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CHARACTERISTICS OF RESTRUCTURED BEEF STEAKS

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CHARACTERISTICS OF RESTRUCTURED BEEF STEAKS Powered By Docstoc
					     Characteristics of Restructured Beef Steaks Containing
                   Mechanically Deboned Meat
      R. A. Field, A. Booren, S. A. Larsen and J. L. Kinnison


                  J ANIM SCI 1977, 45:1289-1293.




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    CHARACTERISTICS OF RESTRUCTURED BEEF STEAKS CONTAINING
                 M E C H A N I C A L L Y DEBONED MEAT 1

                      R. A. Field, A. Booren, S. A. Larsen and J. L. Kinnison

             University o f Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station, Laramie 82071


                   SUMMARY                              criticized because of a swollen and deformed
    Restructured beef steaks containing 20% fat         appearance, a tough "hard-to-cut" surface and a
were manufactured with O, 5, 10, 15 or 20%              poor texture. Research directed toward improv-
mechanically deboned meat (MDM) from neck               ing restructured meat has been conducted
bones of steers (MDM = .8% calcium) or neck             (Schwartz and Mandigo, 1974; Mandigo, 1975;
bones of cows (MDM = .5% calcium). Panel                Cross and Stanfield, 1976; Campbell et al.,
scores for flavor were not significantly different      1977). Nevertheless, consumer complaints re-
(P<.05) among formulations but steaks con-              garding restructured meat are still common.
taining the most MDM had superior scores for                Mechanically deboned meat (MDM) may be
juiciness. Grittiness was the only trait where          of value in improving quality of restructured
differences in least-squares means for steaks           steaks since it is high in heme pigments which
containing MDM from neck bones of steers vs             produce a bright red color and low in strands of
cows approached significance (P<.O5). Overall           connective tissue which are detrimental to
acceptance of the restructured beef steaks              binding capacity. MDM improves the textural
containing MDM was not significantly different          characteristics of bologna and ground beef
from that of controls. Steaks containing 10%            patties (Field, 1976; Cross et al., 1977). The
MDM had a softer more acceptable cooked                 objective of our study was to determine what
outer surface than controls. Steaks containing          effect the addition of MDM would have on
 15 or 20% MDM had a softer outer surface than          characteristics of restructured beef steaks.
the controls but these steaks had mushier
interiors. Steaks containing 5% MDM were                            MATERIALS AND METHODS
similar to the controls (0% MDM) for all                Treatment Formulation. Restructured beef
characteristics studied. Therefore, the addition    steaks containing 20% fat were prepared from
of 5% MDM to restructured steaks can reduce         frozen cow meat, fresh Utility grade chucks,
costs without changing steak quality. MDM           beef trimmings and MDM. The experimental
added to restructured steaks at the 10% level       design was a 2 x 5 factorial with two sources of
can improve quality and reduce costs at the         MDM added at the 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20% levels.
same time.                                          One lot of MDM was prepared using neck bones
(Key Words: Mechanically Deboned Meat, Re-          from Good and Choice grade steers and a
structured Steaks, Palatability.)                   second lot of MDM was prepared using neck
                                                    bones from Canner and Cutter cows. Character-
                 INTRODUCTION                       istics of each lot of MDM, determined as
                                                    described by Field et al. (1976) are shown in
    Restructured beef steaks can be made from
                                                    table 1. The same Beehive deboner equipped
less desirable cuts of meat and low quality
                                                    with a cylinder with .46 mm holes was used for
carcasses which are usually used for ground
                                                    both lots of MDM. MDM was chilled to 1 C
beef thereby increasing the monetary return.
                                                    with dry ice within 10 min after deboning and
One problem associated with restructured
                                                    then frozen for 5 days prior to use.
steaks prior to cooking is discoloration of the
                                                        All meat except the MDM was processed
lean. Cooked restructured steaks are often          through the Urschel Comitrol 2100 equipped
                                                    with a 3-K-030270-D head and a standard
                                                     impeller (61682). Prior to blending MDM in, fat
    ~Technical Journal Article 904, Department of    content was determined and adjusted with beef
Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie.     fat as necessary. A commercial seasoning con-
                                                 1289
                                                JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 45, No. 6 (1977)


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1290                                             FIELD ET AL.

                      TABLE 1. COMPOSITIONOF MECHANICALLY DEBONED MEAT
                               USED IN RESTRUCTURED BEEF STEAKSa

Source of MDM                       Moisture              Protein         Fat           Ash         Calcium

Neck bones from:
 G o o d and choice steersb         64.9                  18.1            13.5          3.0         .8
 Canner and cutter cowsc            68.7                  17.4            12.0          1.9         .5

   aAll data expressed as a percentage of fresh weight.
   bMDM yielded 54.9% of the neck bone weight and was 18 C immediately after deboning. MDM was chilled
to 1 C within 10 min after deboning.
   CMDM yielded 45.9% of the neck bone weight and was 11 C immediately after deboning. MDM was chilled
to 1 C within 10 rain after deboning.


taining 170 g of hydrolyzed vegetable protein              overall satisfaction were scored on a 9-point
and 142 g of salt per 45 kg of meat was added              hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely and 9 =
and the product was blended 8 min and made                 like extremely). Panelists evaluated steaks con-
into 4.5 kg logs using a vacuum stuffer.                   taining 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% MDM at each
Temperature of the meat logs out of the stuffer            session for a total of 12 sessions. Steaks
was 3 C. The logs were wrapped in polyvinyl                containing different sources of MDM (table 1)
 chloride film, frozen at - 3 1 C for 24 hr, and           were evaluated at alternate sessions so that
then transferred to a - 4 C tempering cooler for           samples from each batch of MDM were served
 72 hours. The film was removed and the logs,              six times.
approximately 50 cm in length, were pressed                    Instron Measurements. Parameters for hard-
under 454 kg of pressure in a modified New                 ness of surface, mushiness of interior, elasticity
York strip die and cut into 2.38 cm thick steaks           of surface and thickness of the cooked steaks
weighing about 226 g each. The steaks were                 were measured objectively using a 1.11 cm
vacuum packaged, frozen at - 4 0 C for 40 min              diameter Magnus-Taylor puncture probe on
and then stored at - 3 1 C for approximately 3             cooked steaks tempered at 21 C and 65%
months.                                                    relative humidity for 5 to 7 hours. Three
    Frozen steaks were placed 7.6 cm from the              replicate measurements were made in different
preheated element of an electric broiler and               areas near the center of each steak. Gauge
broiled 11 min on one side, turned over, and               length was set at 3 centimeters. By subtracting
broiled 9 min on the other side. Internal                  crossbead travel prior to contact with the steak
temperature of the steaks when they were                   surface from gauge length, the thickness of the
removed from the oven was approximately 57                 steak could be determined. The amount of
C.                                                         pressure for the probe to break the crusted
   Panel Evaluation. Eight panel members ex-               surface of the steak on the side heated for 9
perienced in testing MDM as well as other meat             min was recorded as hardness of surface (figure
were served hot sections from each steak on                 1). Elasticity was the distance traveled by the
heated plates. The panel rated each steak for              probe after contact with the steak surface
juiciness on an unstructured scale (horizontal             before a break in the surface of the steak
line) which was labeled extremely juicy on one             occurred. After the crusted surface of the steak
end of the line and extremely dry on the other             was penetrated by the Magnus-Taylor puncture
end. The same type of unstructured scale,                  probe, a reduction in pressure was recorded as
labeled no detectable grit on one end and                  the probe continued to penetrate the interior of
extreme grittiness on the other, was used for              the steak (figure 1). The reduction in pressure
scoring grittiness. Scores were converted to               was used as a measure of mushiness of the
numerical values with the aid of a 9 cm ruler              interior portion of the steak.
with the distance between 0 and 1 cm being                     Statistical Analyses. The data were analyzed
scored as 1, between 1 and 2 cm being scored as            by analysis of variance procedures (Harvey,
2, et cetera. Lowest numbers (0 to 1) were                  1960). Difference between sources of MDM as
assigned to the ends of the scales labeled no              well as between steaks containing 0, 5, 10, 15
detectable grit or extremely juicy. Flavor and             or 20% MDM were tested by Duncan's multiple


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                              RESTRUCTURED STEAKS CONTAINING MDM                                       1291


                                                          ferent levels of MDM were not significantly
                                                          different (P<.05). Nevertheless, there was a
      4                                                   tendency for steaks containing higher amounts
                                                          of MDM to have more undesirable scores for
                                                          this trait. Grittiness was the only trait where
                                                          differences in least-squares means for steaks
                                                          containing MDM from neck bones of Good and
                                                          Choice steers approached a significant (P<.05)
 LG                                                       difference when compared to steaks containing
                                                          MDM from neck bones of Canner and Cutter
 Q:
 (3                                                       cows. Therefore, comparisons between steaks
                                                          from different lots of MDM are not shown in


                  /
                                                          tabular form. Slightly more undesirable grit-
                                                          tiness scores in steaks containing MDM from
                                                          Good to Choice grade steers is related to the
                                                          higher calcium content (.8 vs .5%) when com-
                                                          pared to MDM from neck bones of Canner and


       0
                f~ASTI
           HICKNESS CITY
                     5
                                  I
                                 I0
                                              ]
                                             15
                                                          Cutter cows (table 1). From a grittiness stand-
                                                          point, the amount and size of bone in MDM
                                                          must be considered when determining propor-
                                                          tion of MDM that should be added to restruc-
                      DISTANCE,       rnrn
                                                          tured steaks.
    Figure 1. Typical force-distance curve for Maguus-        Overall acceptance of the restructured beef
Taylor puncture probe readings on restructured beef       steaks was not significantly different. The
steaks. Thickness was the distance traveled before        slightly more acceptable juiciness scores and
contact with the steak surface minus the three cm         slightly less acceptable grittiness scores with
gauge length setting; elasticity (mm) was the distance
over which the sample was under compression before        increasing amounts of MDM in the steaks
the peak height was reached; hardness of surface (kg)     apparently offset each other. Cross e t al. (1977)
was the height of the peak; mushiness of interior was     observed that ratings for overall acceptability of
the reduction in pressure (g) after the peak.             patties containing 5, 10, 15 or 20% MDM were
                                                          greater than for control patties (0% MDM).
                                                          Color is one factor relating to overall accept-
                                                         ability of the steaks which was not scored in
range test (Duncan, 1955). No significant
                                                          our study because the brighter red, more
(P<.05) interactions between source of MDM
                                                          attractive color of the restructured frozen
and level of MDM in the steaks were found.
                                                          steaks containing MDM was obvious. In addi-
                                                          tion, a slightly richer brown surface and a
           RESULTS A N D DISCUSSION
                                                         slightly rarer interior in cooked steaks contain-
    Characteristics of restructured beef steaks          ing increasing amounts of MDM was noted.
are shown in table 2. No significant differences         These color differences were masked by lighting
(P<.05) in weight of the frozen steaks from              during evaluation to prevent bias on the part of
different formulations were present. In addi-            panel members.
tion, moisture, fat and protein percentages for              Instron measurements using the Magnus-
frozen steaks from the different formualtions            Taylor puncture probe showed a significant
were similar (data not shown in tabular form).           decrease in hardness of surface with the addi-
    Panel scores for flavor were not significantly       tion of 10, 15 or 20% MDM (table 2). The
different (P<.05) among formulations but                 "hard-to-cut" surface which often results in
steaks containing the most MDM had superior              steaks being torn apart is one of the most
scores for juiciness (table 2). The finding for          objectionable characteristics of cooked restruc-
juiciness substantiates work of Cross e t al.            tured beef steaks. Addition of MDM to re-
(1977) with ground beef patties containing 0 to          structured steaks at the 10% level is sufficient
30% MDM. They showed that as the percentage              to decrease hardness which should result in
of added MDM increased, panel ratings for                increased consumer acceptance. A further
juiciness increased.                                     check on characteristics of the surface of the
   Grittiness scores for steaks containing dif-          broiled steak was a measure of elasticity. The


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1292                                                                   FIELD ET AL.

           TABLE 2. LEAST-SQUARES MEANS AND STANDARD ERRORS FOR CHARACTERISTICS
                                OF RESTRUCTURED BEEF STEAKS

                                                                                              Percentage MDM added
Trait                                          Control             5                   10                   15                20                SE

Individual frozen steak wt, g                   224.8 a            224.4 a             228.0 a              228.2 a           226.9 a             3.06

Panel ratings
 Flavor d                                          7.10 a               6.93 a              6.98 a               6.85 a            7.17 a            .14
 Juicinesse                                        3.72 a               3.51 a              3.85 a               3.32a, b          2.62 b            .27
 Grittinessf                                       1.46 a               1.45 a              1.74 a               1.64 a            1.87 a            .16
 Overall d                                         6.85 a               6.82 a              6.70 a               6.85 a            7.18 a            .17

Instron values
 Hardness of surface, kgg                         4.10 a             4.30 a              3.48 b               3.29 b            3.50 b             .16
 Elasticity of surface, m.mh                     13.08 a            12.25a, b           11.67 b,c            10.83 c           11.66 c             .45
 Mushiness of interior, gl                      198.4 a            184.7 a             256.8a, b            372.1b, c         429.1 c            51.68
 Steak thickness, cm                              2.62 a             2.61 a              2.64 a               2.62 a            2.67 a             .21

Cooked meat yield, %                              72.25 a              69.67 a           71.83 a             72.00 a            70.92 a              .73

    a'b'CMeans on the same line bearing different letters differ significantly (P<.05).
    dBased upon a 1 to 9 hedonic scale with 9 being like extremely.
   evalues from a 1 to 9 overlay placed on an unstructured scale with 1 being extremely juicy and 9 being ex-
tremely dry.
   fValues from a 1 to 9 overlay placed on an unstructured scale with 1 being no detectable grittiness and 9
being extreme grittiness.
    gMeasured the ease with which the probe broke the surface of the steak.
    hThe distance traveled by the probe after contact with the steak surface before a break in the surface of the
steak occurred.
    tMeasured by the reduction in pressure on the probe after the surface was broken. Greater reduction in pres-
sure was associated with a mushier interior.



d i s t a n c e t h e p r o b e traveled b e f o r e a b r e a k in              u n d e s i r a b l e because of t h e swollen a n d de-
t h e steak surface o c c u r r e d was significantly                            f o r m e d a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e steaks. C a m p b e l l e t
s h o r t e r f o r steaks c o n t a i n i n g 10% MDM w h e n                   al. ( 1 9 7 7 ) r e p o r t e d a similar a m o u n t o f swelling
c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l steaks. Steaks c o n t a i n -           d u r i n g c o o k i n g f o r 2.54 c m t h i c k r e s t r u c t u r e d
ing 10, 15 or 20% MDM were n o t significantly                                   p o r k steaks. T h e a d d i t i o n o f MDM t o restruc-
d i f f e r e n t f r o m each o t h e r f o r this characteristic.              t u r e d b e e f steaks did n o t r e d u c e t h e t h i c k n e s s
      A c c o r d i n g to Cross e t al. ( 1 9 7 7 ) o n e o f t h e             o f t h e c o o k e d steaks ( t a b l e 2). Likewise,
m a j o r o b j e c t i o n s t o g r o u n d b e e f p a t t i e s with         c o o k e d m e a t yield, w h i c h ranged f r o m 6 9 . 6 7 t o
15% or m o r e MDM a d d e d was t h a t t h e y were                            72.25% o f t h e fresh weight, did n o t c h a n g e
t o o m u s h y . T h e r e d u c t i o n in pressure as t h e                   significantly w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f MDM. Cross
p r o b e b r o k e t h e c r u s t e d surface a n d c o n t i n u e d          e t al. ( 1 9 7 7 ) also r e p o r t e d t h a t levels o f MDM
to p e n e t r a t e t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e s t e a k was               a n d c o o k i n g losses were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y associ-
r e c o r d e d as m u s h i n e s s o f t h e i n t e r i o r p o r t i o n .   ated. Field ( 1 9 7 6 ) s t a t e d t h a t s m o k e h o u s e
No significant differences in m u s h i n e s s o f                              shrinkages o f p r o c e s s e d m e a t c o n t a i n i n g MDM
steaks c o n t a i n i n g 0, 5, or 10% MDM were                                 is similar t o t h a t o f c o n t r o l samples.
f o u n d b u t t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g 15 or 20% MDM                             T h e s e d a t a suggest t h a t MDM a d d e d at t h e
h a d a m u s h i e r interior. This objective m e a s u r e                      10% level can i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f restruc-
o f m u s h i n e s s correlates well with c o n s u m e r                       t u r e d b e e f steaks b e c a u s e c o o k e d steaks con-
r e s p o n s e s r e c o r d e d b y Cross e t al. (1977).                      t a i n i n g 10% MDM have a s o f t e r m o r e accept-
       T h i c k n e s s o f t h e c o n t r o l steaks (0% MDM)                 able o u t e r surface t h a n c o n t r o l s . Steaks con-
increased f r o m 2.38 t o 2.62 c m d u r i n g c o o k i n g .                   t a i n i n g 5% MDM were similar t o t h e c o n t r o l s
A n increase in t h i c k n e s s d u r i n g c o o k i n g is                    (0% MDM) f o r all traits studied. T h e r e f o r e , t h e


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                                     RESTRUCTURED STEAKS CONTAINING MDM                                              1293


a d d i t i o n o f 5% MDM t o r e s t r u c t u r e d steaks       Cross, H. R. and M. L. Stanfield. 1976. Consumer
could r e d u c e costs w i t h o u t changing t h e qual-             evaluation of restructured beef steaks. J. Food Sci.
                                                                       41:1257.
ity. R e s t r u c t u r e d steaks c o n t a i n i n g 15 or 20%   Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F
MDM had a s o f t e r o u t e r surface t h a n t h e                  tests. Biometrics 11 : 1.
c o n t r o l s b u t t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r these   Field, R. A. 1976. Mechanically deboned red meat.
steaks t o have m u s h i e r interiors.                               Food Technol. 30:(9)38.
                                                                    Field, R. A., W. G. Kruggei and M. L. Riley. 1976.
                                                                       Characteristics of mechanically deboned meat,
                   LITERATURE CITED
                                                                       hand separated meat and bone residue from bones
Campbell, J. R., K. L. Neer and R. W. Mandigo. 1977.                   destined for rendering. J. Anita. Sci. 43:755.
   Effects of portion thickness and cooking tempera-                Harvey, W. R. 1960. Least-squares analysis of data
   ture on the dimensional properties and composi-                     with unequal subclass numbers. USDA, ARS 20--8.
   tion of restructured pork. J. Food Sci. 42:179.                  Mandigo, R. W. 1975. Restructured meat. Proc. 11th
Cross, H. R., J. Stroud, Z. L. Carpenter, A. W. Kotula,                 Ann. Meat. Ind. Res. Conf., Chicago, IL. p. 43.
   T. W. Nolan and G. C. Smith. 1977. Utilization of                Schwartz, W. C. and R. W. Mandigo. 1974. The effect
   mechanically deboned meat in ground beef. J.                         of salt and tripolyphosphate on restructured pork.
   Food Sci. 42: (In press).                                            J. Anita. Sci. 39:973.




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