
and in early spring on the hydropower forebays. Abundant fall migrant on DL,
where numbers arrive during October, peaking in early- to mid-November.
Winters on TL each year, and may do soon other lakes which do not completely
freeze. Nested at the DLSP in 1989 and l990.

The assemblage on DL concentrates use among the waterfowl flock gathered
around the south end of the lake, but individuals and small groups may be seen
anywhere on the lake (maximum: about 1000 during early November of 1988 and

Ducks in basic plumage comprise a great percentage of all flocks early in the fall
migration and later in the spring.

A female accompanying a brood of six very young ducklings at the DLSP 4 Jul 89
furnished the first breeding record for the District known to the writer. A brood
of four young was at the same pond 25 Jun 90.

HOODED MERGANSER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Lophodytes cucullatus Ca R Ca 5b*
Very uncommon but regular fall migrant, strongly favoring that portion of the
south shore of DL which is in shade. Occasional in fall and early winter on TL.
Probably occurs sparingly along sheltered lakeshores elsewhere on the District.
One on LL 13 Dec 88 is the latest record for the higher elevations. A female on TL
10 Jan 89 furnishes the only mid-winter sighting. Another female at the DLSP 1
May 90 is the only spring record. The bulk of the late fall concentration at the
south shore of DL (maximum: 40+, 19 Nov 89) arrives during late October or
early November.

This duck may well nest locally on the District. There is potential habitat at DL,
the DLSP, Stump Lake, Fish Reservoir, and Little Bear Lake at Toolbox
Meadows. At the latter site, two fully-grown immatures, possibly raised in the
vicinity, were seen 8 Oct 88. An independent juvenile Hooded Merganser was at
the DLSP 24 Aug 90 and two were there 27 Aug 90. If not fledged in the area,
they were unusually early fall returnees.

RED-BREASTED MERGANSER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                      Preferred Habitat
Hergus serrator Ca 5b

Casual late fall migrant, Four Mergansers in basic plumage were seen on LL 17
Nov 87, and one was seen among gathered waterfowl on the south part of DL 11
Nov 88.

In the Northwest, this is chiefly a bird of the estuaries and protected ocean coves.
However, they are discovered away from the coast in Oregon during fall and
winter in tiny numbers, thus these sightings are not especially surprising.

COMMON MERGANSER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Mergus merganser U U U R 5a,b     **

Uncommon but regular migrant in spring and fall on all open bodies of water.
Breeds occasionally around the upper end of TL, and consistently along the
North Umpqua River, where it remains in variable numbers throughout the year.
From one to a half-dozen birds usually spend the winter on TL.

Major use areas are DL and LL, where scores may be found in late fall
(maximum:120, DL, 11 Nov 88). Curiously, there has been no evidence of nesting

RUDDY DUCK         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Oxyura jamaicensis Ca Ca U   5b                  **
Casual spring migrant and uncommon, irregular fall migrant on DL. Appears
occasionally in fall on TL. One breeding record.

Numbers of Ruddy Duck seem to fluctuate from year to year on DL, based on the
surveys of several fall seasons. One hundred forty were scattered among the
general waterfowl flock on DL 7 Nov 87, and 50 were scattered among the
wigeon and coot flock at the south end 11 Nov 88, yet only one was seen on the
lake during the entire 1989 waterfowl migration. The earliest fall date has been
19 Jul 88. A male 13-14 May 90 at the DLSP provides the only spring sighting.

A male and female were on the DLSP 25 Jun 90, and .were observed interacting
in low-intensity courtship displays. Each was seen 13 July, but neither was
evident on 28 July. However, on 3 Aug 90 a female Ruddy Duck carrying a single
very young duckling on her back was well seen on the southwest pond (B.Tweit,
D.Fix), for a surprising first District nesting record.

TURKEY VULTURE      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Cathartes aura U U U     1; 6; 9 **

Fairly common resident from late March through mid-September. Occurs in
greatest numbers below about 4000', but may be seen occasionally east to the
Cascade crest, even about the upper slopes of Mt. Thielsen (9182').

A nighttime roost of from ten to thirty birds assembles along the canyon breaks
the North Umpqua River in the vicinity of the confluence of the river with
Copeland Creek during the breeding season. Birds using this roost first assemble
over the western slopes of Pig Iron Mtn. (shortly southeast of Toketee), then drift
westward shortly after sunset, following the rivercourse downstream. The
greatest number of birds counted going to this roost is 58, 10 Sep 90. This group
was felt to have contained many southbound migrants originating from points
further north.

Evidence of breeding is the appearance of dark-headed young in mid-summer,
and concentrations of sloppy whitewash, attributable to vultures, noted at
several smalll pothole caves high in the rimrock south of Highway 138 between
Watson Falls and the Clearwater No.1 Generator during a helicopter flight of the
District 9 Jun 90 (J.Pagel, M.Ichisako, D.Fix). Additionally, R. Charon discovered
a juvenile vulture as yet incapable of flight at the base of the cliffs behind TRS 17
July 90.
ESA 11 Mar / LFD 3 Oct

OSPREY       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Pandion haliaetus U U U            5; 9   **

Fairly common, highly conspicuous summer resident. Uncommonly-detected
spring and fall migrant.

Ospreys arrive on the District, on average, about one to two weeks later than
they do in the lowlands of Western Oregon. The breeding population in the area
is felt to be about 25 pairs, with two major areas of activity, at DL and along the
North Umpqua River. Remarkably, there is no known nest along the immediate
shoreline of TL, although a nest less than two miles to the east supports a pair
which forages at the upper end of the lake at least occasionally.

Osprey nesting success around DL is high, judging by the observation that the
population of summering adults is noticeably augmented during July and
August by the appearance of numerous juveniles. . .some of which distinguish
themselves as such by attempting to feed at the fishless sewage ponds nearby.

In 1990, adults were seen scooping fistfuls of dead wet vegetation from the
margins of the DLSP and from the surface of DL marsh. The writer suspects this
material may have been incorporated into nest linings to regulate the
temperature of unattended eggs by means of evaporative cooling.

ESA 28 Mar / LFD 28 Oct

BALD EAGLE         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Haliaeetus Leucocephalus R R R R    1; 5b; 9 .   **

Rare resident through most of the year at DL and LL, where the species nests, or
attempts to do so, each year. Recent years have seen a decline in nesting success,
although outright abandonment of nest sites has not occurred. A few birds
persist at each of these lakes until freeze-up, and possibly afterward. Single Bald
Eagles were seen at very small open patches of water at the south-west and
southeast corners of DL 22 Mar 89, suggesting overwintering may have occurred

From one to three Bald Eagles, both adults and younger age classes, appear to
overwinter in the vicinity of TL, Stump Lake, and Lemolo No.2 Forebay each
year. Adults have been seen infrequently at sites well removed from DL and LL
during summer. A pair of ads, along the shore of TL 27 May 87 (K.Raftery) was

Migrant eagles are occasionally detected passing southward, very high overhead
on set wings, during late afternoon sky-watches for raptors in autumn at TRS.

NORTHERN HARRIER            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Circus cyaneus Ca           Ca        9

Casual spring and fall migrant. A harrier was seen gliding northward over the
cliffs behind TRS 28 Apr 85, and one was hunting the grassy enclosure at the
DLSP 1 Oct 88 (D.Rogers, D.Fix).

It is suspected that substantial numbers of Northern Harriers may migrate along
the immediate Cascade crest in spring and fall. Virtually no time has been spent
observing raptors in that area.

SHARP-SHINNED HAWK                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Accipiter striatus U R U Ca        1; 9 **

Present in varying numbers throughout the year. Most commonly seen in spring
and fall migration, when from one to several birds may be detected during the
course of scanning the sky for passage raptors. Sharp-shins are definitely known
to nest on the District (one nest located in June 1985 northeast of LL by S.Nelson),
but, judging from the scant dozen or so summer sightings, such birds are either
quite rare, or else are extremely adept at avoiding observation during nesting.

Migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks are routinely encountered along the higher
ridges across the breadth of the District during the last half of August,
September, and into October. Like other raptors en passant across the Western
Cascades, they do not assemble in kettles, but move through individually,
achieving lift by ringing up on prevailing winds moving upslope, gaining
altitude above a transverse ridgeline, going into a tuck, and repeating the process
upon reaching the next prominent ridge.

The only winter sightings have been on or near the TRS compound and around
TL. It is likely that scattered individuals remain within the fairly temperate
canyon of the North Umpqua River during the colder months.

COOPER'S HAWK Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Accipiter cooperii   Ca ? R. ?     1; 9

Uncommonly seen spring and fall migrant. Suspected to be much more
numerous and regular than the comparatively few sightings would otherwise
indicate This species has been seen only a few times during spring migration,
and perhaps a dozen times during fall passage.

Status in the breeding season is indefinite. There have been no sightings in May,
June, or July. It is felt that most of the District lies above the zone of suitable
nesting habitat for this species(pers. opin.). In Western Oregon, summering
Cooper's Hawks are more often associated with somewhat broken, lower
elevation forest mosaics of conifers, hardwoods, and openings. It may be that the
Goshawk and Sharp-shinned Hawk dominate timberlands within the higher
range of elevations on the District. However, given the secretive nature of this
raptor, it is certainly possible that small numbers breed locally, perhaps at lower
elevations around the canyon of the North Umpqua River and its major
tributaries .

NORTHERN GOSHAWK Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                     Preferred Habitat
Accipiter gentilis R R R Ca 1; 9 **

Very uncommon resident during most of the year, and probably throughout,
although there is only one winter sighting. Most of the forty-odd sightings made
by the writer during the survey period refer to summering birds during the
period April to September.

Typically, Goshawks on the District are seen in late morning, soaring high in the
sky at mid-slope over a stretch of forested mountainside, which is ordinarily
broken here and there by clearcuts or shelterwood leave cuts.

Evidence of breeding is historical information on nest sites in the files of the
Resources department at TRS. A nest was located by the writer three miles east
of TRS 8 Jul 84. It was in a closed stand of old-growth timber, seventy feet up in a
codominant Sugar Pine. Goshawks have been seen during the breeding season at
elevations ranging from 1600' to 5500', and in a wide variety of timber types,
most dominated by mature or old-growth douglas-fir.

A single Goshawk hunted in the vicinity of TRS during late January and early
February 1988. It is likely that many Goshawks remain in the mountains during
the winter, but have escaped detection due to limited opportunities for birding at
that time of year.
RED-TAILED HAWK        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Buteo jamaicensis U U U R 1e; 9                              **

Uncommon to fairly common resident through most of the year. Commonly seen
in migration across the District during March, April, September, and October.
Evidence of breeding is based upon juveniles, which are frequently seen or heard
begging during June and July.

While certainly numerous, Red-tails are not especially abundant in this area.
They appear to be widely scattered during the nesting months, occurring in
practically all timber types. Their abundance is seemingly irrespective of degree
of harvest intensity.

All of the adult birds seen on the District have been typical light-phase B. j.
caurinus with the exception of a notably rufous or cinnamon-phase individual
noted on several unrecorded dates during the fall of 1988 at TL.

ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Buteo lagopus  Ca 9

Casual fall migrant. Although Rough-legged Hawks are known to pass south
along the Cascade crest country in October in small numbers, there have been
but two sightings locally. A single bird was seen over the DLSP 22 Oct 88. A
skywatch from TRS the following afternoon detected two more Rough-legs,
passing eastward or southeastward high over the compound.

GOLDEN EAGLE         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Aquila chrysaetos    Ca Ca Ca  9

Casual visitor. Status imperfectly understood. There have been single sightings
in spring, summer, and fall. An adult was seen 1 Mar 89 soaring along rimrock
breaks above the North Umpqua River canyon shortly downstream from Soda
Springs Reservoir; one was seen near the Rolling Grounds trailhead in T.285,
R.3E, SE 1/4 SE 1/4 S.1, 20 Jul 85 (D.Knutson, described to the writer), and an
imm. was seen over the timbered bench west of the southwest shore of DL 9 Oct
89. Golden Eagles are sparse regular residents of the interior foothills of much of
Southwest Oregon, but have not been demonstrated to breed in northeast
Douglas County.
AMERICAN KESTREL       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Falco sparverius Ca Ca R    7a; 9*

Rarely-seen spring migrant and very uncommon fall migrant across the District.
The few birds seen each year favor clearcut edges, and roadsides and openings in
the DL area. There is one record for late June. It is possible, though felt unlikely,
that kestrels may occasionally breed in the vicinity.

MERLIN      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Falco columbarius R Ca R           1; 7, 7a; 9*

Spring and fall migrant, seen only occasionally. Itis likely that this species occurs
with considerably greater frequency than the number of sightings (fewer than
ten) would seem to indicate. Merlins in passage through forested country are
notoriously difficult to detect.

A Merlin well-seen in broken timberland at about 5000' on the central part of the
District 1 Jul 89 could have been summering in the vicinity. It was not seen again.

During the survey period, there have been two observations of pairs of Merlins
together. A male and female were in lower subalpine timber/clearcut mosaic at
5900' shortly south of Beartrap Meadow 6 Oct 88, and a male and female were at
TL near Clearwater Village 17 Mar 90. Neither pair was encountered later.

ESA 17 Mar / LSD 3 Apr / EFA 17 Sep / LFD 24 Oct

PEREGRINE FALCON      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Falco peregrinus R R R Ca 1a; 6; 9

Rare resident during the nesting season (late February through August). Seen
occasionally away from the one known eyrie and later in the year.

In 1986 a pair of falcons was discovered nesting at a prominent rock face on the
west side of the District. This pair, or their replacement birds, have returned
every year since then. Reproductive success has apparently taken a downturn
over the past few seasons, though the adults continue to inhabit the site.

Adults as well as immature birds have been seen a few times on other areas of
the District, with some sightings suggesting the possibility that more than one
pair may breed locally.
An adult, felt to be a female, which bore a band on its right leg haunted the
rimrock shortly behind TRS during spring 1989. Its origin remained a mystery.

ESA 20 Feb / LFD 12 Nov

BLUE GROUSE      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Dendragapus obscurus  U U U U            1      **

Uncommon to fairly common permanent resident of mature and old-growth
forests across virtually the entire area, with the exception of the lodgepole pine
belt around LL, DL, and the extreme southeast corner of the District, The species
varies dramatically in degree of conspicuousness. During March, April, and
May, hooting males may be heard almost everywhere outside the lodgepole
zone. By late spring, their presence is revealed mainly by flushing, and later, by
the occasional sighting of a half-grown family group on a roadside. Although
winter sightings are only occasional, the birds are presumed to remain in high
numbers in this area awing to abundant habitat. .

Broods are seen along roadsides in June and July.

The possibility that Blue Grouse may be adversely impacted by destruction of
old-growth and mature forest has not become an environmental issue, but could
well prove significant in the future.

RUFFED GROUSE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Bonasa umbellus U U U U la,c,e; 2       **

Uncommon resident over much of the District, but seen only at lower elevations
with respect to local topography on the eastern one-third of the area. Most
numerous below 3500', and notably so in lower one-third of Copeland Creek
drainage and rolling country between Copeland breaks and lower Fish Greek

This bird is more accepting of younger second-growth stands of timber and
deciduous regrowth than Blue Grouse, based upon history of random
observations Broods are infrequently noted, but have been seen in late May and

WILD TURKEY        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Meleagris gallopavo     R R R R          lc,e,f; 3   **
Turkeys originating from stock planted by the Oregon Department of Fish and
Wildlife are locally resident at several sites on the western one-third of the
District, notably Mountain Meadows, west of Thorn Prairie, The status of these
birds is imperfectly known. However, judging from the strong success of most
recent Wild Turkey plants in southwestern Oregon, it is suspected that they may
persist and increase in this area.

MOUNTAIN QUAIL       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Oreortyx pictus U U U U lc,e; 4a,b                **

Uncommon resident. Generally encountered in areas supporting a mixture of
older timber, regrowth, and tall brush, particularly a mix of ceanothus and
sparse conifers. Avoids closed stands of tall trees. Quail are most numerous on
the north-central portion of the District between 3000'-4000'. The highest sighting
has been at Twin Lakes trailhead, 4900', 12 Jul 89.

Broods are usually seen in May and June. Most encounters with family groups
take place in the lower and middle Copeland Creek drainage.

Males utter a loud single-syllable territorial call from late March to May. More
commonly given (by both sexes?) are series-calls consisting of quick but
separated querulous notes which begin softly, then rise slightly in volume and
pitch. The series call is frequently uttered to rally together a covey of quail that
has been dispersed by flushing.

Mountain Quail may retreat to lower elevations in winter, as suggested by the
appearance of coveys around TL and TRS from October through March.

VIRGINIA RAIL        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Rallus limicola      R R R ?   5c          *

Summers, and probably breeds, at the Stinkhole marsh adjacent to upper TL,
where from one to four birds (4, 9 Oct 89) have been heard in all months but
November through March. Outside dates of occurrence are 3 Apr and 20 Oct. It
is felt that the species may attempt to overwinter at this location.

On 26 May 90 what were believed to be peeping rail chicks were heard at a spot
along the south side of the marsh, where an adult had been seen and heard at
close range not long before (S.Willey, described to the writer).
A Virginia Rail at the tiny marsh in the DLSP enclosure 3 Jul 87, and one which
answered vocal imitations at a patch of marsh vegetation immediately south of
South Shore, DL, 7 Nov 87 furnished the only records for the District away from
the Stinkhole.

SORA Sp/Su/Fa/Wi       Preferred Habitat
Porzana carolina R Ca Ca      5c   *

Known only from DL marsh and the DLSP. Definitely summered at the sewage
ponds in 1990, and may have nested there. On 14 May 88 one or two calling
Soras were heard in the northeast portion of the large marsh immediately south
of DL. One was heard on an unrecorded date later in the year, in early summer.
None was detected there in subsequent years.

An ad. Sora struck the side of a building at Toketee R.S. 3 Sep 89, was held
overnight, and released the following morning at the Stinkhole marsh (the rail
overflew the marsh, and disappeared into old-growth timber on the
mountainside across the marsh) .

One was heard calling at night, location undetermined, from TRS, late at night on
an unrecorded date in mid-April 1990.

Two, possibly three, were heard "singing" in the small marsh on the northwest
side of the enclosure at the DLSP 13 May 90. One was heard there 14-24 May 90,
25 Jun 90, 13 Jul 90,. and 28 Jul 90. No evidence of breeding was noted.

AMERICAN COOT Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Fulica americana R U A Ca 5b,c           *

Sparse spring migrant, uncommon post-breeding summer visitor, and abundant
fall migrant on DL. This status is only faintly echoed at other bodies of water on
the District. Has attempted to overwinter at TL.

A few American Coots appear in spring on DL, at the DLSP, and probably
elsewhere. During June small flocks begin to dot the open waters of DL. In early
October their numbers increase greatly (maximum 10,000+, 11 Nov 88), as a
more-or-less-continuous raft of coots persists at the south end of the lake. They
remain until the lake begins to freeze and dwindle rapidly, not lingering until
near freeze-up as do the goldeneyes. While on DL, coots feed on an extremely
abundant bottom-growing plant, which they obtain through brief and frequent
dives in five to twenty feet of water. During November a few birds will graze
and pick among dead aquatic plants that have been blown onto the beach at the
north end of the lake. Lawn-grazing is only rarely noticed at DL.

In surveys of 1986-88, minimum peaks of 9,000+ coots were recorded. During the
fall of 1989 only about 4000 were counted. No reason for the decline in the
number of birds staging here was evident.

Counting of the coot flock was accomplished by repeatedly counting birds by 50s
until a feel for that quantity had been acquired, then adding up groups of 50.

Although independent juveniles appear quite early in summer, there has been no
evidence of breeding by American Goots on the District, With abundant
emergent vegetation in a portion of the northwest corner of DL, and fairly dense
bulrush cover around the treatment ponds at the DLSP, nesting is certainly a
possibility. It is likely that this bird breeds at least occasionally on DL.

SANDHILL CRANE             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Grus canadensis           Ca R 9

Casual spring and rare fall migrant. A flock of 98 cranes overflew TRS in late
afternoon 16 Oct 84. During bad weather the evening of 16-17 Nov 87, four birds
migrating after dark were attracted to strong outdoor lighting in the
Toketee/Clearwater area, circled the ranger station for several hours, and
ultimately landed on the bunkhouse lawn just south of the offices, where they
spent the remainder of the night. They headed south at first light. At midday 17
Nov 87 two flocks of 3 and 13 cranes passed southward over DL.

A single Sandhill Crane flew north past the top of Rattlesnake Rock at the west
edge of the District 27 Feb 90.

Northeastern Douglas Co. lies some miles to the east of the principal flight path
of migrant cranes passing across Western Oregon. Observers at Tiller and Glide
see flocks of these birds regularly in both spring and fall.

SEMIPALMATED PLOVER               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Charadrius semipalmatus        Ca 5b

Casual fall migrant. The only record for the area is of two birds seen at the DLSP
3 Aug 86 (M.Hunter, M.Sawyer).
KILLDEER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi      Preferred Habitat
Charadrius vociferus U U R       5b; 7a; 9             **

Very uncommon spring and summer visitor and sparse fall migrant. Has
attempted to breed at the DLSP and may do so occasionally there and elsewhere
sufficient open-ground habitat in proximity to water occurs. Appears in very
small numbers at DL, LL, and around TL from April to September (maximum,
about forty at DLSP, their major use area, unrecorded date, May 1990).

In May 1988 a freshly-scooped nest depression obviously made by Killdeers was
found on the dikes at the DLSP. No eggs were laid. Killdeer occur regularly in
some numbers at the sewage ponds, but usually dwindle to token numbers by
early summer without having nested.

BLACK-NECKED STILT         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Himantopus mexicanus       Ca   5b

Casual spring migrant. One was well-described to R.Maertz (related to the
writer) by an individual whose name was not recorded at the edge of LL near the
lodge 12 Jun 87. The description left no doubt about the accuracy of the
identification. Black-necked Stilts have occurred in Western Oregon in very small
numbers in April and early May of several years within the past decade.

GREATER YELLOWLEGS Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Tringa melanoleuca R R  5b,c; 9

Very uncommon spring and fall migrant. Actual numbers overflying the District
are surely much greater than abundance indicated by the comparatively small
number of on-the-ground records. From one to three birds at a time have been
seen at the DLSP during spring and fall, and are expected there (earliest arrival:
25 Jun 90). Occasionally seen or heard overflying TRS during the day, possibly
birds flushed from the shoreline of nearby TL; such a bird 19 Jun 89 was rather
early for a fall migrant.

Nocturnal occurrences, during which calling birds. were heard circling TRS in
bad weather were noted 24 Apr 89, 26-27 Apr 90, and on at least two unrecorded
dates in previous years. In addition to the several (?) yellowlegs circling Toketee
the evening of 24 Apr 89, a larger group, of size such that individual voices
continually overlapped, flew steadily north in heavily-falling snow over the
ridge just northwest of Deer Leap Rock the same night, gradually moving out of
hearing range to the northward (K.Brinkman, D.Fix).
LESSER YELLOWLEGS Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Tringa flavipes  Ca 5b,c; 9

Casual fall migrant. Single birds were at the DLSP 22 Jul 87, 29 Jun 89, 24 Aug 90,
and on an unrecorded date in fall in a previous year.

SOLITARY SANDPIPER          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Tringa solitaria Ca         R    5b

Rare migrant. All sightings have been at the DLSP, where two were seen on
30 Aug - 1 Sep 87, and single birds on 19 Jul 88, 29 Jun 89 and 1 Jul 89
(probably the same individual), and 1 and 4 May 90 (possibly the same).

It is likely that a few birds stop each year at many bodies of water on the District,
but go undetected due to lack of coverage and the secrecy of the species .

WILLET      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus        Ca     5b

Casual spring migrant. Acalling bird in full alternate plumage was seen at the
DLSP 29 Apr 90.

SPOTTED SANDPIPER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Actitis macularia U U U ? 5b,c; 9 **

Uncommon to fairly common resident from early May through late fall. Breeds
at all larger bodies of water, evidenced by distraction displays and the
appearance of family groups during the last half of June. Arrives during the first
two weeks of May, remains in numbers through September, and slowly
decreases until only a few birds linger into late fall. Arrival 24 May 90 was
abnormally late. There have been no winter records.

Spotted Sandpipers summering around TL are frequently heard calling in flight
overhead in late evening at TRS.

LONG-BILLED CURLEW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Numenius americanus Ca  5b
Casual spring migrant. A single bird appeared at the DLSP 4 May 90
(K.Brinkman D.Fix).

SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Calidris pusilla Ca 5b,c

Casual fall migrant.Two ads. in nearly complete alternate plumage were at the
DLSP 7 Jul 89 in company of 150 Least Sandpipers and four Western Sandpipers.
They were studied at close range with binoculars, The birds were distinguished
from like-aged Western Sandpipers in the flock by their shorter, blunter, more
tubular-looking bills; paler brown plumage with less contrast in the feather
markings; lack of rufous colors on the shoulders and on the head, and slightly
smaller size.

This sandpiper is a rare but regular fall migrant through Oregon. This sighting,
however, was one of very few for the Cascades.

WESTERN SANDPIPER          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Calidris mauri Ca          R    5b,c

Casual spring and irregular, very uncommon fall migrant. All but two records,
have been from the DLSP. Occurrence of this sandpiper-as with all others- at the
DLSP is directly tied to the extent of mudflats and west grassy margin, which
varies greatly. Outside dates have been 29 Jun and 22 Aug (maximum: 40, 22
Aug 89).

A small flock of Western Sandpipers circled TRS at night during bad weather 22
Aug 89, their calls audible at intervals of several minutes as they seemed to make
a great loop through the area under the influence of bright lights.

The voice of at least one Western Sandpiper was heard among a group of
migrant shorebirds, trapped below a drizzly ceiling and dazzled by the lights,
which circled TRS late at night 26-27 Apr 90.

One may reasonably suspect that great numbers of the more common species of
shorebirds, as well as waterfowl, overfly the District during the course of a
season's northward or southward migration, flying primarily at night, and at
altitudes well beyond hearing range. It is likely that but a vanishingly small
percentage of sandpipers, yellowlegs, rails, and the like ever make landfall at
well-birded locations in the area and happen to be detected.
LEAST SANDPIPER            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Calidris minutilla R       U    5b,c

Rare spring and very uncommon fall migrant, mostly at the DLSP. A very few
appear during the peak of fall migration at TL and probably elsewhere sufficient
habitat is available (maximum, 150, 7 Jul 89). Normally from ten to thirty birds
use the small mudflat, grassy edge, and bulrush margins at the sewage
enclosure. Regular at the DLSP during July and August. Least Sandpipers will
resort to feeding at the edges of bulrush tussocks if the mudflats are dried out.
Small numbers were seen on mudflats around the edge of LL on an unrecorded
date in fall 1987.

The spring shoving in 1990 saw more Least Sandpipers than usual at the
ponds.They were present from 29 Apr to 24 May (crippled individual) with a
peak of 50 birds on 1 May 90.

Nocturnal flight over TRS has been noted on several occasions during bad
weather in both spring and fall.

ESA 23 Apr / LSD 24 May / EFA 25 Jun / LFD 24 Aug

BAIRD'S SANDPIPER    Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Caldris bairdii   Ca 5b,c

Casual fall migrant. Two juveniles at the DLSP 3 Sep 88 (M. Sawyer, D. Fix)
and one heard calling for thirty minutes at night overhead at TRS 19.Sep 88
during bad weather are the only records for the District.

DUNLIN        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Calidris alpina    Ca   Ca        9

Casual spring and fall migrant. One was heard calling overhead intermittently
for at least four hours at TRS during bad weather 17 Nov 87, and many Dunlin
voices were distinguished from among Least Sandpipers, Greater Yellowlegs,
and Western Sandpiper under similar conditions for several hours in the early
morning of 27 Apr 90.

LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Limnodromus scolopaceus R         5b,c

Rare regular fall migrant. A few birds (maximum 15, 19 Jul 88) are expected
during August and September at the DLSP. Occasional in fall at TL and DL
marsh, and probably at other bodies of water supporting muddy edges. There
have been no sightings in spring migration.

On 26 Sep 85 a dowitcher was discovered hanging dead from a powerline at TL
(P.Sullivan) .

FA 7 Jul / LFD 17 Oct

COMMON SNIPE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Gallinago gallinago U R U Ca 5b,c; 7a**

Very uncommon spring and summer resident and fairly common fall migrant.
Has attempted to overwinter at TL and probably does so occasionally.

A few snipe may be seen and heard giving characteristic "winnowing" display
flights above the marsh south of DL in May and June. Although young birds
have not been seen by the writer, it can be assumed that display flights by
several birds in consecutive. years indicates attempts at reproduction. This is the
only site at which displaying birds have been noted; however, parcels of suitable
habitat exist locally elsewhere on the District (e.g., near LL, around Stump Lake,
and at the upper end of TL and the Stinkhole marsh) and may be occupied in
some years, or formerly.

Numerous in most years in September and October where small mudflats and
wet grassy spots are found. Most common in fall passage at the DLSP, where
several dozen may gather, and on drawn-down mudflats around the edge of LL.

WILSON'S PHALAROPE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Phalaropus tricolor U R R - 5b,c

Very uncommon summer resident at the DLSP and at DL marsh, where breeding
has been documented in several years in the 1980s (M.Sawyer, D.Fix et al.).
arrives in early May. A few birds, possibly progeny from successful local nesting
attempts, occur occasionally on the south end of DL in August. Has not been
encountered elsewhere on the District. Maxima: 20-25, DL marsh (surveyed in
entirety) 7 Jul 89; 50, DLSP, 26 May 88.
Recent evidence of breeding is the discovery of nests at DLSP 19 May 87 (four
eggs under incubation) and 25 May 90 (under construction), a nest in the
northeast portion of DL marsh 14 May 90 (incomplete clutch of three eggs), and
exceedingly trusting young juveniles, believed to have been fledged in the
vicinity, on the DLSP in July 90.

RED-NECKED PHALAROPE       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Phalaropus lobatus Ca Ca5b

Casual spring and rare fall migrant. May prove regular on DL in fall. The two
spring sightings are of one bird at the DLSP 17 May 88 (D.Irons, D.Fix), and 30
birds there 24 May 90, with two remaining the following day.

Fall records include seven at the DLSP 20 Jul 87; one there 25 Aug 87; one with
Wilson's Phalaropes there 10 Aug 88; 20 on DL 20 Aug 89, with at least 100 there
31 Aug 89; one on TL just above the dam 25 Aug 89, and one heard giving the
characteristic calls of this species overhead at night in company of other circling
shorebirds during bad weather 22 Aug 89 at TRS.

Red Phalarope        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Phalaropus fulicaria                  Ca        5b

Casual fall migrant. A juvenile was at the dam on TL 3 Nov 84, one was there 3
Nov 88, and two were there the following day. The 1988 birds were probably
blown in from along the coast, as a strong storm had passed across the Northest
the previous day, but the 1984 occurrence was remarkable in that the bird
involved appeared during a period of calm weather.

Red Phalaropes are detected from time to time in the Willamette Valley after late
fall storms, but much less frequently during settled conditions. These are two of
very few sightings for the Oregon Cascades; although not especially surprising.

BONAPARTE'S GULL            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi .        Preferred Habitat
Larus philadelphia          Ca Ca     5b

Rare migrant on DL. Probably occurs more frequently than the few sightings
would appear to indicate. In addition to three sightings of individuals during
October and November at the south end of DL, one was on TL following a
coastal storm 6 Nov 88, a flock of about 25 was on DL 17 May 88 (D.Irons, D.Fix),
and a first-spring bird was at the DLSP 14 May 89.

RING-BILLED GULL         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Larus delawarensis Ca R R     5b

Rare visitor. A very few birds have been seen from June to November at DL.
Maximum in summer and fall: seven, at South Shore 19 Jul and 2 Aug 88. Adults
are most common, with subadults and juveniles being infrequent. There is a
?[sic] April record of a subadult bird at TRS. Probably occasional at LL in fall.

CALIFORNIA GULL         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Larus californicus u C C     5b

Uncommon to fairly common summer visitor and fall migrant on DL. Lesser
numbers frequent LL. Occasional at TL. Unrecorded elsewhere except for one
adult seen passing westward above Rattlesnake Rock on an unrecorded date in
the summer of 1986.

California Gulls do not breed in the area, but arrive from nesting areas well to
the east of the District in June and July. They build up to some abundance
(maximum: about 200, 19 Jul 88) in late July-and August, and. remain in numbers
well toward freeze-up.
Subadult birds comprise a disproportionate percentage of the flock-early in the
season. Juveniles arrive during mid-July. Birds-of-the-year comprised but a
negligible percentage of total birds at DL during the five years 1984-88, but an
increase was noted in 1989 and 1990. Illustrating this was the remarkable flock of
42 juveniles seen together near the northwest corner of the lake on 24 Aug 90.
The gathering at DL is further augmented by migrant adults later in the fall.

A 1988-hatched California Gull loafing among a small group on the swimmers'
float at DL lodge 23 Sep 89 bore a USFWS band on its right leg (number 13882)
and an unnumbered yellow plastic band on its left.

This species is known to migrate directly overland from Great Basin nesting
grounds toward the Pacific coast, evidently with little regard to streamcourses or
the convolutions of local topography. It is assumed that considerable numbers
pass undetected across the skies of the District en route to the beaches. Remains
of California Gulls which were intercepted by resident Peregrine Falcons have
been recovered at pluck sites near mountain falcon eyries in Southwest Oregon.
ESA 15 May / LFD 13 Dec

HERRING GULL         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Larus argentatus       Ca 5b

Very rare fall migrant. An adult was well seen among gathered waterfowl at the
south end of DL 5 Dec 87; an adult was at the log boom near the southeast corner
of the lake (South Shore) 11 Nov 88; one was there 16 Oct 89, and from two to
four birds, all adults, were present 1 Nov 89.

Assiduous searching for Thayer's Gull at DL in late fall has been unsuccessful.

GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Larus glaucescens Ca 5b

Casual visitor. Perhaps the most remarkable bird occurrence on the District was
the appearance of a first-summer Glaucous-winged Cull at the north end of DL
near the lodge 4 Jul 84, in company of California Gulls of various ages.

This gull occurs in large numbers in winter in parts of the Willamette Valley, but
is exceptional anywhere high in the Western Cascades. Early July is perhaps the
least likely time of year for such a wandering individual to show up on a high
mountain lake in Oregon.

CASPIAN TERN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Sterna caspia Ca R R 5b

Rare post-breeding visitor to DL. An adult was with California Culls on the log
boom at South Shore 30 Jun 87; one was there 24-29 May 89; two were there 10
Jun 89; one was there 4 Jul 89; four adults were there 24 Jul 89, and three adults
and a juvenile were there 19 Aug 90.

This species almost certainly occurs in mid-summer at LL as well, having not
been recorded simply due to lack of coverage.

FORSTER'S TERN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Sterna forsteri     Ca5b

Casual spring migrant. One was at DL 26 May 88.
ROCK DOVE            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Columba livia        Ca Ca Ca ? 7,7a; 9

Occasional visitor. All of the five or six sightings of Rock Doves locally have been
of single birds on the ground at TRS or at DL. The origin of these birds is
unknown, but all have been homing pigeons bearing bands. The Peregrine
Falcons resident during much of the year on the west side of the District capture
homing pigeons at least infrequently; on a visit to a pluck site near the eyrie on
21 Aug 86, two prey remains of pigeons were found. Both sets of remains had
bands inscribed CHERRY CITY AUG 1985. The band on a pigeon picked up
injured at DL in August 1990 read 007.

The reasonable frequency of records leads one to suspect that the central part of
the District may lay on or near a flight line between points of release-and-return
for racing pigeon fanciers somewhere in the Northwest.

BAND-TAILED PIGEON Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Columba fasciata Ca Ca R 1c,e; 4b; 9              *

Rare spring visitor and fall migrant. It is concievable that pigeons may nest on
the west side of the District. Several sightings of single birds or pairs made in the
period 1984-86 by the writer were undetailed, as was the date of an observation
of some 45 birds which flew southward over Pine Bench in fall 1985. Two
pigeons hooting near Pie Creek, FS Rd. #3701, 10 Apr 89, furnished the only such
record. One flew west at Rattlesnake Rock near the west edge of the District 25
May 89. A flock of fewer than fifteen was seen in the lower Medicine Creek area
in early fall 89 (K.Graves); one was at TRS 18 Oct 89, a flock of about ten pigeons
flew over TRS in mid-August 1990 (K.Graves), and what was probably a
different flock, of about twenty birds, was there 26 Sep 90.

In addition to these notes, Forest Service personnel occasionally report sightings
of pigeons over forested areas on the District. Those observations most likely
pertain to this species.

MOURNING DOVE          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Zenaida macroura R Ca Ca    7,7a *

Occasional spring and fall migrant. Token doves are seen annually in May, and
less frequently in fall, at TRS. There is a late June sighting from a clearcut high on
the central part of the District. During 1989, Mourning Doves appeared in larger-
than-normal numbers: up to three were at TRS 22 Apr - 20 May, with nine
(District maximum) near there 25 May; four were still at TL as late as 29 May. A
sighting of three at the DLSP 7 May 89, one of them singing, was surprising, but
this is a strategic spot for many migrant landbirds as well as waterfowl and

A good deal of marginal to reasonably suitable breeding habitat exists in pockets
across lower elevations on the west side of the District, and it is entirely possible
the species may breed locally there at least occasionally.

FLAMMULATED OWL Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                       Preferred Habitat
Otus flammeolus Ca Ca ? lf

Status uncertain. Presently known as a very rare summer resident. A pair at
Perry Butte, T.26S, R.3E, S.9, from 20 May to 22 Jul 85 (D.Fix, m.ob.) is suspected
to have attempted to nest, although no direct evidence was Obtained.

One was heard calling at the south base of Dread And Terror Ridge, T.26S, R.4E,
S.12, 16 Jul 90 (J.Feen, D.Fix), and another was heard in Copeland Creek in T.26S,
R.2E, 5.35, 12 Aug 90 (J.Bray).

Areas of seemingly suitable habitat exist locally on many parts of the District.
Further field work is required to better understand the distribution and
abundance of Flammulated Owl in this area.

WESTERN SCREECH-OWL                Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Otus kennecottii R R R Ca          2; 7 *

Status uncertain. Records as follows: one calling at TRS in mid-April 1987; a pair
of owls at the north shore of TL by the old Deer Leap roadhead 1 Aug 87; a pair
at the upper end of TL 3 Sep 87, with one there 30 Sep 87; one roosting behind
TRS offices 23 Nov 88, betrayed by mobbing jays; three calling in response to
imitations at Thorn Prairie 14 Aug 88; two owls duetting at TRS on an
unrecorded date in Oct 88; one heard 14 Dec 88 at TRS; a pair heard
intermittently during summer 1989 at TRS, and one calling in apparent response
to Spotted Owl imitations at 4100' one mile south of Illahee Rock Lookout near
the northwest corner of the District.

It is likely that Western Screech-Owls nest spottily in riparian corridors at lower
elevations on the District, In Western Oregon, this is usually considered an owl
of forest-edge and woodland habitats below 3000' . Habitat for the species here is

GREAT HORNED OWL Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                     Preferred Habitat
Bubo virginianus U U U U 1; 4; 7,71              **

Uncommon permanent resident. Nighttime observations (by ear) coincidental
with intensive surveys for Spotted Owls have revealed the presence of Great
Horned Owls across every portion of the District that has been surveyed. They
appear not to be especially abundant, judging from the number and spacing of
vocalizations heard, but are widely distributed in all timber types. The begging
calls of dependent juveniles may be heard rather commonly at night in July and
August in clearcuts.

NORTHERN PYGMY-OWL                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Glaucidium gnoma U U U U           la,c,e,f **

Uncommon permanent resident. Appears to be partial to very old stands of
timber, but is occasionally encountered in immature stands. During the period of
about six years' time summarized in this report, the writer encountered an
average of about nine birds per year while working and birding in the area.

There have been only four sightings during winter, all at or near TRS.

SPOTTED OWL          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Strix occidentalis   UUUU      la ,b      **

Very uncommon permanent resident. Intensive surveys in search of this species
in 1988-90 found evidence of previously undetected pairs which bring the
documented population on the Distrct to some 35 pairs. Areas as yet unsurveyed
probably support an additional twenty pairs or more (pers. opin.), including
Boulder Creek Wilderness, where six males were heard in 1990, but for which
pair occupancy could not be confirmed.

Spotted Owls are distributed widely across the area, with pair activity centers
ranging in elevation from 3100' to 5200'. Several pairs are resident in the rolling
lower subalpine forests east and northeast of LL; those birds use remnant stands
of old-growth douglas-fir within a general closed, lower subalpine forest
community dominated by lodgepole pine, higher-elevation firs, and mountain
A male heard hooting from the upper TRS parking lot early in the morning of 1
June 90 (B.Teetsel, J.Feen) provided the only such observation, The owl was
somewhere to the southwest, across Highway 138 on the timbered slope.

Winter sightings of Spotted Owls in the area have been few, but notes on several
observations at that time of year are detailed in Forest Service files.

BARRED OWL       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Strix varia R R R ?   1    **

Rare permanent resident. First detected locally in 1989, three pairs of Barred
Owls are known on the District at this writing. Two of these are in rolling
country roughly five miles northwest of Diamond Lake, and the other pair is in
second-growth and mature timber just east of Thorn Prairie. All but one member
of these pairs responds vigorously to vocal and taped imitations of Spotted Owl
calls .

Breeding status is based upon observation of a flying dependent juvenile
accompanied by adults in T.27S, R.5E, S.3, in July 1990 (J.Feen, D.Fix).

GREAT GRAY OWL       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Strix nebulosa ? Ca Ca ?  ld   *

Status uncertain. In addition to a single bird heard at night near LL in the
summer of 1981 (B.Fontaine, details in Forest Service files), one was heard at
clear Creek Camp, T.28S, R.4E, S.23, 8 Aug 88 (K.Brinkman, T.Knutsen), and one
was seen at close range in the Rogue-Umpqua Divide Wilderness on 19 Aug 88
(D.Knutson, described to the writer).

Breeding has recently been confirmed in similar country high in the Western
Cascades on the Rogue River N.F. to the south and on the Willamette N.F. to the
north. Only a systematic survey for these birds will shed light on their
occurrence in the area.

LONG-EARED OWL              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Asio otus Ca 8

Status uncertain. A Long-eared Owl was well seen in the light of a bright moon
as it circled the writer at very close range just above timberline on the south side
of Mt. Thielsen during a night climb 28 Jul 85. The provenance of that individual
can only be guessed at, as owl surveys in recent seasons have failed to detect this

NORTHERN SAW-WHET OWL Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                       Preferred Habitat
Aegolius acadicus U U U Ca 1 *

Apparently an uncommon to fairly common resident in spring and summer.
There is one fall record, of a bird seen with prey in its talons during the day 8 Oct
85, and none for winter. A territorial male which called from near TRS during
spring in two years, 1988 and 1989, was first heard 11 March.

Owl surveyors have encountered Saw-whet Owls at night infrequently, but often
enough to suggest that they are probably among the more common owls in the
area. Most birds have been heard in April and May. A pointed search for these
birds may reveal abundance well beyond what is presently indicated by the
twenty-some nighttime encounters of 1989 and 1990.

A Saw-whet heard at TRS 18 Jan 90 is the only winter encounter recorded.

Breeding status is uncertain, although one can feel confident that "hooting" birds
in spring signify in many cases pairs of owls which are attempting to nest

COMMON NIGHTHAWK Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                     Preferred Habitat
Chordeiles minor Ca C U 1; 4; 9 **

Fairly common summer resident. This is the latest of the year's spring migrants
to arrive, appearing during the first week in June and becoming common soon
afterward. May. be seen or heard throughout the area. Nighthawks seem to be
least numerous in heavily-timbered country on west side of District, and most
abundant in cutover areas and lodgepole pine stands on eastern one-third.
Remains in numbers until about the end of August.

A flock of 90 feeding on a midge hatch over the Cheese Hole fishing area on the
west side of DL 15 Aug 90 is the maximum number observed.

ESA 29 May / LFD 8 Sep

COMMON POORWILL             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Phalaenoptilus nuttalii      Ca Ca    4          *
Status uncertain. May be a rare summer resident. One record in fall.

A small population of Poorwills was discovered during Spotted Owl surveying
in the summer of 1990. On 16 July 90 one bird was heard calling at the south base
of Dread And Terror Ridge, T.26S, R.4E, S.12, elevation 4000' (J.Feen, D.Fix). The
following night, three additional birds were heard in the same area. Several days
later, one.was seen as well as heard in T.26S, R.5E, SE 1/4 S.6, the original
encounter (M.Sawyer, R.Maertz, not far away from the location of S.Willey,
D.Fix). The habitat used by these birds extends over a considerable area in this
vicinity, and may well support additional Poorwills.

A Poorwill was flushed from Highway 138 opposite the Clearwater No.1
Generator at night on an unrecorded date about three weeks after this set of
observations (S.Willey, D.Fix).

One was flushed repeatedly from an old clearcut in the Mowich Park section of
the District, about five miles east of TRS, 20 Sep 85.

BLACK SWIFT          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Cypseloides niger    ? ? Ca 9

Casual fall migrant. A Black Swift was seen with migrant Violet-green Swallows
and Vaux's Swifts at TRS 8 Sep 85. Two appeared there 26 Sep 88.

The writer has spent many hours during the survey period deliberately
searching for this bird among gatherings of swallows and Vaux's Swifts over TL
and TRS, resulting only in these two encounters.

Occasional watches for possible nesting at Watson Falls have been inconclusive.

VAUX'S SWIFT         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Chaetura vauxi       U U U     la; 7; 9 **

Common to abundant spring and fall migrant, uncommon summer resident.
May be seen and heard infrequently during nesting season anywhere on the
District. Flocks of migrating swifts, generally from a dozen to forty or fifty birds,
overfly the District during the last ten days of April and into early May, and
again during September. A roost of 60-100 swifts was watched circling and
entering a hollow incense-cedar just below the crest of the Watson Falls hill on FS
Rd. #37 at dusk 25 Aug 89 (T.Knutsen, D.Fix), the only observation known to the
writer regarding local roost behavior.

Flocks of from ten to sixty birds are routinely observed over TRS and TL during
the peak period of fall passage in mid-September.

Owing to the species' need for hollow trees, it is possible that Vaux's Swifts are
declining in this area; suppression of wildfire and salvage timber harvest may
significantly impact the bird, but this has yet to be demonstrated.

ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Calypte anna Ca 7

Casual winter late fall or winter visitor. A female appeared at TRS on an
unrecorded date in Dec 1986. It was watched for fifteen minutes as it gleaned at
mountain whitethorn bushes and beneath eaves of a residence.

CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Stellula calliope U U Ca           2a; 4a.; 7; 8 **

Status not well understood. Known to summer in some numbers at Thorn
Small, short-tailed, short-billed hummingbirds seen occasionally elsewhere on
the District may refer to this species. A young male was found dead-on-road at
the junction of the north DL access road and Highway 138 in Jul 1985; an ad.
male displayed in dense semi-open brush near the east end of the Toketee
Airstrip in April 1989. An obvious basic-plumaged Calliope Hummingbird was
at a feeder at TRS 4-11 Aug 89, with another there for a week in Aug 1990.

These birds have been known to inhabit Thorn Prairie since the early 1980s
(M.Sawyer, M.Hunter et al.). As many as 15-20 males have been watched
displaying near the roadsides north of FS Rd. #3401 in T.26S, R.4E, S.15 during
early May (maximum: 20, 15 May 85 [M. Sawyer]).

ESA 20 Apr / LFD 8 Aug

RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Selasphorus rufus C C U            1; 2,2a; 3; 4; 7 **
Common spring migrant and summer resident; occasionally or locally abundant.
Status of fall migration through the District unknown. Arrives in March,
decreases at lower elevations after the completion of nesting in June. Remains
common, sometimes very much so, along the higher ridges (particularly those
with roads supporting flowering penstemon, indian paintbrush, and scarlet gilia
in their cutbanks) and subalpine meadows until about the third week of August,
after which they decrease rapidly. Maximum: thirty to forty hummers using the
feeders near TRS offices (S.Gordy, D.Fix) on unrecorded dates in Aug 1988.

ESA l5 Mar / LFD l Sep

BELTED KINGFISHER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Ceryle alcyon  UUUR    5    **

Very uncommon but conspicuous permanent resident. Found regularly on all
bodies of water worthy of description during the ice-free period of the year. Most
numerous at LL, DL, and along the North Umpqua River, A few overwinter, or
attempt to do so, at TL and along the river.

LEWIS'S WOODPECKER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Melanerpes lewis R 1; 2; 7

Scarce but probably regular fall migrant. All sightings have been on the west or
central part of the District, The strongest showing was in October 1985, when
numerous birds were encountered along the high ridges. Occasional, but not
annual, in fall at TRS. Maximum unrecorded, but possibly a dozen in a day in the
course of travelling ridgeline roads on central portion of the District
in October 1985.

There have been no winter or spring sightings, nor summer observations
attributable to breeding. A single Lewis' Woodpecker in a clearcut in the lower
section of the Rough. Creek drainage 16-18 Aug 88 was considered to be a

EFA 16 Aug / LFD 2 Nov

RED-NAPED SAPSUCKER         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Sphyrapicus nuchalis ? Ca ? ?    lb,d *
Status uncertain. A few sightings of Red-naped Sapsuckers have been made in
the higher lodgepole-and-mixed forests in the country between LL and Windigo
Pass (M.Sawyer, M.Hunter, K.Knittle).

Despite considerable birding in this section of the District and elsewhere, the
writer did not encounter this species. It is entirely likely that a few Rednaped
Sapsuckers cross the Cascade Range crest from areas of occupancy to the east,
and may breed spottily in northeastern Douglas Co.

RED-BREASTED SAPSUCKER              SP/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Sphyrapicus ruber A A A U           1; 2; 4b; 7 **

Very common to abundant permanent resident. May withdraw from higher
elevations in winter. Shows little preference to timber type within this area, but is
most numerous in multi-storied older forests with a wide range of diameters
within standing trees (pers. obs.).

This is believed to be the most common woodpecker in the area under discussion
during spring, summer, and fall, and probably throughout the year. Winter
status notation reflects smaller number of observations then, as well as some
degree of uncertainty about comparative abundance at that season.

A sapsucker intermediate in plumage features between Red-breasted and
Rednaped Sapsucker, and obvious a hybrid between the two, was seen at the
Stinkhole marsh in late May 90.

WILLIAMSON'S SAPSUCKER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                        Preferred Habitat
Sphyrapicus thyroideus ? Ca Ca lb

Status uncertain. A nest of this species was located at the southeast base of Mt.
Bailey in T.28S, R.5.E, S.14, .29 Jun 86 (M.Sawyer, K.Knittle). A male was seen 1
Jun 84 near the summit of Pig Iron Mtn. which is remarkable, as there is no
typical breeding habitat within miles. One was noted 22 Jun 85 at Windigo Pass
(M. Hunter). Individuals were at two sites on the eastern one-third of the District,
several miles northwest of DL, 18 and 25 Sep 85; these were considered fall
migrants which had drifted west of the Cascade crest in passage southward
through the area,

Extensive birding through the country around DL has not revealed the presence
of this species to the writers It is possible that scattered pairs may occur in select
habitat in the pine-dotted lower subalpine forests extending from the southeast
corner of the District northward east of LL toward Windigo Pass.

DOWNY WOODPECKER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                      Preferred Habitat
Picoides pubescens R R R ? 2; 3; 7 *

Status uncertain. Rare visitor to TRS, TL, and the riparian corridor along the
North Umpqua River. There have been about a dozen sightings in spring,
(May), and fall.

It is possible this species nests locally on the western edge of the District where
immature stands of conifers interface with hardwoods.

HAIRY WOODPECKER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                      Preferred Habitat
Picoides villosus AAAA 1; 2; 4b,c                 **

Very common permanent resident. Found throughout forests, regardless of type,
across the District, with the exception of immature. or suppressed lodgepole pine
stands east of LL and elsewhere, where tree diameter is a factor limiting cavity

WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER                   Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Picoides albolarvatus Ca lf

Status uncertain, but probably only a casual visitor. One was seen in ponderosa
pine-dominated forest along FS Rd. #4775 in upper Medicine Creek on 20 Aug 85
(R.Menke, well-described to the writer).

Much field work and incidental birding in areas of old-growth ponderosa and
mixed-conifer forest throughout the area has brought to light no further evidence
of this species on the District.

BLACK-BACKED WOODPECKER                   Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Picoides arcticus U U U U lb,d            **

Uncommon to fairly common permanent resident in lower subalpine forests
across much of the eastern one-third of the District. Shows little preference to
timber type, but is not found in douglas-fir or mountain hemlock-dominated
communities. Sightings have all been in the period from mid-spring to late fall;
winter status is putative as the species is not known to migrate from the high
Cascades in winter.

In Oregon, Black-backed Woodpeckers are commonly considered to be partial to
lodgepole pine stands, In the area under discussion this is not so. While routinely
encountered in lodgepole-dominated forests of sufficient tree size, these birds are
just as frequently noted in older stands of trees in which a number of species
mingle, and in which lodgepole pine may be represented only as occasional
understory suppression. Semi-open or heavily fragmented stands of dying
Shasta red fir, western white pine, white fir, and douglas-fir, among which there
are pockets of lodgepole, comprise a forest type regularly inhabited by

Although not especially numerous, this species probably ranks third in
abundance behind Red-breasted Sapsucker and Hairy Woodpecker in some
sections of the District.

An individual three miles south of TRS 3 Nov 86 furnished the westernmost
record for the area. One in the top of a conspicuous ponderosa pine snag in The
middle of the brushfield north of the corral at Thorn Prairie 21 Sep 89 as certainly
out of place.

COMMON FLICKER               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Colaptes auratus
"Red-shafted" Flicker        CCAU          1; 2; 3; 4; 7,7a; 8   **
"Yellow-shafted" Flicker      Ca 4

Variably common resident and migrant. Most common in summer on the eastern
one-third of the District, less common westward in areas of heavy timber. A
noticeable influx and passage of migrants may be noticed in late September and
October of some years.

The form which breeds in Alaska and east of the Rockies, the "Yellow-shafted"
Flicker, has been seen several times in fall. This race is rare but regular in fall,
winter, and early spring in Oregon.

PILEATED WOODPECKER                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Dryocopus pileatus U U U U          1a,b,e **
Uncommon permanent resident. Perhaps most conspicuous in heavy timber on
the western portion of the district, but persists well into lower subalpine forests
wherever remnant stands or stringers of old-growth douglas-fir or Shasta red fir
occur. The writer only occasionally failed to see or hear this woodpecker during
a day in the field throughout the extent of the survey period.

OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Contopus borealis R U Ca           1    **

Scarce spring migrant and very uncommon, verging on rare, summer resident.
Has been detected a few times on unrecorded dates in fall migration.

Among the enigmas in ornithology in this area is the puzzling scarcity of Olive-
sided Flycatchers during the summer. During some summers, the writer has
literally worked in the field for days without hearing or seeing one The greatest
number seen or heard during June and July of one year was 13-15 in 1987; that
was in the course of extensive outdoor work in old-growth douglas-fir and
subalpine forest and openings. The only area on the District where this species
even approaches routine is around the south end of DL, where singing birds may
ordinarily be heard after about 10 May.

Although this flycatcher is reasonably common in forested areas across the state,
and is a widespread migrant, none was ever detected at, or from, the Toketee
compound in seven years' birding in spite of more than 150 species having been
recorded there in that span of time.

LFD 26 Aug

WESTERN WOOD-PEWEE       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Contopus sordidulus U U R     le,f; 2; 7                **

Uncommon migrant and summer resident. Occasionally somewhat common
during the spring passage. Summering birds seem to be on territories by about
the end of the second week in May.

This species is not especially numerous in summer on the District. Although one
can find exceptions, pewees shun steep slopes; therefore, they are only
infrequent along the edges of clearcuts across the western two-thirds of the area.
It is comparatively common at openings in the lodgepole pine forest, at sites
supporting maturing second-growth douglas-fir mixed with hardwoods and
openings,, and in the semi-open forests around the east and south sides of DL.
However, it is nowhere a conspicuous element of the summer avifauna.

WILLOW FLYCATCHER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Empidonax traillii R R Ca 2,2a; 4b; 5c

Uncommon spring migrant and rare summer resident. A small wave of
northbound birds appears usually in the last ten days or so of May, with a few
continuing to pass through into the second week of June. A handful remain to

The writer has encountered Willow Flycatchers in summer, after the close of the
extended migration period, consistently at the upper end of TL, at the adjacent
Stinkhole marsh, and below Toketee dam. In addition, singing birds were found
in July 1987 in a regenerating clearcut unit at the north end of the District along
the Umpqua-Willamette divide (location notes lost), one regrown extensively to
willows,. which is exceptional in northeastern Douglas Co. Several were heard
singing in an isolated willow bog in T.27S, R.2E, SW 1/4 NE 1/4 S.19, shortly
north of Snowbird Mtn., 12 Jul 89 (T.Knutsen, D.Fix). One was in a regenerating
unit in T.27S, R.3E, S.29 in July 1987, which is grown to much Vine Maple and
some willow. The species was heard calling at Ranawapiti Lake, T.27S, R.4E, SE
1/4 SW 1/4 S.4, about two miles southeast of TRS, 22 Aug 90 (K.Graves), which
may refer to a summering bird.

Possible nesting habitat may exist shortly east of LL along the North Umpqua
River, along Lake Creek, and at Stump Lake. These sites have not been checked.

There is a 3 May 85 sighting of a remarkably early singing Willow Flycatcher
from TRS. This individual arrived in the area about one month before the peak of
spring migration for the species.

An empidonace singing the characteristic song of the ALDER FLYCATCHER
(Empidonax alnorum) was heard at the upper end of TL 1 Jun 86 (D.Irons, D.Fix).
The status of this bird in Oregon is controversial. Although the identification is
believed correct, it is felt best not to include this sighting on the list of birds
occurring on Diamond Lake R.D.

ESA 3 May / LFD 21 Sep

HAMMOND'S FLYCATCHER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                        Preferred Habitat
Empidonax hammondii A A U la,b,e,f; 2**
Very common to abundant summer resident. Found across most of the District in
both old-growth and older immature stands; is apparently absent from lodge-
pole pine forests and high subalpine stands. The bulk of summering birds appear
to arrive in the first two weeks of May.

A variably conspicuous spring migrant- in some years noticeable, in others not.

Not commonly found in fall migration, but noticed each year around TRS or TL.

ESA 17 Apr / LFD 29 Sep

DUSKY FLYCATCHER           Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Empidonax oberholseri      A A Ca    4a,b      **

Very common summer resident. Locally abundant. Noted in spring migration at
TRS, where it does not breed. The summer population arrives in the first half of

Distribution rather closely tied to younger regenerating logged sites, whether
clearcut or with leave trees remaining. This species is among the characteristic
inhabitants of recent clearcuts grown back with scattered conifers and abundant
"Cascade chaparral" which is dense, often somewhat clumped, and not especially
tall. Usually this is snowbrush (slickleaf ceanothus) with some greenleaf
manzanita, residual vine maple, and a little willow. Such habitat is to be found
throughout the lower and middle elevations of the District, and up to about 5200'
outside of lands which have been withdrawn from timber management.

Somewhat unusual was a singing Dusky Flycatcher in a regenerating clearcut
grown sparsely to snowpack-deformed Shasta red fir saplings, and with no
deciduous growth, at 5900' south of Skookum Prairie 4 Jun 87. This individual
was judged an exceptionally tardy spring migrant.

ESA 21 Apr / LFD 29 Aug

GRAY FLYCATCHER            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Empidonax wrightii Ca      2

Casual spring migrant. One was seen near the Stinkhole marsh 29 Apr 88, one
was at TRS about 12 May 88 (J.Johnson), and another was there 12 May 90.
PACIFIC-SLOPE FLYCATCHER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Empidonax difficilisA A U la,c,e; 2; 4b **

Status varies greatly with respect to location. Generally a common to abundant
resident of mature and old-growth douglas-fir forest communities. Does not
summer commonly in lower subalpine forests unless there is a high degree of
understory stratification, mesic microsites. Absent across the lodgepole pine belt
on the eastern one-third of the District, In ideal habitat this is among the most
common insectivorous summer birds.

Summering flycatchers appear to be on territory by the last week of April, but
this is difficult to determine.

It has been the writer's experience that, in the Western Cascades, Pacific-slope
Flycatchers are almost never detected outside of the kinds of habitats that might
serve for summer haunts. Therefore, distinguishing migrants at each end of the
residence year becomes more an act of guesswork and hunches than one of
exercising discrimination and experience. Given the huge abundance of this
species on the Pacific slope, one can estimate that a great many migrants must
simply escape detection even though they may be close at hand.

SAY'S PHOEBE        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Sayornis saya       Ca Ca     7,7a

Casual spring and fall migrant. Individuals were encountered at TRS 1 Mar 87,
20 Mar 87, 3 Apr 87; 24 Feb 89, and 4 Apr 89. One was seen and heard at the
Quarry on FS Rd. #37-200 in T.27S, R.4E, SW 1/4 SW 1/4 S.20, 15 Sep 90, in
Lower Rough Creek (D.Rogers, J.Rogers).

WESTERN KINGBIRD          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Tyrannus verticalis R Ca Ca    7,7a

Rare spring and casual fall migrant. Records of single birds at TRS or TL 8 Sep
85, 30 May 87, 19 May 88; 29 May 89, and 3 Jun 89. Elsewhere, one was seen in
the Mowich Park section of the District 29 Apr 89 (K.Graves), one was along the
fenceline crossing DL. marsh 31 Hay 89, and identifiably different kingbirds
were at the DLSP 3 Jun 90 and 7 Jun 90.

A pair of Western Kingbirds summered, but apparently without nesting, at the
Pacific Power & Light Co. shop yard, one-quarter mile west of TRS, during 1984.
HORNED LARK Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Eremophila alpestris, Ca Ca Ca 7          *

Casual migrant in spring and fall. One overflew DL marsh 22 Mar 89, two were
on dikes at the DLSP (date lost) in late Oct or early Nov 89, one overflew South
Shore Picnic Area at the south end of DL 19 Nov 89, and one overfiew the DLSP
23 Sep 90, in addition to the record discussed below.

Most intriguing was the discovery of two young Horned Larks on a dike at the
DLSP 28 Jul 90. Very close studies revealed that the birds had no down, but one
was still in complete juvenal plumage and the other appeared to be just
beginning to molt into a first post-juvenile plumage. The question of whether
these young larks fledged from a nest some where in the immediate area cannot
be answered. It is certainly possible that Horned Larks might nest several miles
to the southwest on the exposed alpine slopes of Mt. Bailey.

PURPLE MARTIN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Progne subis   Ca 9

Casual visitor. One was seen at DL 4 Jul 86 (M. Robbins).

TREE SWALLOW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Tachycineta bicolor C C Ca 2,2a;5; 9**

Distribution is localized. Generally common to abundant where it occurs. A few
pairs may be found at nearly every pond and exposed stream meander. Tree
Swallows do not form large post-breeding congregations, as do Violet-green
Swallows. Instead, they appear to begin departing nearly as soon as their young
have fledged. Sightings after mid-August are exceptional; therefore, the spectacle
of some 300 massed in the air over one basin at the DLSP 27 Aug 90 was quite

VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Tachycineta thalassina A A A 1; 2; 5; 6; 7,7a; 8; 9 **

Common summer resident, becoming more so in late summer when the young
birds fledge. Occurs in low density in timbered areas across the District, limited,
perhaps, by management practices which discourage concentrations of snags.
Nevertheless their chatter from overhead is frequently heard.

Violet-green Swallows nest semi-colonially in many of the rimrocks and "old
geology" monoliths scattered across the western half of the District. They also
nest within two hundred feet of the summit of Mt. Thielsen.

Beginning about the second week in September, migrant flocks of swallows
assemble in the sky over TRS and TL. This gathering reaches a peak about 20
September each year at some 1000-1500 birds. Often this group dwindles to
nearly nothing in the space of one or two days. A concentration of 300-500
migrants over TL 10 Oct 88 was unusually late for a group of this size.

ESA 3 Mar / LFD 9 Nov

NORTH. R.-WINGED SWALLOW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Stelgidopteryx serripennis C C Ca 5; 9**

Common spring migrant and fairly common summer resident. Occasionally seen
in obvious fall migration, but not as regularly as some other swallows. Localized,
but less so than Tree Swallow. Attends nest burrows by mid-April.

Although they are easily overlooked, Rough-winged Swallows are actually quite
common on the west-central part of the District around roadways, lakeshores,
and cutbanks of exposed Mazama tephra or pumice. They nest around much of
the shoreline of LL, the only place the writer has found them regularly on the
east side of the District. Migrants pass through the DL area in small numbers in
both spring and fall, but cutbanks suitable for nesting are completely lacking
around DL, so the species is exceptional there in early summer.

An early arrival well seen and heard at TRS 12 Mar 89 furnished the earliest
spring record for Oregon known to the writer.

ESA 12 Mar / LFD 26 Aug

BANK SWALLOW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Riparia riparia Ca 5

Casual fall migrant. An adult and a juvenile were at the DLSP 18 Aug 90
CLIFF SWALLOW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Hirundo pyrrhonota U U U                  5: 7; 9 **

Uncommon spring migrant, and occasionally seen away from nesting areas in
Distribution in summer is local, but birds are fairly common where they occur.
Colonies exist at Soda Springs, at TRS (where quite common; maximum of 50-60,
9 Apr 90), DL, LL, and possibly elsewhere. Has increased dramatically at TRS
since 1986, coincident with a decline in Barn Swallows.

A pair of Cliff Swallows bred at TRS in 1987 in a nest that had been constructed
in 1986, which was originally a 1985 Barn Swallow nest "roofed over" by the Cliff

ESA 2 Apr / LFD 15 Sep

BARN SWALLOW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Hirundo rustica U U C 5; 7; 9 **

Common to very common spring and fall migrant, and locally common to
abundant summer resident. Barn Swallows occur mainly about human
constructions, nesting at Soda Springs, TRS, at the various hydropower
generators, and around DL and LL. Wandering individuals have been seen
several times during the nesting period flying over clearcuts well removed from
known nest sites.

The nesting metropolis for this species on the District is at DL, where they nest
on practically every structure and are a routine sight foraging far out over the
lake surface.

At TRS, as many as ten pairs nested on the immediate compound in 1984-85.
Only two pairs remained in 1986, and by 1990 none at all bred around the offices.
The cause of this decline in abundance is not known.

ESA 29 Mar / LFD 6 Oct

GRAY JAY Sp/Su/Fa/WI     Preferred Habitat
Perisoreus canadensis CCCC      la,b; 7 **

Common permanent resident. Found within forests across the entire District
from the lowest extent of timber on canyon slopes at the western boundary
through the range and span of forests nearly to timberline, where uncommon.
Most numerous in expanses of minimally fragmented lower subalpine forest
between about 4500' -6000'. Appearance during the colder months each year
around TRS, where it does not summer, suggests that a down-mountain drift
may occur.

STELLER'S JAY       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Cyanocitta stelleri A A A A 1; 7

Common to abundant permanent resident. Steller's Jays are as widely distributed
as Gray Jays, but are less common than that species in subalpine forests and
more common in broken timber, forests with much pine, and a mixture of
younger conifers and deciduous brush.

During September and October, great numbers of jays concentrate the course of
       their daily routine among chinquapin thickets on the lower mountain
slopes, eating and burying nuts, and traversing considerable distances across the
open sky above the canyons, their bills agape as they carry the nuts to cache sites.

SCRUB JAY Sp/Su/Fa/Wi       Preferred Habitat
Aphelocoma coerulescens Ca Ca      4a; 7

Casual visitor. Single Scrub Jays appeared at TRS 17 Oct 84 and 16-25+ Sep 90,
one was heard calling, but never seen, at Thorn Prairie 15 Jun 85, and one was
seen in Happy Valley, T.28S, R.4E, SE 1/4 NE 1/4 S.19, at 4800', 23 Sep 90 (D.

The nearest population known to the writer is at the community of Idleyld Park,
some 35 miles west of Toketee.

BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Pica pica    Ca 1d

Casual visitor. One was seen feeding at a bear bait along Lake Creek near LL 23
Aug 86 (R.Burt, related to the writer by M.Sawyer).

AMERICAN CROW               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi       Preferred Habitat
Corvus brachyrhynchos       Ca Ca     5b; 7; 9
Rare visitor in migration. Eight records, five in spring. All but two involved
single birds; those two were each of two crows. None of these birds has lingered
longer than two days. An unsuspicious crow at TRS 17-18 Nov 88 consumed
window-killed Varied and Hermit Thrushes at the offices.

Crows are out of place in the higher Western Cascades, The District appears to be
completely off any migration route.

COMMON RAVEN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Corvus corax U U U U 1; 6; 8; 9           **

Uncommon, but extremely conspicuous, permanent resident across the District.

The road-scavenging and soaring habits of ravens cause them to appear to be
more numerous than they actually are. Ravens may be seen anywhere in the
area. Family groups are routinely noted engaging in spectacular tumbling flights
in the vicinity of the summit of Mt. Thielsen in late summer and early fall.

CLARK'S NUTCRACKER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi      Preferred Habitat
Nucifraga columbiana U U U ? 1b,d; 7; 8; 9 *

Status not thoroughly understood. May be a summer resident and sparse
breeding bird along the immediate west slope of the Cascade crest, but there has
been no evidence of nesting. A bird near timberline at 6900' on the north slope of
Mt. Bailey 26 Jun 87 could have been summering or nesting; two nutcrackers
were at DL Lodge 25 May 89. Routinely observed in small numbers in summer
and fall in high forest and timberline areas close to the summit, as at Windigo
Pass, Tipsoo Peak, and along the main climbing route on Mt. Thielsen.
Occasional in spring and summer at DL. .

In some years, notably 1985 and 1989, nutcrackers were present in some numbers
across the central part of the District during September and October, including
sites at lower elevations (as at TRS). It is felt they may have been foraging for the
seeds of western white pine, In a normal, non-incursive autumn, a few
nutcrackers along the ridges above 5000' from time to time are to be expected.

A Clark's Nutcracker at TRS 23 Sep 90 was the first observation of the species
there in two years.
Nutcrackers possess harsh, loud voices. Their loose feeding groups are given to
interrupting a period of quiet foraging with a hysterical outburst of raucous,
grating noise. Their calls carry a half-mile in still air early in the morning, thus
they are frequently heard well off in the distance before they are seen.

BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                       Preferred Habitat
Parus atricapillus Ca Ca Ca Ca lc; 2; 3; 7 **

Status uncertain. Possibly a very rare permanent resident, A family group of
Black-capped Chickadees was seen on an unrecorded date in early June 1984 just
west of the District boundary near Marster's Bridge on the North Umpqua River.
It is felt that the riparian habitat they were in extends upriver into the area under
discussion, thus they probably are at least occasional there. A single bird
appeared at TRS on an unrecorded date in fall 1984. Four were encountered on a
winter bird census of TL 21 Dec 86.

In addition to the riparian corridor along the river, areas of Oregon white oak of
some extent are found at Oak Flats and locally up the lower canyon of Copeland
Creek, sites which may be occupied by this species.

MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Parus gambeli A A A A              lb,d; 7 **

Distribution strongly restricted. Mountain Chickadees are abundant residents on
the eastern one-third of the District, Western limit imperfectly known, but
pattern of mid-summer and early fall sightings suggests the species is the most
common nesting chickadee in pine-dominated stands west to about the area of
the east side of Dread And Terror Ridge, Watson Butte, Stump Lake, Beartrap
Meadow, and Three Lakes. Westward extension along the crest of the
Calapooyas may occur, but the writer has not worked in that area sufficiently to
state whether or not this seems to be the case.

In all but one year during the period under discussion, a few Mountain
Chickadees appeared in fall at or near TRS. This low-level incursion does not
appear to be tied to the sporadic invasions of the lowlands of Western Oregon by
this species during fall, winter, and early spring. Such an event occurred in 1984-
85, and a noticeable "flight" of chickadees was encountered through the forests
and older regenerating clearcuts on the central andwestern portions of the
CHESTNUT-BACKED CHICKADEE       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Parus rufescens A A A A la,b,c,e; 7  **

Very common permanent resident, abundant in many areas. Found generally
across the entire District through the altitudinal range of douglas-fir forests.
Extends nearly to timberline in summer, but is uncommon, being largely
replaced in mountain hemlock and Shasta red fir communities by the Mountain
Chickadee. Within the zone of 1odgepole pine forest on the eastern one-third. of,
the District , this chickadee is infrequent, occurring in remnant stands or
stringers of old-growth.

Limited downslope or southward movement may be noted during spring and
fall, with birds dispersing into riparian corridors and foraging in deciduous

BUSHTIT      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi    Preferred Habitat
Psaltriparus minimus   R R R Ca lc; 2; 3; 4b            **

Sparse summer visitor at lower elevations on western portion of the District from
at least April to September. Scattered pairs nest eastward as far as at least the
northeast side of Mowich Park. Overwinters, or attempts to do so, around TL
and perhaps elsewhere within the North Umpqua River canyon.

Bushtits are uncommon in this area, but it is obvious very small numbers
regularly nest on the District. They are partial to tall semi-open shrubs along the
edges of clearcuts on flat or moderately sloping ground. Sites supporting ocean-
spray, residual yew, clumps of dwarfed Oregon white oak, or thickets of sapling
douglas-firs are favored.

The margins of the large clearcuts heavily grown to mountain whitethorn on the
north end of the Fish Creek Desert, and the broken timber and clearcut mosaic
centered north of the intersection of FS Rd #37 and #3701 comprise what might
be considered the local center of activity.

RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Sitta canadensis A A A C           1**

Abundant permanent resident. This species is among the half-dozen most
common inhabitants of mature and old-growth timber stands across the District
throughout the year. In some years it appears to be more common than in others
but is always numerous. A clue to their abundance is that one cannot walk into
the woods and imitate calls of Northern Pygmy-Owl or Spotted Owl without
prompt and noisy response from one or several nuthatches.

WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCHSp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Sitta carolinensis Ca lf

Casual visitor. One was watched at close range foraging on a down log within a
douglas-fir stand one-half mile southwest of the Toketee Airstrip on an
unrecorded date in late August 1987. This occurrence was totally unexpected, as
the species is essentially non-migratory and the nearest population, which is not
large, is about 35 miles to the west at Idleyld Park.

BROWN CREEPER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Certhia americana C C C C 1              **

Common permanent resident Brown Creepers are not especially abundant, but
are consistently found in low to moderate density throughout all types of conifer
stands on the District, including lodgepole pine and mountain hemlock. They
seem to be most consistently present in the vicinity of DL.

ROCK WREN            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi       Preferred Habitat
Salpinctes obsoletus R R R     4c,d; 8 **

Rare summer resident. A few pairs inhabit recent, barren clearcuts and leave tree
cuts between about 4000'-5200' on the central portion of the District.
Reproduction was confirmed in 1988 with the observation of fledged juveniles
south of Watson Saddle.

Rock Wrens summer in most years, possibly every year, on the southwest slopes
of Mt. Thielsen above timberline between 8000' and 9000', and probably nest.
They may well be present in similar habitat on the upper west slopes of Howlock
Mtn., but this area has not been birded.

CANYON WREN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Catherpes mexicanus R R Ca ?             6      *

Status not completely understood, but at least a rare spring and summer resident
which probably nests very locally on the west-central portion of the District in
the North Umpqua River canyon.
The first evidence of Canyon Wrens in northeastern Douglas Co. was a singing
bird at the cliffs behind TRS 15 Mar 86. This individual, or possibly another, has
remained at this location since that time, singing infrequently throughout spring,
summer, and fall.

Another singing wren was heard at a rimrock outcrop about one mile west of the
junction of the west end of FS Rd. #4776 with Highway 138, 26 Apr 86. One was
heard singing from a tall face on the south side of Pig Iron Mtn. 24 May 87. One
was heard calling, but not singing, from rimrock south of Highway 138 about
two miles east of Watson Falls in late spring 1988. One sang from jumbled, steep
rocks and scattered trees just below the west rim of lower Fish Creek Canyon in
the SW 1/4 SW 1/4 T.26S, R.3E, S.28, 31 May 89. Another singing wren was
heard at the Boulder Creek canyon overlook along the trail out of Pine Bench in
the SE 1/4 SE 1/4 T.26S, R.2E, S.12, 20 May 89 (R.Maertz).

Given the spatial and temporal distribution of observations, it is apparent that a
very, small, scattered, but established population of Canyon Wrens occurs in this

BEWICK'S WREN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Thryomanes bewickii Ca Ca ? ?             2; 3; 4b; 7 *

Casual visitor. Single birds were heard calling near the softball field just east of
the junction of Highway 138 and FS Rd. #4775 on two or three unrecorded dates
in May and June 1985. It is not known whether this referred to an individual bird
pioneering the North Umpqua River canyon, or if a small population persists in
the area. Additional birding in lower Medicine Creek, in what may be considered
possible nesting habitat, has not revealed the presence of this species since that

A singing Bewick's Wren was at TRS 2 May 89. It did not linger.

HOUSE WREN        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Troglodytes aedon A A U     lc; 2a; 3; 4; 7 **

Common to abundant migrant and summer resident. Occurrence of this species
in the Western Cascades is strongly tied to recent clearcuts. House Wrens will
appear in clearcuts so recently burned that the only vegetation is residual
rhododendron, vine maple, and yew. If there are no shrubs on the site, they will
forage on the open ground, or about the bases of down logs and stumps. They
abandon a clearcut when brush and young trees become tall and dense. Their
opportunism in colonizing barren ground is shared by the Western Bluebird,
Townsend's Solitaire, and Dark-eyed Junco.

House Wrens may be found nesting well up into the zone of lower subalpine
forests wherever large openings exist, commonly along the ridges to 6000'.

WINTER WREN        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Troglodytes troglodytes A A A A          1a,c,e; 4b; 7 **

Across the District as a whole, a common permanent resident which is absent or
scarce in some areas but exceedingly abundant in others. These birds are
nunumerous in taller second-growth forests as well as in old-growth; the
common attracting factor is dense, extensive low vegetation under an unbroken

They appear to be a bit more common south of Highway 138 than northward.

In the expanse of lodgepole pine forests on the eastern one-third of the District,
and within the Shasta red fir and mountain hemlock zone toward the Cascade
crest and westward on the high ridges, Winter Wrens are not of routine
occurrence. Scattered pairs may be found cleverly microsited at shaded, humid
places where the forest offers habitat similar to that found much more commonly
in the douglas-fir zone.

A singing Winter Wren in a shelterwood leave cut with only scant grouse
whortleberry as ground cover at 6200' near the northwest base of Mt. Bailey 26
Jun 88 was several miles from any reasonable habitat, and may have been a post-
breeding dispersant.

A few Winter Wrens may be noted in migration in spring and fall outside of their
characteristic breeding habitat.

MARSH WREN          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred HAbitat
Cistothorus palustris    R Ca R ?        5c     *

Rare but regular spring and fall migrant. From one to three birds are seen each
season at the DLSP and at the Stinkhole marsh. This species surely will be
encountered in marshy pockets elsewhere on the District, given sufficient
searching; Marsh Wrens possess an uncanny knack for discovering small patches
of habitat. May occasionally attempt to overwinter at the Stinkhole, but has not
been encountered in mid-winter.

Breeding status is uncertain, as singing birds have been noted well into spring at
the DLSP and Stinkhole, yet no young birds or dummy nests have ever been seen

ESA 29 Apr / LFD 8 Nov

AMERICAN DIPPER        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Cinclus mexicanus U U U U   5a,b **

Uncommon permanent resident. Dippers may be found along large and small
streams at lower and middle elevations across the District. Occasionally one is
seen foraging along a quiet lakeshore some distance from running water, as at
DL, LL, and TL.

GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                      Preferred Habitat
Regulus satrapa A A A A la,b,c,e; 2,2a **

Abundant permanent resident, found in all short-needle conifer forests across the
District in large numbers. They are either absent or very uncommon in pure
lodgepole pine stands.

This is one of the truly abundant birds across the western flanks of the Cascades
and, during winter, likely the most common species remaining throughout large
expanses of forest.

In late fall, a smattering of kinglets appears in riparian and other hardwood
zones, lingering in such sites for the winter where conditions are suitable.

RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Regulus calendula A Ca A R         lb,d; 2; 8 *

Very common spring and fall migrant. There has been one summer sighting, of a
single bird on the northeast side of the District about three miles west of
Windigo Pass, on an unrecorded date in August 1985.

The absence of this bird in higher subalpine forests near the Cascade crest is
puzzling, as suitable breeding habitat would seem to exist in that area, at least
locally Perhaps a few summer in the seldom-birded Engelmann spruce forests
between DL and LL.

very few Ruby-crowned Kinglets winter, or attempt to do so, at TRS, around [sic]
L, and probably in the North Umpqua canyon. They have not been detected oh
the District each winter during the survey period. Suitable environmental
conditions enabling this rather delicate species to survive through the winter in
Western Oregon generally do not extend quite this far into the Cascades.

BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Polioptila caerulea Ca 4a

Casual visitor. A single Blue-gray Gnatcatcher was seen at close range in a
clearcut heavily grown to mountain whitethorn two miles south of TRS 12 Aug

This species is a fairly common summer resident of portions of Jackson and
Josephine Cos. but is not known to breed farther north in Western Oregon, and is
not strongly suspected of doing so on Diamond Lake R.D.

WESTERN BLUEBIRD     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Sialia mexicana U R U     1c; 3; 4c; 9

Uncommon spring and fall migrant and local summer resident. Distribution and
abundance in the nesting season are restricted by the availability of recent and
barren clearcuts and leave tree cuts, to which this species is extremely partial on
the District and on the Umpqua NF generally. Western Bluebirds do not occur
regularly at sites which have become well undergrown with brush, preferring
expanses of open ground dotted with standing dead trees, from which they scan
for insects and in which they find cavities for nesting.

The summer population probably arrives on territories in accordance with snow-
off, which varies from site to site and from year to year, possibly even before that
process has fully transpired.

The most significant local concentration the writer has encountered totalled 30-35
bluebirds in ten clearcuts, each burned the previous year or the year before, on
Rhododendron Ridge in spring 1988.

Occurs in very small numbers in fall migration well into the higher elevations, as
evidenced by occasional small groups at the DLSP and along the major ridges.
ESA 2 Apr / LFD 24 Nov

MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Sialia curricoides U U U 4c,d; 8; 9             **

Very uncommon spring migrant and uncommon and localized summer resident.
Breeds in larger, comparatively barren clearcuts and leave tree cuts at higher
elevations (above about 5000') along the east portion of the Calapooya Ridge, on
the southwest and south side of Trap Mountain, at Toolbox Meadows, at
Mowich Park (annually?), and the south side of Skookum Prairie. Status at
timberline along the extreme east side of the District is poorly known. May occur
spottily from near Windigo Pass south to Mt. Thielsen.

This species has probably escaped detection in many areas on the central and
southeastern sections of the District owing to lack of field work in these remote

A nest hole attended by adults carrying food and fecal sacs just east of FS RD.
#3703-200 was seventy feet up in a buckskin Shasta red fir snag.

The lack of mid-fall sightings of migrants may be due to the small Cascades
population moving somewhat southeast into wintering areas in the southern
intermountain region, rather than southward or southwestward as Western
Bluebirds, which winter commonly to the southwest of this area, may do.

A pair of Mountain Bluebirds at the upper end of TL 18 Apr 87 and females at
Toketee dam and Toketee CG, 26 Apr 89 were out of place and indicated spring
migration was probably occurring. Mountain Bluebirds did not appear at TRS
during the survey period.

ESA 18 Apr / LFD 23 Aug

TOWNSEND'S SOLITAIRE     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Myadestes townsendi C C U     lb,c,f; 4; 8             **

Fairly common spring migrant and summer resident. Not often noted during fall
migration, for reasons that are not apparent.

Solitaires are regular and quite common nesting birds across the entire District,
with the exception of lower elevations and southerly exposures supporting
vegetation more characteristic of the interior foothills of Western Oregon. They
inhabit forest edge, clearcuts which have not yet become heavily undergrown
with tall brush, small rock outcrops and tree-dotted ridgelines, and are among
the routine summer birds of leave tree and shelterwood cuts. They range to
timberline, where they continue to be numerous. They increase rapdily following
arrival in early April and mid-April.

Solitaires frequently tuck their nests beneath mats of overhanging rootlets below
the top of road cutbanks; each of two nests the writer has seen on the District
have been so placed. One nest was lined entirely with cast needles of western
white pine.

A singing Townsend's Solitaire at the north side of TL during 1987 may have
summered there; ii so, this would represent a low elevational record.

ESA 9 Apr / LFD 7 Nov

SWAINSON'S THRUSH Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Catharus ustulatus U C C lc; 2,2a; 9

Abundant spring and fall migrant (but not especially common until near the
close of the formal Spring season) and locally common to abundant summer
resident The bulk of the summering population probably arrives here in late
May or very early June.

In this area, Swainson's Thrushes are restricted in summer to riparian corridors,
moist and heavily-grown deciduous microsites within the general forest zone,
and in dense mixed conifer-and-hardwood stands on slopes in the North
Umpqua River canyon.

Great numbers of migrating Swainson's Thrushes regularly overfly the District at
night during late May and early June (heard as late in spring as 9 Jun) and again
from mid-August through September. Their mellow whistled wit calls come
from the sky all around an observer standing in a quiet place on any late spring
or mid-autumn evening.

ESA 20 May / LFD 26 Sep

HERMIT THRUSH Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Catharus guttatus A A A Ca 1             **
Very common to abundant spring and fall migrant and very common to
abundant summer resident. Hermit Thrushes are found in varying numbers in
practically all forest types on the District, including immature douglas-fir, should
such stands be semi-open at and near ground level. Singing on summer
territories begins in the second week of April at lower elevations. They occur at
all elevations up to timberline, where they remain quite common.

AMERICAN ROBIN           Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat .
Turdus migratorius A A A U    1; 2,2a; 3; 4; 7,7a; 9 **

Abundant spring and fall migrant and very common summer resident. Becomes
common in late February or early March. A few birds overwinter around TRS,
TL, and elsewhere within the North. Umpqua River canyon.

VARIED THRUSH Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Ixoreus navius AUAC     la,b; 7 **

Surpassingly abundant spring and fall migrant, and uncommon to locally
common summer resident. Considerable numbers remain in winter at lower
elevations. Distribution on the District during the breeding season is patchy. In
summer, Varied Thrushes are restricted to lower subalpine forests within the
altitudinal range of pacific silver fir, generally on northerly exposures and along
ridgelines between 4500'-6000'.

Status in high subalpine timber along the east side of the District is poorly
known .

WRENTIT Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Chamaea fasciata R R R R           4a,b **

Rare resident, first detected in September 1985. A pair has frequented the
powerline right-of-way between the Clearwater No.2 Generator and the
Switching station, immediately southeast of TRS, since that time. During 1989 at
least one young was produced at this site, for the first evidence of nesting here. It
is felt that Wrentits which occasionally appear at the residences adjacent to the
administrative offices are either members of this pair or their progeny.

At least one bird has remained in a right-of-way just west of the Stinkhole above
TL since 1986. A single bird sang from a vigorous young regenerating, clearcut
on the northwest side of Pig Iron Mtn., about two miles southeast of TRS, 9 Sep
86. One or two males were heard singing from a mountain whitethorn clearcut at
the junction of FS Rd. #37-010 and #3701-300, 4 May 87, and a pair was heard
duetting from the northeast corner of a similar clearcut north of the junction of
FS Rd. # 37-010 and #3701-350, 8 Aug 87. These sightings suggest the presence of
a small population at the north end of the Fish Creek Desert.

Historically, Wrentits were not known to occur in the Western Cascades. Within
the past twenty or thirty years, they have expanded their range in southwestern
Oregon considerably, and have become local residents of brushfields along the
western flank of the range north into at least east,central Lane Co.

Overwintering has been attempted at TL [sic]

AMERICAN PIPIT Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Anthus rubescens U ? U4c; 5c; 7a; 8; 9

Uncommon spring and fall migrant. This is a bird of open ground, therefore it
cannot make landfall in many places on the District, In addition to single birds
and very small flocks which occur regularly around the shores of lakes and at the
DLSP, occasional sightings on clearcut landings suggest the species does get by
with marginal surroundings in this area.

In April and September, from one to a half-dozen pipits sometimes feed on the
lawns and buildings at TRS, even inspecting the ground along the foundations of
the residences and poking into roof gutters.

Pipits are routine migrants at the DLSP (maxima: 50, 2 Oct 86 and 60, 3 Oct 89)
where they forage mainly in the grassy, weed-dotted basins between ponds.

Extensive work in clearcuts during spring and fall has revealed that numbers of
American Pipits feeding in the actual harvest portion of the units are negligible.
There may be exceptions, such as in extremely barren "scorched earth" clearcuts
of the sort favored by Western Bluebirds.

It is possible, though felt unlikely, that pipits summer in alpine areas along the
Cascade crest within the region under discussion.

ESA 9 Apr / LSD 19 May / EFA 4 Sep / LFD 17 Nov

BOHEMIAN WAXWING Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                     Preferred Habitat
Bombycilla garrulusCa Ca 2; 7; 9.
Rare winter visitor. Small groups appeared at TRS and TL in successive winters.
A flock of about 70 was present in February and March 1987, remaining until 19
Mar 87. A flock of 25 was observed flycatching high in the air over TRS, 29 Dec
87. This group lingered until 2 Jan 88, then was either augmented or replaced
such that 60-80 birds were present 3 Jan 88. Six to eight were seen on an
unrecorded date later in the month.

The appearance of this northern species in late winter 1987 coincided with an
unusually large general incursion into southern Oregon; however, the 1987-88
occurrence did not take place during a winter of such remarkable numbers.

CEDAR WAXWING               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Bombycilla cedrorum         U U U 1c; 2,2a; 4b; 7; 9     **

Very uncommon spring migrant (mid- to late May, early June) and common fall
migrant. Variably numerous summer resident. Cedar Waxwings are not birds of
the expanses of conifer forest, but, in the Western Cascades, tend to micro-site at
locations near water, in tall riparian corridors, in broken second-growth
supporting hardwood trees and shrubs, and around human dwellings where
fruit trees and ornamental plantings occur.

Waxwings appear to spend the summer, and probably nest, all along the North
Umpqua River, at TRS and around TL, at timber-and-clearcut edge on the flat
ground several miles south of TRS, and along Copeland Creek at least as far
south as the junction of FS Rd. #2801 with #2801-300. Status higher in the
mountains is not well known. This is a species which, for some reason, invites
extended aesthetic appreciation at the expense of the recording of data.

In some years, a flock of waxwings of impressive size has assembled for days in
late August and September at the upper end of TL, where individuals fly out
over the inflow of the North Umpqua River, pursuing insects. This has not taken
place every year.

ESA 14 May / LFD 23 Nov

NORTHERN SHRIKE     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                  Preferred Habitat
Lanius excubitor Ca 4
Casual fall migrant. One was observed at the edge of a meadow up the Rough
Creek Skyline Rd. #3701-500 26 Oct 88 (K.Graves, J.Kaineg), providing the only
record for the area.

LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Lanius ludovicianus Ca 7a

Casual spring migrant the District. One was at the DLSP 8 May 89 for the only
sighting on

EUROPEAN STARLING Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Sturnus vulgaris R R U Ca 7,7a **

Very uncommon spring and fall migrant and rare summer resident. Virtually all
sightings have been at TRS, where a few small flocks regularly feed on lawns in
May and October en route through the area. Several pairs nest each summer at
TRS (nest sites unknown to the writer), as family groups appear in mid- and late
June. Intriguing was a group of ten, including juveniles, at the DLSP on 29 Jun
89, suggesting that one or two pairs had successfully nested around the lodge or
outbuildings nearby at the north shore of DL.

Although Starlings in Oregon are quite migratory, only a small number have
been detected passing across the District. Flocks numbering up to 70 (unrecorded
date, early November 1988), but typically 10-30, forage on lawns at TRS in fall.

The writer has not found Starlings nesting in any clearcut in the area despite
having watched for the species in that situation during the nesting season.

A Starling at TRS 20 Dec 86 was probably attempting to overwinter.

ESA 15 Mar / LFD 20 Dec

SOLITARY VIREO Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Vireo solitarius U U U   la,c,e; 3       **

Uncommon spring and fall migrant and summer resident. At drier sites in the
canyons on the west side of the District, where mixed conifer-hardwood stands
occur patchily across a considerable area, Solitary Vireos are fairly numerous
during the summer. Elsewhere they are infrequent, but are found in low density
in semi-open conifer forests in many areas up to the altitudinal limit of the
general douglas-fir forest zone, which varies with location.

The arrival period of locally-summering birds has not been clearly percieved.[sic]

Migrants may be encountered nearly anywhere during spring and fall, usually
two or three birds associating with loose foraging flocks comprised of a half-
dozen species or so.

ESA 25 Apr / LFD 26 Sep

HUTTON'S VIREO Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Vireo huttoni R R R Ca la,e; 2; 3         *

Very uncommon spring and fall migrant, and uncommon and localized summer
resident. Has been heard at TRS in December and February, but is not known to
winter regularly on the District.

A few singing Hutton's Vireos are expected at lower elevations on the west side
of the District from late March through June. Breeding is strongly suspected, but
there has been no direct evidence of this.

Habitat in which the birds are encountered is usually immature douglas-fir, often
mixed lightly with madrone, Oregon white oak, or bigleaf maple. Often these
associations are found on the drier sites, but sometimes not.

This vireo is recorded each year at TRS and sparingly elsewhere, to about 4000í
on the central part of the District, but total numbers are certainly not great. The
bulk of habitat available in the area is within the immediate North Umpqua
River canyon corridor, primarily on southerly exposures where conifer growth is
somewhat retarded and hardwood intrusion is greatest, resulting in the scrubby,
closed-canopy mixed woods the species favors.

Appearance of one or two vireos during spring and fall in cottonwoods and
other riparian habitat at TL, where they do not summer, indicates that migrants
pass through the area.

WARBLING VIREOSp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Vireo gilvus C U U lc; 2,,2a; 4b          **
Fairly common spring migrant, less conspicuous in fall, and a local summer
resident at lower and middle elevations. Breeding habitat in this area is riparian
trees, principally red alder, but also black cottonwood, and willow of nearly any
size and aggregate physical formation. Warbling Vireos at least occasionally nest
in mid-slope situations in regenerating clearcuts, such as where broad draws
support persistent residual growth of vine maple and redosier dogwood, as in
the central Fish Creek drainage.

Appearance of summering vireos is suspected to take place in mid-May.

The arrival of this species in the area in spring averages one to two weeks later
than in the Umpqua lowlands. The initial pulse of spring passage is somewhat
concentrated; this, together with the near-silence of fall migrants, causes
Warbling Vireos to be much more obvious in spring. However, an observer
standing quietly in a seemingly deserted patch of alders at the upper end of TL
during early September will eventually come to notice many of these birds, given
a few minutes' time, and attention to subtle movement among the shadows.

ESA 27 Apr / LFD 26 Sep

ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                    Preferred Habitat
Vermivora celata C U A lc; 2,2a; 3; 4b **

Very common spring and fall migrant, rare to very uncommon summer resident.
This species is conspicuous during spring migration, but lingers longer in the
fall. It is not at all common on the District during summer due to lack of suitable
nesting habitat.

The arrival period of locally-breeding birds is not well understood but is
suspected to occur in mid- to late April.

It is the writer's opinion that the effects of altitude, and indirect cornpetition
with Nashville Warblers, may work in tandem to deny this species a strong role
in the local avifauna. Orange-crowned Warblers prefer dense, tangled, fairly
mesic brush associations for breeding, while Nashvilles accept drier, sun-
parched, semi-open communities such as ceanothus thickets. The greater portion
of potential habitat for Orange-crowneds lies on the shaded northerly exposures,
whereas Nashville habitat faces the sun. Orange-crowned Warblers are early
spring migrants and, upon their arrival here in April, will find nearly all of the
possible breeding habitat outside the immediate North Umpqua River canyon to
be largely under winter snows. Though one might think they would accept
available similar habitat on southerly exposures, this aparrently does not happen
often, as singing Orange-crowns are almost never found on such sites in this area
(pers. obs.). Conversely, Nashville Warblers arrive mostly during the first half of
May, and find the southern slopes even, at. some elevation mostly free of snow
and supporting insect populations.

This species occurs sparingly in summer in regenerating clearcuts grown to vine
Maple and crowded young-conifers, and in scrubby roadside and hillside growth
in the North Umpqua River canyon, as along Highway 138 near Soda Springs.

Fall migration begins early and is protracted, continuing at low volume into
October. About twenty adults in heavy molt were seen in a loose flock at Thorn
Prairie 3 Jul 90 (S.Willey, D.Fix). By late July this species may be found at low
density in the undergrowth and understory of old-growth forests, far from what
might be considered optimum foraging habitat.

An individual with a noticeably grayish head observed at TRS 17 May 88 was
thought probably to belong to the intermountain race V.c. orestera which is
sparsely represented west of the Cascades during periods of migration.

ESA 2 Apr / LFD 3 Oct

NASHVILLE WARBLER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Vermivora ruficapilla A A Ca la,c,e,f; 2,2a; 3; 4a,b **

Common spring and seldom-seen fall migrant. Abundant summer resident. This
is the characteristic summer warbler of clearcuts that have regenerated a
consistent brushy cover. Partial to sunny sites, Nashville Warblers occupy
northerly aspects commonly, though sharing a few with Orange-crowned
Warblers. The bhlk of the summering population occurs between 2500' -5000',
but habitat extends upward to the limit of suitable brushfields. Along the
Calapooya crest and on the Rogue-Umpqua Divide this exceeds 5500' locally.

Summering birds probably arrive very soon after initial appearance in the area,
as the Pacific. Northwest population lying to the north of Diamond Lake R.D. is
not particularly large relative to many other routine breeding species.

On the eastern one-third of the District, where dense slickleaf ceanothus is not
especially common, clearcuts tend to regenerate with several species of currant.
Currant bushes on those sites remain low, and tend not to intertwine to form
actual thickets. Such sites, common within the lodgepole pine belt, do not seem
suitable for Nashville Warblers- - although these birds at times accept
remarkably sparse, sun-baked brushfields.
These birds cease singing.within about a one-week span in mid-July, after which
they seem to simply fade from the scene. Obvious fall migrants are detected only

ESA 24 Apr / LFD 24 Aug

YELLOW WARBLER          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Dendroica petechia U U U     2,2a**

Uncommon to fairly common spring and fall migrant. Summer resident that is
usually found in small "colonies" where it occurs, but which is quite uncommon
on the District generally. Breeding habitat in this area is restricted to the riparian
hardwood habitats, but this may be either low or tall, and the birds accept a
variety of species associations. Fairly numerous along the North Umpqua River.
Appears in summer in riparian microsites at highly isolated locations. Breeding
metropolis is probably TL. The summering population probably arrives here
shortly after first arrival, but this is, as with so many species, difficult to
determine based on random observation.

Migratory maximum was 30-50 birds around the upper end of TL and at the
Stink-hole marsh 25 May 89..

A few Yellow Warblers appear in non-nesting habitat at TRS well beyond the
close of the normal migratory period in spring. Juveniles may be encountered in
practically any broadleaf thicket during early September. These warblers can be
surprisingly numerous in the lodgepole pine and sapling Shasta red fir stands of
the high mountains for a brief period at the peak of spring passage.

ESA 3 May / LFD 1 Oct

Dendroica coronata
"Myrtle" Warbler Ca R 4; 7, 7a
"Audubon's" Warbler   A A A Ca 3; 4; 7,7a; 9              **

The form breeding in this area, Audubon's Warbler, is a surpassingly abundant
spring and fall migrant and summer resident. Warblers which spend the summer
nest in nearly every kind of conifer stand, provided the canopy is not closed. For
this reason they are not especially numerous in many douglas-fir stands,
occurring at timber/clearcut edge and in shelterwood-leave cuts. Audubon's
Warbler may well be the most common bird on the eastern one-third of the
District between about the first of May and the end of September.

Audubon's Warblers begin arriving in spring before the trees have fully leafed
out. The bulk of migration in this area takes place in late April and early May.
Arrival of locally-summering birds. is not understood; it may well vary quite a
bit with respect to local site conditions across the great range of elevations
supporting habitat for this species.

A concentration of 50-75, possibly many more, assembled in a small area at the
DLSP on the seemingly late migration date of 24 May 90 was anomalous.

An occasional individual lingers late in fall, and it is likely that over-wintering is
attempted in some years around TL or elsewhere in the canyon of the North
Umpqua River.

A few sightings of the Canadian and Alaskan breeding race, the Myrtle Warbler.,
have been made in spring and fall.

BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                         Preferred
Dendroica nigrescens R R U  lc; 3; 4b    **

Sparse spring migrant through douglas-fir and mixed stands resembling
breeding habitat at lower elevations on the west side of the District. This is a very
uncommon but annual summering bird, restricted to douglas-fir dominated
woods which are immature, and which often are mixed with one or more of any
of the common hardwood tree species.

This is a characteristic summer warbler of drier, mixed second-growth forests
and woodlots of the foothills of Western Oregon, whose environmental threshold
meets an upper limit on the west-central portion of Diamond Lake R.D. Limits of
distribution appear to be lower Rattlesnake Ridge, lower Medicine Greek, Deer
Leap Rock, the south side of Pig Iron Mtn., the plateau above lower Fish Greek,
and the drier, mixed woods along lower FS Rd. #2801-100 in Gopeland Greek.

A few birds, both adults and juveniles, appear each August and September at
TRS and around TL. Small numbers were noted in early September 1987 on the
Fish Creek Desert. There have been no sightings on the central or east parts of the
District .

ESA late Apr / LFD 14 Oct
TOWNSEND'S WARBLER Sp/Su/Fa/Wi       Preferred Habitat
Dendroica townsendi U?R?     1; 2; 4b       *

Status not well understood. Seen and heard only infrequently in spring and fall
migration. The writer suspects a disproportionate number of Townsend's
Warblers are overlooked because of their canopy-feeding habits and soft songs.
Unknown as a migrant in either season in well-birded riparia and bordering
forest edge at TL; however, occasional birds are found in each migration period
at TRS. Singing warblers are also heard occasionally higher in the mountains .

Townsend's Warblers are not known to breed south of Davis Lake,
Lane/Deschutes Co., some miles to the northeast of this area. However, a few
sightings which may possibly pertain to nesting birds were noted during the
period of this survey. A pair of agitated adults were seen at close range shortly s.
of LL 17 May 87; a pair was seen at the east side of DL 17 May 88 (D.Irons, D.Fix,
P.Pickering) and two males were singing at the south end of the lake two days
later. One was singing at Horse And Teal Lakes s. of DL 7 Jul 89. All of these
observations except the last one could refer to spring migrants.

Although there have been no winter sightings, it is conceivable that stands of
immature, open-crowned Douglas-firs on sunny exposures shortly above the
North Umpqua River may support a few Townsend's attempting to survive mild
winters. These sites are similar to those at which the species overwinters in the
lowlands farther west.

ESA late Apr / LSD 25 May / EFA 30 Jul / LFD 12 Sep

HERMIT WARBLER              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi      Preferred Habitat
Dendroica occidentalis      A A U     la,b,e **

Abundant spring migrant. Less often noted in fall passage, as most of that
movement occurs quietly, and before the bulk of visible passerine migration
among species which flock together. Surpassingly abundant summer resident
across the entire District, although not especially numerous in higher subalpine

Summering birds probably appear in the area immediately upon arrival of the
Hermit Warblers are routine inhabitants of all forests of any age across most of
the area under discussion. They are the among the half-dozen most common
songbirds from early May through August in the great expanse of mixed-species
conifer forest dominated by douglas-fir on the western two-thirds of the District.
Above 5500' they are less numerous, but persist in stands in which species other
than lodgepole pine prevail. They avoid pure lodgepole stands while nesting,
although juveniles are seen routinely in the lodgepole belt during dispersal or
southward movement in August.

The bulk of the population appears in this area during the first ten days or so of
May. Singing reaches a peak in late May and June. Song declines abruptly about
15 July each year; the background hush of the forest undercanopy then is broken
not by shrill warbler exclamations, but by the insistent soft lisping calls of
begging juveniles at and near their nests.

logging must certainly impact this species - -habitat stacked downtown is bad
habitat- - but the population of Hermit Warblers on Diamond Lake R.D. must
still run well into the thousands in summer.

Although hybrid Townsend's X Hermit Warblers have been noted rather
frequently in the Cascades from about Davis Lake, Deschutes/Klamath Cos.
north into southern Washington and on the Olympic Peninsula, none were noted
on Diamond Lake R.D. during the survey period, nor were more than the
expected number of unseen Hermit Warblers heard uttering atypical songs
which may have indicated hybridization.

ESA 17 Apr / LFD 3 Sep

MacGILLIVRAY'S WARBLER            Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Oporornis tolmiei A A C           la,c,e; 2,2a; 3; 4a,b   **

Abundant migrant and summer resident across the District, A routine inhabitant
of regenerating clearcuts grown to dense brush, Accepts a wide spectrum of
brushfield associations. Often found microsited along brushy draws within
otherwise sparsely-grown younger clearcuts. More prevalent than the Nashville
Warbler on shaded northerly exposures, particularly in old ceanothus and
willow thickets which have become overshaded by dense sapling douglas-firs.

Summering birds likely are on their territories by about the last week of April or
the first few days of May.
The bulk of he population probably arrives during the last week of April and the
first days of May. MacGillivray's Warblers are notable among warblers found in
this area for continuing to sing well into August. While northern birds begin to
become obvious in migration through 'the District in late August, it has
consistently been the personal . impression of the writer that many of the local
nesters seem to remain on their summer territories into September.

ESA 17 Apr / LFD 19 Oct

COMMON YELLOWTHROAT Sp/Su/Fa/Wi Preferred Habitat
Geothlypis trichas U R C 2,2a; 5c **

Uncommon spring migrant, quite common fall migrant, and rare localized
summer resident. Summering birds are probably settled in by the end of the first
of April.

Lack of breeding habitat causes this common Western Oregon bird to be among
the rarer nesting species in the higher Western Cascades. The only place the
writer has found summering Yellowthroats is around the upper end of TL and
the adjacent Stinkhole marsh. It is probable that isolated sites exist across the
District which support a few of these warblers, such as the grassy shrub-dotted
openings in moist clearcuts, the swale area of Toolbox Meadows, and the marshy
south edge of Stump Lake. These sites have not been closely checked with a
search for this species in mind.

Yellowthroats are numerous for a brief period in September as they head south
across the District. At that time they are regularly seen and heard in brushy spots
around the offices at TRS, in the clearcuts, and foraging in fringes of fireweed on
the dikes at the DLSP. The maximum migratory concentration was about 30
around the upper end of TL 17 Sep 88.
ESA 2 Apr / LFD 22 Oct

WILSON'S WARBLER      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Wilsonia pusilla C R U     lc; 2,2a; 4b**

Fairly common spring migrant, less-frequently-noted fall migrant, and rare
summer resident. The arrival period of the summer population has not been
clearly perceived.
In the higher Western Cascades, Wilson's Warblers inhabit about the same kinds
of areas preferred by Orange-crowned Warblers, although Wilson's is more
partial to highly shaded, continually moist sites supporting a great deal of leafy
understory shrub-trees such, as elderberry, ninebark, cherry, and the like.

The presence of a lush cover of thimbleberry seems to be an indicating factor.
The District by and large hosts an assemblage of seral plant communities
adapted to an interior climatic regime and limited surface water, and is
depauperate in the moist-site commmunities. Breeding habitat for Wilson's
Warblers is scattered in small parcels across the District, mostly on steep
northern exposures littled reached by direct sun.

Toward the end of spring migration and during August and September this
species is frequently noted singly among loose flocks of the more abundant
warblers in practically all brushy areas. Spring migration here continues into the
first days of June. Migrants were noted in some numbers in thickets of young
lodge-pole pine and mountain hemlock in the DL area 29 May 89.

ESA 29 Apr / LFD 25 Sep

WESTERN TANAGER             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi       Preferred Habitat
Piranga ludovicianus        A A C     1; 4b**

Very common spring migrant and abundant summer resident. Less frequently
noted during fall migration due to silence of the birds and retiring foraging
habits, but suspected to be very common in August and early September. The
time during which local breeders arrive is not known.

Western Tanagers are among the characteristic canopy foragers of older mature
and old-growth conifer stands in the Western Cascades. The species composition
of such forests appears to make no difference to the birds, as they are at home in
apparently equable numbers in douglas-fir/mixed, Shasta red fir communities,
and mountain hemlock forests. An exception is lodgepole pine. This may be due
more to the frail physical structure and excessively open canopies of the District's
generally unhealthy and heavily-impacted stands than to any inherent lack of
suitability attributable to that tree species.

The bulk of the population seems to arrive a bit later in spring than is the case for
most other common summer birds. Following the first appearance of
conspicuous and noisy songsters in the last week of April and first days of May,
the ranks of tanagers increase through May to full density. It is not uncommon to
encounter Western Tanagers in habitats in which they would not be expected to
nest as late as the first week of June.

ESA 28 Apr / LFD 18 Oct

BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK               Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Pheucticus melanocephalus           U U R     la,c,f; 2; 3; 4b; 7  **

Uncommon to fairly common spring migrant, more common at lower elevations
but present in small numbers well into the mountains; probably nests in clearcuts
shortly north of French Junction at over 5000'. Uncommon summer resident at
lower and middle elevations. Noted occasionally outside breeding habitat in fall
migration; suspected to be widely overlooked at that time.

Summer residents probably settle in on territories by the middle of May.

Black-headed Grosbeaks occur in summer in very small numbers across the
entire District outside of their preferred habitat of tall deciduous growth mixed
with young conifers, in which they are to be expected in the North Umpqua
River canyon, around TL, at Thorn Prairie, and in lower Copeland Creek.

ESA 6 May / LFD: not recorded, but in mid-September

LAZULI BUNTING Sp/Su/Fa/Wi        Preferred Habitat
Passerina amoena U U Ca  lc; 3; 4a,c; 7a **

Variably uncommon spring migrant and sparse summer resident. Noted
occasionally in fall migration. Spring passage continues into the first part of June.

In Western Oregon, the distribution of this species is extremely patchy, and they
can be common to abundant in one area while scarcely known a few miles away.
Nesting habitat for this denizen of sun-parched, brush-dotted hillsides is not
common on Diamond Lake R.D., but does harbor a few birds in summer.

Arrival of summering birds may vary from year to year. In 1988, none showed
up on the District until 20 May.

Sites at which singing, and ostensibly breeding, Lazuli Buntings have been noted
are Illahee Flats (just off the west edge of the District); Slide Creek, the south and
west sides of Thorn Mtn.; upper Deer Creek; Mountain Meadows; Thorn Prairie
(where reasonably common); hillsides north of Rough Creek; clearcuts along
Rhododendron Ridge about two miles south of French Junction' along the barren
ridgeline east of Twin Lakes trailhead; at Clearwater Village between TRS and
Toketee dam, where they may summer each year and breeding was confirmed in
1989; at 5700' on the Calapooya crest; at 5800' at Castle Rock, and at 4700' along
Clear Creek (male singing from a subalpine fir).

Given that small numbers of Lazuli Buntings eschew valley-edge and foothill
country for the robust life of subalpine meadows, the absence of records of
migrants from the intensively-birded DLSP is surprising.

1988 was a year of unusual abundance for buntings. Migrants were continually
present at TRS during May, peaking at some 35 birds on 17 May which included
a single group of 20 adult males feeding at one time on a picnic-table feeder. In
all other years only a token few have been seen on the station.

ESA 13 Apr ( in two years) / LFD 17 Sep

INDIGO BUNTING Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                Preferred Habitat
Passerina cyanea Ca 7a

Casual spring vagrant. A well-marked female Indigo Bunting appeared at a
backyard bird feeder at TRS 5 Jun 88 in company of a dozen Lazuli Buntings,
remaining until 8 Jun 88 (thorough details recorded by the writer).

A singing but unseen passerina bunting at TRS 18 Jun 90 gave sets of doubled
notes in its song, which is characteristic of Indigo - Bunting and not typical of
Lazuli Bunting. This is considered a probable record Male Indigo Buntings are
encountered somewhere or other in Oregon practically every spring or summer.

GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Pipilo chlorura       R R R 4a      **
Rare and local summer resident. With the exception of four sightings, all of the
records of Green-tailed Towhee on Diamond Lake R.D. come from their well-
established isolated nesting outpost at Thorn Prairie, A population which has not
been censused, but which is felt probably not to exceed about 100 birds based
upon amount of habitat, has been present each summer since discovery in the
early l980s (M.Hunter,.M.Sawyer et al.). The habitat at Thorn Prairie is
structurally similar to that in which the towhee is common in Central Oregon,
but is composed of a different set of species. The population at Thorn Prairie
arrives in late April and remains until at least the last week in August.
Other sightings are as follows:    one near the shore of TL just east of the
Clearwater No.2 Generator, 15 Aug 85; two singing from a brushfield in the
powerline right-of-way just south of TRS in May (year and date unrecorded); one
near the north shore of TL on an unrecorded date in 1990 (S. Willey), and a
singing bird at a regenerating clearcut in T.27S. R.5E, SE 1/4 SE 1/4 S.18, about
two miles south of Stump Lake, in May 1987.

ESA 30 Apr / LFD 30 Aug

RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Pipilo erythrothalamus C C C U   la,c,e,f; 2; 4a,b; 7    **

Status imperfectly known. Appears to be resident, or at least present during
much of the year, in areas of dense low brush at lower elevations on the west-
central part of the District, such as in the North Umpqua River canyon, at TRS
and about TL, at Thorn Prairie (where abundant), through the older clearcuts of
the Fish Creek drainage south at least as far as the junction of FS Rd. #37 with
#3703, in lower Copeland Creek, and in regenerating clearcuts in Medicine Creek
and Slide Creek. Occasionally noted in fall at the DLSP.

During September 1986 a noticeable movement of migrants passed through TRS,
a phenomenon not witnessed in other years.

CHIPPING SPARROW      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Spizella pusilla U U R     ld; 3; 7,7a; 8 **

Very uncommon spring and seldom-noted fall migrant. Breeds locally in
openings in the forests of the lodgepole pine belt, as at DL, the DLSP, and LL,
and near timberline. Actual numbers summering within this zone are poorly
known but are suspected to be considerable. Confirmed nesting on the west side
of the District in 1987 in southwest portion of Copeland Creek drainage.
Occasionally noted in grassy, conifer-dotted regenerating clearcuts elsewhere in
the area.

The time at which summering birds begin to occupy territories is not known.

Each spring sees a very few Chipping Sparrows about the offices and lawns at
TRS and at the upper end of TL (recorded maxima: 15, 2 May 87 and 5 May 88;
up to 23 on an unrecorded date in April 1985). These sparrows begin passage.
southward in late summer; by mid-July family groups at the DLSP are believed
already augmented by arrivals from other areas (pers: impress.), and the modest
group which assembles within the enclosure peaks in numbers before the end of
August (maximum: about 30, 18 Aug 90). Notably late Chipping Sparrows have
been detected among the scattered migrant songbirds around TRS several times
in late September and October.

ESA 3 Apr / LFD 29 Oct

BREWER'S SPARROW    Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Spizella breweri Ca 7a

Casual fall migrant. May possibly prove regular in tiny numbers in late summer
at the DLSP, where the only records for the District have been obtained: group of
10-15, all juveniles, critically identified, 16 July 86 (D.Irons, D.Fix); juvenile, 10
Aug 88; juvenile, 18 Aug 90; adult and a juvenile on an unrecorded date about 22
Aug 90; what was believed to be the same adult with three juveniles 24 Aug 90,
and one juvenile, losing breast streaks, 27 Aug 90. All of the 1990 birds were
studied on the ground and on the cyclone fence with reference to juxtaposed or
nearby like-aged Chipping Sparrows; full details were noted.

VESPER SPARROW              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Pooecetes gramineus         R Ca R    7a

Rare but regular spring and fall migrant. A very few appear at TRS and
occasionally at TL during April. The one to three individuals that show up at
TRS feed on the open lawns. All other observations have been at the DLSP where
Vesper Sparrow has proven to be a regular, if scarce, fall migrant during late July
and August. These birds generally feed in the triangular basin in the east-central
portion of the enclosure.

ESA 4 Apr / LSD 9 May / EFA 28 Jul / LFD 18 Sep

LARK SPARROW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Chondestes grammacus Ca Ca                 7a

Very rare migrant. Records as follows; all single birds: TRS, 16 Oct 84 and 28 Apr
88; DLSP, 16 May 90 and 28 Jul 90.

SAVANNAH SPARROW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Passerculus sandwichensis U R C 4c; 5c; 7,7a **
Fairly common but secretive spring migrant. Breeds at DL marsh, where it is
abundant; not known to nest elsewhere on the District. Uncommon to fairly
common fall migrant through the entire area, with single sparrows or small
groups expected wherever there is appropriate semi-open grassy habitat.

Summering birds have, been noted singing at DL marsh by early May.

Savannah Sparrows are among the plainest of birds, and this, together with their
small size, retiring foraging habits, and elusive, flushing flights, can cause even a
watchful observer to overlook them. During April and early May, a few
Savannah Sparrows may be seen on the lawns at TRS, in-the rank openings
around the upper end of TL, about the shores of the forebays, and occasionally
on clearcut landings. Beginning in late July, these sparrows concentrate in the
grassy, weedy basins and along the dikes at the DLSP, peaking in mid- and late
September (maximum, about 300, 13 Sep 89), associating loosely with pipits and

ESA 16 Mar / LFD 12 Nov

GRASSHOPPER SPARROW                Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Ammodramus savannarum                 Ca 7a

Casual fall migrant or vagrant. A single Grasshopper Sparrow was well seen at
the DLSP 25 Aug 87, providing the sole record for the District and the only one
known to the writer for the Oregon Cascades.

FOX SPARROW          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi      Preferred Habitat
Passerella iliaca    C U C R   2a; 4a **

Common spring and fall migrant. Regular summer resident in regenerating
clearcuts above about 3000', particularly those well-grown to slickleaf ceanothus
and greenleaf manzanita. Local nesting birds arrive during the middle of April
and depart in September. An influx of northern migrants becomes noticeable
during late September and October, and a few such birds overwinter in the
North Umpqua River canyon, including the vicinity of TRS.

A Fox Sparrow of one of the "gray-headed" subspecies, very rarely detected in
the Cascades outside the breeding season, was at TRS 19 Nov 88.
SONG SPARROW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Melospiza melodia C U C U lc; 2,2a; 3; 4b; 7,7a **

Common to very common spring and fall migrant and uncommon summer
resident. Overwinters at lower elevations. Summering birds are local, being
strongly tied to semi-open brushy swales with persistent surface water in the
area, but may be found in such habitat across most of the District.

This species is strongly migratory, and incursion of northern birds becomes
obvious in late September and October. A return movement may be noted
during late March and April.

LINCOLN'S SPARROW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                   Preferred Habitat
Melospiza lincolnii U R U 2,2a **

Uncommon to fairly common migrant in spring and fall. Probably considerably
more numerous than scattered sightings indicate. Very uncommon and local
summer resident of lakeshore marshes and persistently wet bogs in which grow
low clumps of willows, false hellebore, spiraea, arrowleaf groundsel, and the

Has been noted in summer at DL marsh (except in 1990, when apparently
absent); at-Toolbox-Meadows in T.26S, R.5E, SE l/4 SW 1/4 S.26; at the north end
of Beartrap Meadow 20-Jun 89; in an isolated willow bog in T.27S, R.2E, SW 1/4
NE 1/4 S.19, shortly north of Snowbird Mtn., 12 Jul 89, and near Clear Creek
Camp on the north side of the Rogue-Umpqua Divide 13 Jul 89. There exists
impressive potential nesting habitat along the meanders of the upper North
Umpqua River shortly east of its inflow at LL. This area has not been surveyed
but ought to support a few pairs of sparrows.

Has been noted singing on known nesting sites by the second week in May.

In 1984, 1986, and 1989, singing Lincoln's Sparrows lingered until about the first
of June in willows and marsh-edge vegetation at the upper end of TL. Breeding
was neither evidenced nor suspected. This site is at an elevation far below that of
other sites at which the species has been found summering on the District. None
of these pioneering or lingering birds was noted later in june.

This species may readily be encountered along the dikes and in the small marsh
at the DLSP during September and early October.

ESA 3 Apr / LFD 14 Oct
SWAMP SPARROW              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Melospiza georgiana           Ca 5c

Casual fall migrant. An immature Swamp Sparrow was first noted by voice, then
seen, at a tiny patch of marsh immediately south of South Shore, DL, 24 Oct 87.
Another immature was at the marsh at the DLSP 20-21 Oct 89.

Although unusual in the Cascades, a fair number of Swamp Sparrows are found
in the lowlands of Western Oregon from October to March each year.

GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROWSp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Zonotrichia atricapilla C A? lc; 2,2a; 3; 4; 7,7a

Fairly common spring migrant during a brief period in late April. Status at that
season poorly known; may be restricted largely to lower elevations on the west
side of the District, as at TRS and TL. An exceedingly abundant fall migrant, at
times actually rivalling Dark-eyed Junco as most common sparrow in the area.
Numbers jump shortly after arrival in mid-September to a peak in late September
and early October. At this time, the birds, generally 95% young-of-the-year,
swarm in straggling flocks along the roadsides across the breadth of the District.
Nocturnal migrants may be heard calling loudly from unlikely spots at false
dawn, as if having made landfall in the preceding moment.

Although TRS and the canyon of the North Umpqua River support microsites of
habitat where this species might concievably attempt to overwinter, there have to
date been no such records on the District.

A White-crowned X Golden-crowned -Sparrow hybrid was studied at TRS 9 May

ESA 14 Apr / LSD 17 May / EFA 10 Sep / LFD 24 Nov

WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Zonotrichia leucophrys A C A ? lc,d; 2a; 3; 4a; 7,7a **

Very common to abundant migrant and fairly common to common summer
resident. Breeding birds probably occupy territories in mid- to late April at lower
and middle elevations.
This sparrow is not especially abundant, but occurs over much of the District in
low to moderate density. Fish Creek Valley, Thorn Prairie, and upper Bear Creek
host conspicuous populations. There are no winter records, although stragglers
remain well into late fall.

ESA 22 Mar / LFD 18 Nov

HARRIS'S SPARROW       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Zonotrichia querula Ca 1

Casual fall migrant. A stunning adult Harris's Sparrow appeared briefly at a seed
feeder at TRS 16 Nov 88, furnishing the only record for the District.

HOUSE FINCH       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Carpodacus mexicanus   R R R ?           7**

Very rare but regular visitor from about late March into the fall, as late as mid-
November. A few House Finches, possibly only several pairs of birds alogether,
appear to summer in the vicinity of Clearwater Village immediately west of TRS
each year. From one to a half-dozen have shown up at feeders around TRS in
spring and fall and occasionally in mid-summer. The infrequent sightings of
these birds furnish the only records for Diamond Lake R.D. known to the writer,
with the exception of one heard flying over a forested ridge in lower Copeland
Greek 26 Oct 88.

In addition to the tiny population at Clearwater Village/TRS, it is possible that
another isolated group may exist in the North Umpqua River canyon at the
community of Soda Springs. This has not been investigated, and there as yet
have been no observations, made there.

RED CROSSBILL       Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Loxia curvirostra   U U U U 1; 9         **

Status complex. Appears to be present throughout the year in at least small
numbers, and is abundant in most years, over the western two-thirds of the
District. Occurrence and abundance varies unpredictably by season and year. On
the east side of the District, Red Crossbills seem to be more consistently common
Seasonal status indicated is a generalization.
In a typical year, Red Crossbills are scarce to uncommon in winter and spring,
increase no in late spring and early summer, and are common to abundant in the
fall. The pattern of occurrence over the period of this survey may or may not
prove normal, were more time spent gathering and examining data.

Many thousands were suspected to be present on Diamond Lake R.D. during the
fall of 1989.

The subspecies generally found across the west and central portions of the
District is the "Sitka" crossbill or a related form, which is small-billed, and feeds
ordinarily upon the seeds of non-pine conifers.

In the lodgepole pine belt on the east side of the District, the incursive and
variable small-billed crossbills are commonly seen. However, in addition to those
birds are smaller numbers of the "Bendire's" crossbill or a related race. Birds of
that form possess a noticeably massive bill, thought to be adapted to extracting
seeds from the larger and tougher cones of pines. Although historically believed
to be restricted to ponderosa-dominated forests east of the Cascade Range crest
in Oregon, the writer has encountered "Bendire's" crossbills more or less
regularly in the vicinity of DL, even in winter, and suspects they may actually be
resident there.

Breeding status is based upon riotous singing, as well as short flights to the
ground which were suspected to be forays for nest material, along Watson Creek
in July 1987. Juvenile Red Crossbills are occasionally seen when a flock is closely
studied, but any such bird capable of flight may have travelled with the flock
many miles from the point of fledging.

DARK-EYED JUNCO         Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Junco hyemalis
"Slate-colored" Junco   R R R 4;7,7a
'Oregon" Junco       AAAC     1;3; 4; 7,7a; 8 **

The locally-breeding "Oregon" Junco is among the most abundant resident birds
on Diamond Lake R.D. They are found across the District in numbers beyond
estimation during the warmer months. In winter they appear to retire to the
lower and middle elevations.

Settlement on summer territories by breeding birds most likely takes place over
an extended period.
Nesting at higher elevations is delayed pending the abatement of the previous
winter's snowpack Nests discovered at 4800'. and 6000' during the last week in
July still had complete incubated clutches of eggs. Perhaps the juncos which
linger well into spring at the feeder (e.g. 70, 1 May 88 and 120, 26 Apr 89)
maintain a later northward or mountain-bound migration schedule, correlated
with a retarded breeding calendar.

At a seed feeder maintained during several winters, from one to three "Slate-
colored" Juncos routinely appeared (EFA 5 Oct 89 / LSD 10 Apr 88). A few
migrant Slates have been seen in clearcuts in spring and late fall with the hordes
of other juncos.

Albinistic juncos, which display variably-sized areas of white feathering, have
been seen many times among the concentration of feeding birds at, TRS.

CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                        Preferred Habitat
Calcarius ornatus Ca 7a

Casual fall migrant. Single Chestnut-collared Longspurs were studied at the
DLSP 2 Oct 87, 13 Sep 89, and Oct 3 89, furnishing several of very few reports for

RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Agelaius phoeniceus U U U     2,2a; 5c; 7,7a

Uncommon and localized migrant and summer resident, Occurs in small
numbers at TRS, TL, DL, the DLSP, LL, Stump Lake, and probably elsewhere
there are marshy edges to semi-open bodies of water. Red-wings definitely breed
around the upper end of TL, at the adjacent Stinkhole marsh, and in the DL

Arrival of summering blackbirds on their nest sites is not known, and may vary;
nest discovery dates from TL and the DL marsh are separated by six weeks.

WESTERN MEADOWLARK                Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Sturnella neglecta U Ca U         7a   *

Uncommon but regular spring and fall migrant, limited in distribution and
numers by lack of suitable open or semi-open grassy habitat. This bird occurs
hrough practically the entire period of fall passerine migration through Western
Oregon at the DLSP (maximum: 30, 2 Oct 89). From one to a half-dozen birds are
frequently observed calmly foraging on lawns, and perching for long minutes in
the tops of ponderosa pines and incense-cedars, on the TRS compound and
around nearby residences, most often during April and October.

Occasional meadowlarks may be encountered around TL, at DL marsh, and on
the larger clearcut landings where grass-seeding has been successful or the site
has otherwise. become vegetated with scanty grass or low forb cover.

Although a few meadowlarks linger well into May, none have ever been heard
singing; even such a late migrant individual as the one at TRS 29 May 88 was
silent. However, nesting at the DL marsh, the DLSP, or in the grassy area
northwest of Toketee Lake Campground must be considered a possibility.

ESA 13 Mar / LSD 29 May / EFD 10 Aug / LFD 19 Nov

YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi               Preferred Habitat
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus Ca Ca 5b,c; 7 *

Casual to very rare spring migrant. Occasional or rare in summer. Most spring
seasons see one or two Yellow-headed Blackbirds consorting with other
assembled blackbirds and sparrows on lawns at TRS in early and mid-May. A
first-spring female was at the Stinkhole marsh 24 May 87 for the only record in
marsh habitat round TL and environs. From one to three birds, ordinarily not
adults, have appeared in May, June, and July at the DLSP.

There has been only one sighting at DL (adult male on boat dock at South Shore,
9 May 88) which is somewhat surprising, considering the strategic value of the
area, and the presence of a sizable fringe of tall emergent vegetation near the
northwest corner. No Yellow-headed Blackbirds have been heard singing or
otherwise displaying on Diamond Lake R.D. at this writing, but the possibility of
an occasional breeding attempt should be borne in mind.

ESA 4 May / LFD 16 Jul

BREWER'S BLACKBIRD Sp/Su/Fa/Wi      Preferred Habitat
Euphagus cyanocephalus U U R 5b; 7,7a      **

Uncommon regular spring migrant and rare or seldom-noted fall migrant.
Breeds each year at TRS, at DL, at the DLSP (annually?), at the west side of LL,
and possibly elsewhere. A good-sized flock assembles in April at TRS, dispersing
in May, ostensibly to nest nearby; it is difficult to distinguish migrants from
lingering summer resident birds given this situation.

Small concentrations may be found in summer and early fall along the lakeshore
at DL. District maximum: about 200, on winter ice at the north end of DL near the
lodge 5 May 85.

ESA 17 Mar / LFD 8 Nov

ROSY FINCH           Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Leucosticte arctoa   ? Ca Ca   8          *

Status uncertain. Three Rosy Finches were noted just south of the climbing routes
on the southwest side of Mt. Thielsen, at about 8500', 4 Jul 84. at least one was
heard not far below the summit tower, but on the Kiamath Co. side, on an
unrecorded date in fall 1985. It was assumed that a bird foraging in this location
would likely visit the Umpqua side of the peak. Despite several hikes on this
mountain since that time the writer has failed to encounter Rosy Finches again.

PURPLE FINCH     Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Carpodacus purpureus  C U U ?             lc,e; 2;. 3; 4a,b; 7; 9 **

Common spring migrant, sometimes quite abundant; uncommon and somewhat
localized summer resident, and sparse to fairly numerous fall migrant, chiefly
during October.

Purple Finches nest spottily at lower elevations where dense young stasnds [sic]
of conifers edge semi-open low and tall brush with corridors or patches of more
open ground. In the area under discussion, they are partial to vigorously
regenerating clearcuts -often on northern exposures- and their adjacent timber
edge. Exceptions exist.

A noticeable push of northbound migrants occurs during April. At that time,
flocks of from ten to forty birds may appear at seed feeders at TRS. It is' felt that
breeding birds are probably on their summer territories by early or mid-April, as
fledglings have been seen 1 June.

This is generally not a species of higher elevations, shunning the lower subalpine
forest communities, but it does extend into the mountains as far as the lower-
central Copeland Creek drainage, much of Medicine and Slide Creeks, the
smaller timber country about the base of Dread and Terror Ridge, Thorn Prairie
(where very common), and lower Rough Creek.

ESA 6 Apr / LFD not recorded; in early November

CASSIN'S FINCH Sp/Su/Fa/Wi         Preferred Habitat
Carpodacus cassinii U U R ? lb,d**

Status uncertain. Definitely summers around the south end of DL and probably
elsewhere, as in the vicinity of LL and along the east border of the District. An
irregular spring and fall migrant (more frequent in spring) at TRS (maximum: 20-
25, 24 May 89). During the summer of 1987 a remarkable incursion of Cassin's
Finches took place, at which time single birds and pairs, including many singing
individuals and fledged young, were encountered in many places on the central
portion of the District, notably in some abundance in the broad central portion of
Fish Creek valley. This phenomenon has not repeated itself.

A Cassin's Finch in upper East Copeland Creek 18 May 89 was anomalous, and is
the only sighting on the southwest portion of the District.

BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi              Preferred Habitat
Molothrus ater U U U              lc,e; 2,2a; 3; 4a,b; 7 **

Fairly common spring migrant at lower elevations, principally in and near
riarian zones within the North Umpqua River canyon. Exceptional was a flock of
0 [sic] at the DLSP 10 May 89. Sightings in fall migration almost all refer to
juveniles, which may appear practically anywhere there is semi-open ground
upon which to forage, including the higher ridges and roadsides up to about
5500'. Juveniles are usually seen singly or in very small groups. Cowbirds breed
commonly around TRS, TL, Thorn Prairie, and at lower elevations within the
zone of general forest land, but they do not appear to be widespread across the
middle and higher elevations. A few definitely breed in the vicinity of DL.

Summering cowbirds may arrive as early as the end of April, although migration
clearly continues beyond that time.

Brown-headed Cowbirds seem not to have established themselves in the
expansive timber harvest / old-growth mosaic across most of Diamond Lake
R.D. This may be due at least in part to lack of open-ground feeding sites.

ESA 11 Apr / LFD 27 Sep
ORCHARD ORIOLE              Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred Habitat
Icterus spurius Ca          7

Casual spring migrant. A female Orchard Oriole, representing both the second
record for Oregon, was well-studied and identifiably photographed.(J.Moffett,
D.Fix) 8-10 May 88 at TRS. This occurrence is also noteworthy for involving a
misdirected vagrant songbird, at least a thousand miles out of range, detected at
a random site well removed from any point of demonstrated strategic signifiance
for such waifs.

NORTHERN ORIOLE      Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                 Preferred Habitat
Icterus galbula R Ca 2; 7 **

Sparse spring migrant. A very few "Bullock's" Orioles, the form breeding west of
the Great Plains, occur each spring in the area. Sightings have all been at TRS,
around the upper end of TL, and at the DLSP save for two migrants seen in
regenerating clearcuts on the central part of the District in spring 1987. Though
rare, this species is suspected to be an annual visitor toward the tail end of spring
migration at the DLSP.

Seven individuals during spring 1988 furnished the strongest showing.

A tattered but identifiable nest of Northern Orioles was noted in an ornamental
Lombardy Poplar on the TRS compound in 1984. It was judged to be perhaps
two or three years old, thus indicating a breeding attempt was made here in 1981
or 1982. This is the only such record known to the writer for the District.
Extensive birding in marginal-to-fair nesting habitat at the upper end of TL in
each summer of the survey period has failed to reveal orioles. However, two
birds chasing at TRS 18 Jun 89 could concievably have been spending the
summer in the vicinity.

WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL             Sp/Su/Fa/Wi          Preferred habitat
Loxia leucoptera Ca lb

Rare incursive visitor. A few White-winged Crossbills were encountered during
?ll [sic] 1985 at Old Man Camp, T.285, R.SE, SE 1/4 SE 1/4 S.6, near the west base
of Mt. Bailey at about 5500'. The dates and precise numbers pertaining to the
1985 observations have been lost by the writer. They are believed to have
appeared in the seasonal reports of American Birds and Oregon Birds.
Following the report of a "pink-and-black bird singing like a junco" observed in
that area by a field worker who did not have binoculars (S.Cordy) 4 Aug 89,
twelve White-winged Crossbills, all adult males and most or all loudly singing,
were found at and just north of Old Man Camp 6 Aug 89 (M.Sawyer, D.Fix). Nb
females or juveniles were noted despite searching; nor was any direct evidence of
nesting behavior noted.

Appearance of these northern crossbills in northeastern Douglas Co. in each year
in which they were observed coincided with a general southward incursion into
the Oregon Cascades.

PINE SISKIN Sp/Su/Fa/Wi            Preferred Habitat
Carduelis pinus  C C C U           1; 2,2a; 3; 4; 8; 9   **

Status uncertain. Generally an uncommon to fairly common visitor which is
known to nest on the District. In some years siskins are more abundant than in
others. They have been noted in variable numbers across the entire area from the
canyon of the North Umpqua River at Copeland Creek to 8800'on Mt.Thielsen.

In this area, Pine Siskins are notable among songbirds for exhibiting little
reference for one habitat over another, so long as reasonably dense stands of
trees affording some kind of food resource are available.

Curiously, it is during seasons at which they are not especially common that the
occasional large flock (100-500 birds) is observed. Big flocks of siskins often feed
methodically among the tangled limbs of red alders or in the dense crowns of
hemlocks, where they remain quite inconspicuous and silent until disturbance or
simple restlessness causes the group to explode from the sheltering trees in a
wild and noisy mass of undulating, swooping birds.

AMERICAN GOLDFINCH                 Sp/Su/Fa/Wi           Preferred Habitat
Carduelis tristis U U U ?          lc; 2; 4b; 7; 9 **

Uncommon to fairly common spring and fall migrant, more numerous in some
years than in others. Streaky-breasted juvenile goldfinches capable of flight have
been seen at TRS, and were suspected to have been fledged locally. The status of
this species as a breeding bird is otherwise rather vague.

Goldfinches regularly appear in migration at lower elevations, and sparingly
along roadsides and at weedy clearcut landings across the zone of general forest
land up to about 4500'. Individual birds may be heard flying overhead nearly
anywhere, as high as the Calapooya crest and along the Rogue-Umpqua divide.
The only place the writer has encountered American Goldfinches on the eastern
one-third of the District is at the DLSP, where small flocks infrequently turn up
in late summer and fall.

LESSER GOLDFINCH        Sp/Su/Fa/Wi             Preferred Habitat
Carduelis psaltris R R R     3; ,7a; 9

Very rare summer resident. Has appeared each spring around TRS / Clearwater
Village, remaining through the summer and into fall, with the exception of 1987
then none were noted in June or July. All sightings except one have been of
single birds and, often, a pair of adults in the vicinity of the offices and the
hillside below to the southwest.

Breeding is assumed based on constancy of occupation, pair status, and presence
of marginal suitable breeding habitat.

A Lesser Goldfinch was found about one mile south of TRS 19 Oct 88 in an old
clearcut grown up with mountain whitethorn. This has been the only encounter
away from the ranger station for which the writer has recorded details or

For such a rare species in the asrea, Lesser Goldfinches have remained amazingly
consistent. Although the entire population on Diamond Lake R.D. may amount
to only one or several pairs of birds, they are expected to appear in late March or
early April, and they do so each spring. These birds, or possibly visitors from
elsewhere, have been noted at times feeding on ripened dandelion heads on the
lawn by the administrative offices or the residences, occasionally in loose
company of Pine Siskins or carpodacus finches.

ESA 27 Mar / LFD 8 Nov

EVENING GROSBEAK          Sp/Su/Fa/Wi.    Preferred Habitat
Coccothraustes vespertina U U U R 1; 2; 9 *

Status uncertain. Appears to be a very uncommon to rare resident. Nearly all
encounters with this species are of individuals heard flying high overhead. Such
birds have been noted at all seasons, with no respect to season, type of forest
beneath or around them, nor altitude. Flocks of up to 40 grosbeaks are
occasionally seen or heard flying overhead, or feeding in. tall conifers or riparian

There has been no evidence of breeding aside from a general assumption based
on apparent residency or constant occupation of the area.

In spring of most years (generally April into late May), very small flocks are to be
found around TRS and in the leafing cottonwoods at the upper end of TL.
Unusual fall flocks-were -at TRS 18 Oct 87 (25 birds) and during late September
1990 (40+).

EUROPEAN HOUSE SPARROW Sp/Su/Fa/Wi                      Preferred Habitat
Passer domesticus Ca Ca 7

Casual visitor. There have been five records of this parasitic commensal of
human settlement, all at TRS: a male and female 29 Apr 87, with the female
remaining the following day; a female 16-30 Mar 88; an unseen bird calling 16
Oct 88, with what may have been the same one, or possibly another, again 29 Oct
88; two females 19 Mar 89, with one remaining to 21 Mar 89, and an unseen bird
heard on an unrecorded date in 1990. There has been no evidence of residency or
attempted nesting on the District.

The nearest known population is at Idleyld Park, about 35 miles distant
believed of captive origin:

a male EUROPEAN GOLDFINCH (Carduelis carduelis) which fed and flew
among Purple Finches and American Coldfinches at TRS 10-12 May 90 was
assumed to be an escaped cagebird having originated somewhere in the West.

dmf / September 1990

The mountain environment offers many suprises for the bird observer most
accustomed to valley, coastal, or desert birding. Diversity among landbirds is
considerable, despite the common first impression that the forest cover possesses
little variability. Semi-open clearcuts create a strong attraction for seed-eating
birds. Lawns, yards, birdfeeders, and shrubbery around Toketee Ranger Station
create an oasis of sorts for many migrant landbirds during the peak of migration.

Toketee Ranger Station: This is an administrative complex and small community
on a point of land at the confluence of the North Umpqua River and Clearwater
River, nineteen miles west of the Cascade crest at 2550'. Large numbers of
sparrows and other seed-eaters flock to feeding stations near the office complex
during April, May, and early June. Numbers of Lazuli Buntings, Chipping
Sparrows, Black-headed Grosbeaks, Purple and Cassin's Finches, and Dark-eyed
Juncos may be seen near the R.S. office buildings at this time, particularly during
mid-morning. Orchard Oriole and Indigo Bunting were seen here during the
spring of 1988. Say's Phoebes have appeared here four times in spring migration,
and Gray Flycatcher twice.

Toketee Lake: A 75-acre impoundment edged on the upstream side by lowland
riparian vegetation, Toketee Lake is worth birding anytime of year. Passerine
numbers peak during late April and the first half of May Breeding birds here
include Canada Goose, Common Merganser, Wood Duck, Willow Flycatcher,
Wrentit, Yellow Warbler, and Black-headed Crosbeak. Double-crested
Cormorants summer here, and attempted to nest in 1988. Peregrine Falcons
occasionally make an appearance and it is possible they breed somewhere in the
area. From November through January, a mixed waterfowl flock of modest size
resides on the lake, with most birds generally using the upper end of the
reservoir. Barrow's Goldeneye is always present and easily seen at this season.
Redhead and Oldsquaw have also been recorded here during winter. One or two
Bald Eagles frequent the lakeshore during the colder months. They are seen most
often perching in snags or dead-top Sugar Pines on the hill above the north
lakeshore between Toketee Dam and the Stinkhole marsh.

Diamond Lake: At 3200 acres, scenic Diamond Lake (5200') is the largest body of
water on the Ranger District. Diamond Lake is remarkable for supporting heavy
use by both humans and waterfowl. From October into December, a fine
concentration of dabbling and diving ducks, grebes, coots, and gulls may be
found assembled on the south portion of the lake. Submergent vegetation offers a
strong attraction for these birds, and they feed heavily in preparation for the
flight to wintering grounds elsewhere. Thousands of American Coots, hundreds
of American Wigeon and Lesser Scaup, and dozens of Common and Hooded
Mergansers dot the lake at this time. Loons, Red-necked Grebe, Clark's Grebe,
Surf and White-winged Scoters, Red-breasted Merganser, Eurasian Wigeon, and
Herring and Bonaparte's Gulls have been seen among this flock. Other
possibilities will be obvious to the serious observer,

The best location from which to view this flock is at the South Shore Picnic Area
at the south end of the lake, accessible by paved road from the Diamond Lake
loop road. Early morning is best, as human interference and heat distortion is
The sheltered northwest corner of the lake supports a smaller flock of birds
concurrently, chiefly Barrow's Goldeneyes, Buffleheads, Eared Grebes, and an
occasional loon.

A flock of 50 Redheads lingered here during November 1987. Numbers of Eared
Grebes, never common elsewhere in Western Oregon, reached 120 during early
October 1989, accompanied by eleven Surf Scoters. A Pacific Loon was seen here
on 16 Oct 1989. Reach this spot via the Diamond Lake loop, pulling out at the
Lake Creek outlet parking lot shortly east of the northwest corner of the lake.

The lake is slow birding during much of the rest of the year. Small numbers of
migrant waterfowl appear on the lake during mid and late spring. Common
Loons and Horned Grebes are probably regular at this time. Barrow's Goldeneye
is by far the most common nesting duck, and family groups may be encountered
anywhere along the lakeshore from June into September. Nine broods of Barrow
s Goldeneyes were raised on Diamond Lake during 1989.

The lake generally remains open until early December, then remains ice-covered
until about mid-April.

Diamond Lake sewage ponds: These ponds serve the Diamond Lake resort and
campgrounds. Access is restricted, and the ponds are surrounded by a cyclone
fence with a locked gate. Satisfactory views with spotting scope may be enjoyed
from around the edges of the fenced enclosure. There are four treatment ponds.
An adjacent basin contains an isolated mixed-vegetation marsh which is small,
but very lovely.

These ponds are always worth visiting. They may be considered to comprise one
of the finest birding spots in Douglas County. Their isolated nature, high
mountain location (5400'), and value as an undisturbed oasis for waterfowl make
them a valuable and unique habitat within this area. Recent checks of this site
have indicated an exciting potential for unusual finds.

To reach the Diamond Lake sewage ponds, turn west from the northern access
road from Hwy. 138 to Diamond Lake about halfway from the lodge to the
highway, across the intersection from the boldly signed Howlock Mountain
trailhead and horse corrals. One-tenth mile down this road, turn right onto a red
cinder road near a large warehouse and winter sports area. The ponds lie at the
end of this road.

The best times to bird the sewage ponds are from late April into late May, and
from about the middle of August until the end of October. A wide assortment of
ducks may be found here on most visits. Barrow's Goldeneye is the most
common duck during June and July, and a few broods appear on the ponds at
this time. Nearly all of the goldeneyes occurring here during summer are in basic
plumage. Mallard, Wood Duck, Bufflehead, and Ruddy Duck have also nested
here. Northern Shoveler, Green-winged Teal, Lesser Scaup, Ring-necked Duck,
and Bufflehead predominate during periods of peak waterfowl migration.
Snowy Egret has been seen here in late May, and Surf Scoter twice in mid-
October. Flocks of Cackling Canada Geese have overflown the ponds during

The grassy marsh on the southwest side of the enclosure contains a very small
pond until the end of July. Greater and Lesser Yellowlegs, Solitary Sandpiper,
Long-billed Dowitcher, and Western and Least Sandpipers have stopped here,
with ad. Least Sandpipers being regular during July and numbering as many as
150 birds. Baird's Sandpiper, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Willet, and Longnilled
Curlew have been noted on one occasion each since 1988. This parcel of semi-
open habitat is a magnet for Savannah Sparrows, Western Meadowlarks, Water
Pipits, and blackbirds. Yellow-headed Blackbirds are occasionally seen during
late spring and early summer, though they are not known to nest here. At least
one Sora summered in the marsh during 1990.

A Grasshopper Sparrow was seen here in August 1987. Single Chestnut-collared
Longspurs were encountered in early October 1987, mid-September 1989, and
early October 1989. A Swamp Sparrow turned up in the cattail patch on 20 Oct
1989, and Lark Sparrows were encountered in mid-May and July 1990. Brewer's
Sparrow has been seen several times in late summer. Vesper Sparrows are
regular here in very small numbers. Rough-legged Hawk, Northern Harrier
(Marsh Hawk), American Kestrel, Merlin, and Northern Coshawk have been
seen at the ponds. A Loggerhead Shrike appeared in early May 1989. Black-
backed Woodpeckers are heard or seen frequently at the forest edge. This site
promises to provide many interesting records in coming seasons.

Although the sewage ponds are a fine place to capitalize on conditions
advantageous for the dropout of local rarities, the primary value of this site has
been to monitor the pulse and flow of the passage of the more common species.

Lemolo Lake: This hydropower forebay is a contrast to Diamond Lake, in that its
birding potential fails to live up to initial expectations. An apparent lack of
adequate submergent vegetation appears to be the factor which limits waterfowl
numbers and variety. No large flocks assemble at Lemolo, and only an occasional
loon, grebe, or shorebird enlivens the lake at most times. A Red-necked Grebe
was seen here in November 1987, three Red-breasted Mergansers in November
1988, and a remarkable Black-necked Stilt appeared in June 1987. Still, it is worth
a check during fall migration, as it is easily birded in near-entirety from the
lakeshore just below Lemolo Lake Lodge, or from the boat landing at Poole
Creek CG. Reach Lemolo Lake from the well-marked junction on Hwy. 138,
travelling north five miles to the lodge.

Thorn Prairie: An extensive semi-natural brushfield, with a flavor more like
Central Oregon than the Western Cascades. Accessed via Thorn Prairie Road, FS
3401-700. It is
about seven miles east of Toketee Ranger Station. Thorn Prairie looks formidable,
with its blanket of spiny Mountain Whitethorn and prickly currant, but is
actually not difficult to wander through in search of the Mountain Quail,
Calliope Hummingbirds, Dusky Flycatchers, and Green-tailed Towhees that
occur here from early May through mid-summer. As many as four Common
Poor-wills were heard about two miles east of Thorn Prairie on Dread And
Terror Ridge in July 1990. A pair of Barred Owls is resident in the forest at the
east edge of the prairie. Cattle are to be encountered during most months of the
year. The constant ringing of their cowbells in the near-distance creates a
decidedly rustic atmosphere for one's evening birding.

Forest habitats: This portion of the Cascades is forested with a mixture of conifer
species common to both the Cascade Range and to the northern Sierra Nevada.
Short side trips from Hwy. 138 up main logging roads, such as Cope-land Creek
(FS Rd. #28/3701), Slide Creek (FS 4775), Fish Creek (FS 37), and Toketee-Rigdon
(FS 34) offer experiences in birding roadside old-growth stands of Douglas-fir,
Western Hemlock, Sugar Pine, Ponderosa Pine, and Incense-cedar. At higher
elevations, Fish Creek Road (FS 37), Three Lakes Road (FS 3703), Bear Creek
Road (4785) and other one-lane roads with pullouts transect lower subalpine
forests of Douglas-fir, Western White Pine, Shasta Red Fir, Pacific Silver Fir, and
Engelmann Spruce. Miles of west-side Lodgepole Pine stands are easily birded
from roads in the vicinity of Temolo Lake and Diamond Lake.

Characteristic summer birds of older conifer forest on the District are Blue
Grouse, Northern Pygmy-Owl, Pileated Woodpecker, Red-breasted Sapsucker
(perhaps the most abundant woodpecker during the nesting season),
Hammond's Flycatcher, Chestnut-backed Chickadee, Mountain Chickadee
(restricted to lodgepole stands, where abundant), Red-breasted Nuthatch,
American Robin, Hermit Thrush, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Yellow-rumped
(Audubon's) Warbler, Hermit Warbler (the most abundant warbler in Douglas-
fir forests), MacCillivray's Warbler, Red Crossbill, and Dark-eyed Junco.

During the fall of 1985 and again in late summer 1989, small numbers of White-
winged Crossbills were found up FS #4786 in the vicinity of Old Man Camp. It is
not known whether the birds nested in this area.
Spotted Owls are uncommon on the District, and may be declining due to habitat
loss, but intensive surveys have suggested that they remain well-scattered in
very small numbers in large blocks of older timber across the lower and middle
elevations. At this writing there are three known pairs of Barred Owls on the

Clearcut timber sale units: Although the hundreds of clearcuts scattered across
the District may be considered visually disruptive, they are often very interesting
birding. Differing elevation, slope, exposure, and regrowth vegetation cause no
two clearcuts to be quite alike. Most clearcuts can be sampled from roadside or
central landing. The quiet of the mountains allows bird song to carry a greater
distance than is often true of lowland birding. The number and variety of
songbirds in many clearcuts demands that one hike into them for best views of
nesting and territorial behavior.

Typical species of younger clearcut units on the District are Mountain Quail
(local), Common Flicker, Dusky Flycatcher, House Wren, Bushtit (local),
American Robin, Western Bluebird, Mountain Bluebird (higher elevations),
Townsend's Solitaire, Nashville Warbler (most abundant warbler in such
habitats), Lazuli Bunting, Purple Finch, Cassin's Finch (large clearcuts with leave
trees), White-crowned Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco, and Song Sparrow.

Dmf / 9-90
Birding Sites

Birding Sites