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					                 The Design Process:
                 Problem Formulation

                   Charles A. DiMarzio
                         GEU110
                  Northeastern University

September 2003       Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-1
                 The Design Process

• Remember these                                                  Needs
                                                                  Assessment
  phases are not absolute                        Implementation       Ch. 2
• The edges are rough                                   11

• We often use multiple                           Analysis             Problem
  loops                                                                Formulation
                                                 8,9,10
• Usually we don’t think                              Abstraction
                                                                              3, 4, 5
  about the process at all                            and Synthesis
                                                               6,7
• It’s best taught by
  examples

September 2003      Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University                   10379-4-2
         What is the Real Problem?
• Constraints and Boundaries (quantitative)
     – Maximum size hole in aircraft for Lidar
•   Qualitative Goals (“more” or “less”)
•   Restate Goal, Change Emphasis
•   Input/Output Analysis
•   ???

September 2003     Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-3
                 Revision Method
• Method
     – Start with something that works,
     – Build it,
     – Refine it through evolutionary design.
• Advantages
     – Working design in short time
     – It just might be good enough
     – It points out the approach to making it better
• Example
     – Mohs Surgery
September 2003        Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-4
                 Duncker Diagram
     System Level Problems; Environment, Transportation

  Present State                               Desired State
                 General Solutions

                 Functional Solutions

                 Specific Solutions
September 2003       Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-5
            Kepner-Tregoe Situation
                   Analysis
                 Timing (urgency)

                  Trend (growth)

            Impact (consequences)


September 2003     Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-6
    Kepner-Tregoe Problem Analysis
                    What       What                                  Cause of
                    Is?                               Distinction
                               Is Not?                               Distinction

Identity

Location

Timing


Magnitude
   September 2003          Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University     10379-4-7
   Kepner-Tregoe Problem Analysis
What is? What is not? Distinction?                           Possible
                                                             Cause?




  September 2003   Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University        10379-4-8
        What is the Value of These
                 Methods?
• Thinking (Alone)
• Brainstorming (Together)
• Justifying (to whom?)
       Think about formal vs. Informal use
       of these Methods.
September 2003   Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-9
                 An Example
• Severe Storms Lidar Scanner to produce a
  stable scan pattern from an aircraft with
  roll, pitch (and heading?).
• 13” hole in airplane
• Airworthyness issues for outside structures
• Cost, speed (1/4 sec), etc.


September 2003   Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-10
                 Example Continued
• Proposal Brainstorming
     – Stick Model for Light Beams
     – 2 Mirrors, Gimbled Mirror, Flip Mirror
     – Outside Structure, Wedge, 2 Wedges
• Abstraction, Synthesis, Analysis for Each
• Implementation only for 2 Wedges
     – Then developed more complicated model with
       calibration

September 2003      Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-11
           Major Project Guidelines
• What are you proposing?
     – One of a kind (eg. Bridge)
     – One at a time (eg. femtosecond laser)
     – Mass production (eg. Consumer product)
           • Prototype (think about design and single-unit cost)
           • Production line (think about cost per unit)




September 2003          Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-12
         Some Major Project Issues
•   Why is your design needed?
•   What problem are you trying to solve?                        Needs
                                                                 Assessment

•
                                              Implementation      Ch. 2
    Why is your solution best?                         11

•   What analysis will you do?                 Analysis             Problem
                                                                    Formulation
                                             8,9,10
•   Who can/will pay the required cost?             Abstraction
                                                                        3, 4, 5


•
                                                    and Synthesis
    What are the unintended consequences?                    6,7

•   What are the political and social issues?
•   What are the environmental issues?
•   What expertise do you need on your team?
September 2003          Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-13
                 Minor Project
• Grading on
     – Report (40%)
     – Device (40%)
     – Success (20%)




September 2003    Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-14
                 A Word About Reports
• I give points for
     –   Cover Letter (If appropriate)
     –   Abstract
     –   Table of Contents and Figures
     –   Technical Content (Most heavily)
     –   References (If appropriate)
     –   Grammar and Spelling
     –   General Appearance

September 2003        Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-15
                 Some Grammar Issues
• A preposition is a terrible part of speech to
  end a sentence with.
• And starting with a conjunction isn’t much
  better.
• Another thing. Little short phrases. Not
  quite sentences. Not good. Unless you are
  Jonathan Franzen.

September 2003       Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-16
                 Some Style Issues
• Use section headings.
• Informal expressions in technical writing are
  usually uncool.
• Use parallel constructions in lists.
     – Never have one item in a sublist
• Active voice and first person are acceptable to me,
  but not to everyone in engineering.
     – “Mistakes were made.”
     – You shouldn’t use the second person.
• Give figures and tables numbers, and refer to them
  in the text.
September 2003       Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-17
                 Websites as Sources
• Use the web to...
     – Learn about a new field
     – Find out who is working in the field
     – Get pointers to the archival literature
• Do not use web pages as citations
     – They are transient
     – They are not refereed
     – Catalog information for pricing, etc. is an exception if
       you include date information, etc.
September 2003        Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-18
                 Some Ethical Issues
• If you borrow a figure, cite the source.
• Reference anyone who contributes to your
  idea.
• Paraphrasing is not the same thing as
  expressing your own thoughts.



September 2003       Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University   10379-4-19
                           Teams
• 1: Rishi Dhupar, Bryan                 • 6: Sean O'Blenis, Kelly
  Mayor, Joe Mayotte                       Chronley, Sammy Shaar
• 2: Matt Bouchard, Brian                • 7: Graham Turner, Danny
  Carlin, Anne Fitzpatrick                 MacDougall, Steve Jahnes
• 3: Eric Blaisdell, David               • 8: Dan Bastable, Bryan
  Despres, Mikio                           Fors, Kyle Nowak
  Yanagisawa                             • 9: Jonathan Correia,
• 4: Chuba Arah, Marco                     Marsel Kane, Khue
  Solia, Jonathan Palmer                   Nguyen, Steve Yu
• 5: Shannon Rooney,                     • 10: Michael Hart, Mike
  Jenine Davignon, Kevin                   Santorella, Robert Taylor
  Harvey
September 2003     Chuck DiMarzio, Northeastern University    10379-4-20

				
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