The following power point is designed to help
students build a better understanding about
the Deciduous forest including the plant and
animal adaptations, location of these types of
forests, etc. Students should take notes.
There are breaks built in for students to
reflect when you see the symbol below-it’s
time for the students to either reflect,
discuss, or do the activity on the slide.
What is a deciduous forest?
A DECIDUOUS FOREST is used to describe a type of
forest where the dominant species of trees and
vegetation shed their leaves during the cold months
of the year and re-grow new leaves the next Spring.
• Eastern third of the
• western Europe
• China, Korea, Japan
• southern tip of South
• The climate will range from cold with precipitation in the form of
snow, to hot, with precipitation in the form of rain.
• Temperature ranges up to about 20° C down to freezing.
• Annual rainfall ranges from around 50 cm yr-1 in the colder
regions to over 200 cm/yr.
• Soil is nutrient rich
• Trees are spread further apart which
allows sunlight to reach the forest floor
• Has layers (similar to Rainforest)
Tree stratum, the tallest layer, 60 -100 feet high, with large oak,
maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood, linden, walnut, or
sweet gum trees.
Small tree or sapling layer - short tree species and young trees.
Shrub layer - shrubs like rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain
laurels, and huckleberries.
Herb layer - short plants.
Ground layer - lichens, club mosses, and true mosses.
Plant Adaptations seen in the Deciduous
Leaves are broad to
Trees drop their leaves in the
collect as much Trees have thick winter to prevent water loss
sunlight as possible. bark to protect during the colder months.
against harsh Also, there is less direct
winters sunlight in the winter, which
means less photosynthesis! So
Look at the above features of the deciduous forest. With the person
deciduous trees drop their
seated next to you take a few minutes to consider what type of adaptations
leaves to conserve energy.
the pictures are examples of. When the teacher calls time be ready to
share your answers with the class-remember to raise your hand!
THE DIFFERENT SEASONS
• Spring – bulbs use the free light before trees grow
leaves and block the light out
• Summer – Leaves block out light to forest floor - main
season for photosynthesis
• Temperatures decrease, tree cuts off the supply of
water to the leaves and seal off the area between the
leaf stem and the tree trunk.
• With limited sunlight and water, the leaves are
unable to continue producing chlorophyll causing
them to change into beautiful red, yellow and orange
This is the
reason for the
in the leaves!
• In WINTER, it is too cold for the trees to protect their
leaves from freezing
• Losing their leaves helps trees to conserve
water loss through transpiration.
• Before the leaves die, some of the food material they
contain is drawn back into the twigs and branches
where it is stored and used the following spring.
Animal Adaptations seen in the Deciduous
Migration- Behavioral Physical
Many animals from birds and geese to small mammals move to
warmer climates in the winter months. •Thick fur
Hibernation- several types of animals including bears will hibernate in the
winter months to survive the harsh climate when food is scarce.
Food Storage- In preparation for the winter, squirrels and other animals
will store food to last them through the harsh winter months.
With a partner
Imagine you are an help animals to survive
Thick fur and layers of adipose tissue (fat)- alsoanimal
dropping temperatures. in the Deciduous Forest Biome.
Camouflage What types of Adaptations would be
Helpful for your survival?
*Consider both Physical and Behavioral
Deciduous and owl if Food
3. What is the only food fox Forest all of the Web
1. What Two organisms provide food for the Grizzly Bear?
2. What would happen to the source of the insects? birds and rodents were
Answer: Producers (plants)
removed from the food web? and Deer
Answer: They would not be able and answer the questions
Study the food web above to survive.
that come up in your Journal.
Human Impact on the Deciduous
•Human settlements are often found near these forests because
of their rich soils
•Biggest threat is agriculture (farming, ranching, logging)-
cutting down the forest in any way.
- called DEFORESTATION
•Acid Rain from coal-burning is another threat, as is global warming,
which in particular may change rainfall patterns
Watch the succession
How the forest recovers…. Clip by clicking
on the link
Forests can recover loss of ecosystems by a process called:
Succession is the natural, and gradual changes
in the types of species that live in an area; 2 types
can be primary or secondary.
• Begins in a place without any soil
– Sides of volcanoes
– Landslides (when new rock is exposed)
− Glaciers in other biomes
• Starts with the arrival of living things such as lichens
that do not need soil to survive- first species to arrive
is called the PIONEER SPECIES
• Begins in a place that already has soil and was once
the home of living organisms
• Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than
• Example: after forest fires
Summary of Characteristics
• Less dense than • Seasonal Changes
rainforests • Animals have to adapt
• Widely spaced trees to the changing
• Only a few types of seasons
trees such as Oak, • Migration and
Elm, Beech, Ash and hibernation are two
• Leaf litter increased • Some animals store
during autumn and food over the winter
decomposes over the • Rich soils good for