Unit 8 Exam: Evolution Test Date: _________ Text Book: Ch 15 (pages 369-386), Ch. 16 (393-410), Ch. 17 (417-428, 435-438, 440) Selected Response: Be familiar with the time line of life on earth (oceans form, first prokaryotes, first eukaryotes) (Notes p.1) Know the definitions of the following: Gene pool (p. 3) Phylogeny/ Phylogenetic tree (p. 2) Allele & Allele frequency (p. 3) Genetic equilibrium (p.3) Extinction (p. 5) Endosymbiosis (p. 1) Half-life (p. 6) Relative dating (p. 6) Describe the first living organisms on earth (p. 1) Describe the different mechanisms of speciation on earth and provide examples of each. (p. 5) Describe the different patterns of evolution and provide examples of each. (p. 4) Be familiar with the steps of natural selection (p. 2) Why is variation in a species an advantage for the survival of a species as a whole? Why is sexual reproduction an evolutionary advantage over asexual reproduction? How does the environment affect evolution of a species? (p. 2) What macromolecule codes for characteristics that provide an advantage for an organism in their environment? (p.3) On a phylogenetic tree be able to identify common ancestors and extinct organisms. Compare stabilizing, directional, and Disruptional selection. Be able to identify each when graphed. (p. 3) Explain how environmental factors (habitat loss, climate change, pollution) can be agents of natural selection. Explain the importance of reproduction to the survival of a species. (p. 2, 5) What are homologous structures? How do they provide evidence for evolution? (p. 7) What is biochemical evidence for evolution? Be able to look at DNA or amino acid sequences and determine evolutionary relationships. (p.8) Does a species change in response to environmental change or does the environment select for species with certain characteristics? (Think about this very carefully!) Constructed response 1. Be able to interpret an experimental design and identify the variables (dependent and independent). 2. Explain the theory of natural selection. (p. 2) 3. Define species. (p. 2) 4. List types of natural resources that plants compete for. List types of natural resources animals compete for. 5. Provide two pieces of evidence that support plate tectonics and continental drift. (p. 8-9) 6. a. What is the function of chloroplasts for a cell? b. What is the function of mitochondria for a cell? c. What macromolecule do both of these organelles contain that is interesting in an evolutionary sense? d. What specific theory does the presence of this macromolecule in both chloroplasts and mitochondria support? 7. Describe and/or draw a diagram to show the most accepted hypothesis for the most recent mass extinction of dinosaurs. (p. 9) 8. List AND explain/describe the different types of evidence that evolution in a species has occurred. (p.6-8) 9. Given a scenario, identify how the different hardy-weinberg principles of genetic equilibrium apply. (p. 3-4) Example: Florida panther numbers have been reduced to only 50 individuals in the last decade. Will this population remain in genetic equilibrium according to the Hardy-Weinberg principles? Identify the condition required for equilibrium that is violated and explain how this will lead to change in the population.
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