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					               Behaviorism , Cognitivism, and Constructivism

Through out this course we have looked at learning theories and how they relate to
instructional design. In my research I came across a great resource
(http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm) that put
Behavorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism in a comparison chart. After reading
through each chart and reading all the examples in each catagory, I selected an
example from each that best explained the theory in that content for me and/or
supported previous research done in our class. Click on one of the links below to view
my summary chart.

   Basic Principles |Embedded Theories | Principal Theorists | Goals of Instruction |
              Instructional Models | Implications for Instructional Design

                                  Basic Principles (TOP)
          Behaviorism                  Cognitivism                  Constructivism
    Learning happens when        Learning is viewed as         Learners build personal
    a correct response is        an active process that        interpretation of the world
    demonstrated following       occurs within the learner     based on experiences
    the presentation of a        and which can be              and interactions
    specific environmental       influenced by the learner
    stimulus
                                 Embedded Theories (TOP)
          Behaviorism                   Cognitivism                  Constructivism
    Skinner's Operant            Gestalt Theory                Cognitive Flexibility
    Conditioning                                               Theory
                                 Gestalt theory
    We use the term operant      emphasizes higher-order       Cognitive flexibility
    conditioning to describe     cognitive processes in        theory focuses on the
    one type of associative      the midst of behaviorism.     nature of learning in
    learning in which there is   The focus of Gestalt          complex and ill-
    a contingency between        theory is the idea of         structured domains.The
    the response and the         "grouping", i.e.,             theory is largely
    presentation of the          characteristics of stimuli    concerned with transfer
    reinforcer.                  cause us to structure or      of knowledge and skills
                                 interpret a visual field or   beyond their initial
                                 problem in a certain way.     learning situation.
                                                                             (Dabbagh, 2002)
                             Principal Theorists (TOP)
      Behaviorism                   Cognitivism               Constructivism
Skinner, Burrhus             Gagné, Robert (1916-         Spiro and Colleagues
Frederic (1904-1990)         present)
                                                        Spiro et al. believed that
Psychologist, born in        Today Gagné is             most of what students
Susquhanna, Pa. He           considered an              should learn is in "ill-
studied at Harvard,          experimental               structured domains"
teaching there (1931-6,      psychologist who is        (Roblyer, Edwards, &
1947-74). A leading          concerned with learning Havriluk, 1996). They
behaviorist, he is a         and instruction. Although wanted students to have
proponent of operant         his earlier work is        a different way of
conditioning, and the        grounded in the            thinking about learning.
inventor of the Skinner      behaviorist tradition, his Thus, their Cognitive
box for facilitating         current work seems to      Flexibility Theory was
experimental                 be influenced by the       born.
observations                 information processing
                             view of learning and
                             memory.
                                                                      (Dabbagh, 2002)




                             Goals of Instruction (TOP)
      Behaviorism                   Cognitivism               Constructivism
Learner acquires skills of   Communicate or transfer      Build personal
discrimination (recalling    knowledge in the most        interpretations of the
facts), generalization       efficient, effective         world based on
(defining and illustrating   manner (mind-                individual experiences
concepts), association       independent, can be          and interactions
(applying explanations),     mapped onto learners)        (constantly open to
and chaining                                              change, cannot achieve
(automatically                                            a predetermined,
performing a specified                                    "correct" meaning,
procedure).                                               knowledge emerges in
                                                          relevant contexts)


                                                                      (Dabbagh, 2002)
                            Instructional Models (TOP)
     Behaviorism                    Cognitivism                 Constructivism
Computer-Based             Merrill's Component Display      Problem-Based
Instruction                Model                            Learning (PBL)

Computer-assisted          CDT specifies how to design      PBL engages the
instruction was very       instruction for any cognitive    learner in a problem-
much drill-and-            domain. It would have the        solving activity. In this
practice - controlled by   following minimum                process, instruction
the program developer      components:                      begins with a problem
rather than the            Objective,Generality,Instance,   to be solved rather
learner.                   Generality Practice, Instance    than content to be
                           Practice,                        mastered (Hsiao,
                           Feedback,and Elaborations.       1996).
                                                                       (Dabbagh, 2002)




                   Implications for Instructional Design (TOP)
      Behaviorism                   Cognitivism                Constructivism
Dick and Carey               Learning taxonomies         Authentic assessment
instructional design                                     methods
model                       Robert Gagne, among
                            others who developed         As a result of the change
Their work is based on      taxonomies, made one         in goals and methods of
the behaviorist view that of the first attempts to       education, constructivist
there is a predictable link classify learning            learning environments
between a stimulus and behaviors and supply              tend to use more
the response it produces specific measures for           qualitative assessment
in a learner (Colaric,      determining different        strategies rather than
n.d.).                      levels of learning.          quantitative ones
                                                         (Roblyer, Edwards &
                                                         Havriluk, 1996).
                                                                       (Dabbagh, 2002)




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