The Seven Wonders Of The ANCIENT World with thanks to - ce.eng.usf.edu 1 The Great Pyramid Of Giza Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) • Built over 20 years circa 2560 BCE • Contains 2,000,000 blocks • Originally 481 ft (145.75m) has lost 30 ft (10m) • Slope = 51° 51’ Sides = 751 ft. 2 The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Hanging Gardens of Babylon Built by Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 BC to please his wife (?) East bank of River Euphrates, 50 km S. of Baghdad Only written descriptions = Greek (?) 3 The Temple of Zeus At Olympia - 150 km/93 mi W. Athens Temple of Zeus, Olympia • Designed by Libon. Built c. 450 BCE. • 40 foot statue by sculptor Pheidias. • Right hand = figure of Victory from ivory and gold. • Left hand =scepter inlaid with all metals, and an eagle perched on the sceptre. • The sandals and robe are gold. - Pausanias the Greek (2nd century AD) 4 The Temple of Artemis goddess of hunting, wild nature, and fertility • Built around 550 BCE. • Sponsored by the Lydian king Croesus. • Designed by Greek architect Chersiphron. Ephesus- 50 km So. Izmir, Turkey 5 The Mausoleum At Halicarnassus Statue from Halikarnassos • Tomb of King Mausollos of Caria. • “Satrap” – “local ruler”, under Persian Empire. • Built around 350 BCE. • Project conceived by wife and sister Artemisia. Construction might have started during king's lifetime. Damaged by earthquake in the 15th C. In 1494 crusading Knights of St. John disassembled mausoleum to fortify their castle 6 The Colossus of Rhodes To you, O Sun, the people of Dorian Rhodes set up this bronze statue reaching to Olympus when they had pacified the waves of war and crowned their city with the spoils taken from the enemy. Not only over the seas, but also on land did they kindle the lovely torch of freedom. Dedicatory inscription of the Colossus Modern Reconstruction – orig. 294-282 BCE “few people can make their arms meet around the thumb” -Pliny • 226 B.C.E. – 110 ft high, but destroyed by earthquake – collapsed at knee • Sat in ruin for almost millennium • 654 C.E. Arabs invade and sell to a jew from Syria. Takes 900 camels to transport pieces. 7 The Lighthouse Of Alexandria “Pharos” Initiated by Ptolemy Soter Circa 290 B.C.E. On behalf of those who sail the seas • Constructed 285-247 B.C.E. under Soter’s son Philadelphus. • Tallest ancient wonder @ 180 ft. • Destroyed by earthquakes in 1303 & 1323 • Could be seen 35 miles off-shore The final chapter … • 1349 - Famous Arab traveler Ibn Battuta visited. He could not enter the ruinous monument or even climb to its doorway. • 1480 - Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan, Qaitbay, decided to fortify Alexandria's defense. He built a medieval fort on the same spot using the fallen stone and marble.
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