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Middleware in Wireless Sensor Networks

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					Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks



           By H. Momeni
                                          Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Goals
• The purpose of this presentation is:
  – find out the challenges with sensor
    network
  – Comparative investigation of several
    middlewares
  – Point out the limitations of present
    generation of middleware



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                                                 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Definition
•   Bridges the gap between applications
    and low-level constructs to facilitate
    the work of application developer and
    Hides complexity of a distributed
    system from user and developers




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                                             Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Common Architecture



   Application                                                  Application


   Middleware                                                   Middleware
                               Network
 Operating system                                       Operating system

    Hardware                                                    Hardware




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                                             Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




The original goals of middleware
• masking heterogeneity
   – networks, end-systems, OSs, programming languages

• providing a useful distributed programming model

• Providing Generic services

• transparency

CORBA, Java RMI, etc. have been very successful in this...
         business applications; legacy systems...


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                                                     Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




So, let’s apply the middleware concept more
  widely...

•   applications
     –   eCommerce,
     –   real-time, embedded
     –   mobile agent systems
     –   peer to peer platforms
     –   mobile computing applications
•   underlying systems
     –   PCs/ workstations
     –   wireless PDAs
     –   embedded devices
     –   network processors
     –   wireless, sensor, infrared etc. networks


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                                               Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




A victim of its own success?
• Provides different services:
   – transactions, fault-tolerance, persistence, load balancing,
     logging, real-time, …  complexity and unmanageability
• prototypes arise to fill the gaps
   – asynchronous middleware, web services, mobility middleware,
     real-time/ multimedia middleware, …  muddleware


• Heavyweight (Complexity in computation and storage)




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                                              Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




middleware Challenges for WSN

1. Abstraction Support
    Large number of heterogeneous sensors
2. Data Fusion
    Various collected data
    communication this data
3. Resource Constraints (lightweight)
    Energy, Memory
4. Dynamic Topology, Environment, Application
    Node mobility, node failure, communication failure




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                                                  Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




middleware Challenges …. (continued)
5.    Application Knowledge
         No generalized middleware duo to limited resource
         Integrate application knowledge into the services provided
6.  Programming Paradigm
7. Adaptability                                            Locality transparency
                                                                 or context
8. Scalability                                                 awareness?
9. Security
10. QoS Support




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                                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Architecture

                      Administration Terminal                                boot, logging


                     Sensor Network Application

                       Distributed Middleware
                                                                             systemwide
 Node A                 Node B                    Node C                      interfaces
     Middleware             Middleware                 Middleware
                                                                               customized
  Operating System       Operating System          Operating System          node‘s software
      Hardware               Hardware                   Hardware
                                                                             different node
                                                                                hardware



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                                                     Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Architecture

                   Host Middleware
 Algorithms       Modules        Services              VM               Dynamic components

              Middleware Management
                                                                        Internal interface
                                                                        (generic middleware)

 Operating System                       Sensor Driver
                                                                        Sensor application
        CPU                                  Sensor




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Architecture




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                                                     Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Approaches
1.     Virtual Machine-based
           contains VM, interpreter,
           Mate, Magnet

2.     Database-based
           Virtual Database
           easy to use interface
           TinyDB, Cougar, SINA, Dsware

3.     Modular programming
           decomposition of application
           Impala, Agilla




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                                                        Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Approaches …
4.     Application Driven
           tune network on the basis of Requirement
           MiLAN


5.     Message oriented
           use publish-subscribe mechanism
           Mire


6.     Event oriented
           Request-reply, Garnet


7.     Service oriented
           Reflective, Flexible, Service-centric, Service oriented


     Page 14 Of 49             Iran University of Science and Technology      November 2006
Impala
                                                    Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Impala
• Zebranet project (long term migration study of wildlife)
• event based programming model

                                                                 CPU, Memory,
                                                                 Wireless Transceiver
                                                                 GPS



                            Data
           Peer-to-Peer
           communication                       Data                            Base Station
           Protocol                                                            (car or plane)
                                                                       Data



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Impala Features
                                                              Applications
•   Code modularity
•   application adaptability and update
•   Fault tolerance
•   energy efficiency                                               Impala
•   long deployment time
                                                          Device Software
• Not data fusion
• not heterogeneity                                       Device Hardware

                                                                        External
                                                                        Updates


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Impala Architecture

   Application A Application B Application C Application D

                  Initialize           Query                 Packet             Data

                         Terminate            Send Done               Timer

    Application        Application
     Updater            Adapter


  Event Filter

                               Device Event               Packet Event        Data Event

                                          Send Done Event           Timer Event


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Mate
                                               Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Mate
• Virtual Machine on top of TinyOs
• Stack-based architecture
• Break down the program
  into small self-replication
  capsules(24 instructions)
• Capsules are self-forwarding
  and self-propagation




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                                                 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Mate Features
•   Simple programming model
•   Small and concise model
•   High security
•   high energy consumption
•   Not flexible to support wide range of applications




    Page 21 Of 49       Iran University of Science and Technology      November 2006
TinyDB
                                                   Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




TinyDB
• query processing

• Multiple concurrent queries

• Network monitoring (via queries)

• Extensible framework for attributes,
  commands and aggregates




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network



Sensor table




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network



Example




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                                                Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




TinyDB Features
• reduce number of messages
• Nice abstraction model
• good aggregation model



•   Not much functionality




    Page 26 Of 49      Iran University of Science and Technology      November 2006
Agilla
                                                Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Agilla
• Mobile agent base and Stack-based Architecture
• move agent from one node to another
• Two instruction to move (clone, move)
• up to 4 agents can run on a node
                                                                     (3,3)

                    (3,1)                      (3,2)



                                               (2,2)

                     clone to (3,1)                                    clone to (3,3)


                     (1,1)                          Fire Detection           (1,3)
                                                        Agent

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                                                    Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Agilla Architecture
 Node @ (1,1)                                                             Node @ (2,1)

 Agents                                                Agents
                                     migrate




                                      remote
  Neighbor                            access                              Neighbor
                  Tuplespace                             Tuplespace
     List                                                                    List

  Middleware Services                                    Middleware Services
    Agilla Middleware                                       Agilla Middleware
          TinyOS                                                       TinyOS




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                                                Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




• The tuple space is local and is shared by the agents residing on the
  node.
• The neighbor list contains the address of all one-hop nodes
• Agents can migrate carrying their code and state, but do not carry
  their own tuple spaces.
• Agilla tuple spaces offer a shared memory model




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                                                 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Agilla Features
•   low energy consumption
•   Increase flexibility
•   reduce code size
•   low security
•   difficult to read and maintain programs




    Page 31 Of 49       Iran University of Science and Technology      November 2006
MiLAN
                                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




 MiLAN
  •   MiLAN is designed for personal health monitor application


                                                                                         High respiratory rate
  Low blood pressure                                                          Respiratory
                                                                       0.8
                Blood                                                           Rate
               Pressure 0.8
                                                                       0.3 Blood O2
               Blood O2 0.7

                                                                       0.8      Heart
                                                                                Rate
                            0.3                                        0.3      Blood
                    Heart
                    Rate                                                         O2
                                                                       1.0
                                                                                ECG
                                                                       0.3    Diagram

Normal Heart Rate                                                              Blood        High Heart Rate
                                                                              Pressure
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                                                Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




MiLAN
• goals: - maximizing application lifetime - providing application QoS
• MiLAN receives a description of application requirements through
  specialized graphs
• MiLAN sits on top of multiple physical networks
• convert commands to protocol-specific commands that are passed
  through the usual network protocol stack




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




MiLAN Architecture




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




MiLAN Architecture




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                                             Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




QoS Support
• The QoS of the different variables depends on which
  sensors provide data to the application

• application performance can be described by the QoS of
  different variables of interest to the application

• variables such as blood pressure, respiratory rate, and
  heart rate may be determined based on measurements
  obtained from any of several sensors



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                                                        Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




• MiLAN must know:
  – The variables of interest to the application
  – The required QoS for each variable
  – The level of QoS that data from each sensor or set of sensors
    can provide for each variable
                   Blood                                                Heart
                  pressure                                              rate

                                                                           1.0
      0.7     1.0        0.8        0.7                1.0        0.7            0.8    0.7
     Blood    Blood    Blood      Pulse                         Blood        Blood     Pulse
                                                       ECG
     pulse    press     flow       oxy                          press         flow      oxy




  Page 38 Of 49                Iran University of Science and Technology                November 2006
Mire
                                                Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Mire
•   publish/subscribe middleware
•   Provides high-level API that facilitates the development
•   implement a data aggregation service
•   Supplier publishes a message and forward to one or more
    subscribers
•   Key elements is notification service and buffer




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                                                 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Mire (continued)
•    Notification service informs subscribers when messages
     arrive
•    The communication between nodes has 3 phases
    1.   nodes in the network advertise their available topics (ec.
         temperature)
    2.   the advertised messages are routed to the sink node
    3.   user application connected to the sink node is able to select
         (i.e., subscribe) the desired advertised topics to be monitored
•    subscribe messages are broadcasted down to the
     network nodes
•    nodes are able to publish their collected data to the
     network
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                                                     Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Mire Architecture
                                   Node Application
                                   Node Application



      MIRES
                     Routing          Aggregation
                     Routing           Service 1                  ServiceNN
                                                                  Service
                                        Service



                            Publish/subscribe service




                                Operating System
                  Sensors             CPU        Radio
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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Publish subscribe service




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Topic advertisement sequence diagram




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Topic subscription sequence diagram




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                                           Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Data publishing sequence diagram




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                                               Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Aggregation service in Mire
Data is aggregated in order to reduce the number of transmission
In this service each Node perform aggregation
A. S. can be configured during the subscribe process
Aggregation function & aggregation policy




  Page 47 Of 49       Iran University of Science and Technology      November 2006
                                                                         Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network


                    Features     Power
                                            Openness         Scalability         Mobility      Heterogeneity    Ease of use
              Approaches       awareness


  VM              Mate            Full          Full             Full              Full           Partial       Little or none


                 Magnet           Full          Full             Full              Full           Partial            Full

                                                            Little or None    Little or None   Little or None
                 Cougar          Partial   Little or None                                                            Full

                                           Little or None   Little or None    Little or None   Little or None
                  SINA            Full                                                                               Full

 DB                                                                           Little or None   Little or None
                 DSWare           Full        Partial          Partial                                               Full


                 TinyDB           Full        Partial          Partial           Partial          Partial            Full

                                                                                               Little or None
 Modular          Impala          Full          Full             Full              Full                              Full


Application                                                                   Little or None   Little or None
                  MILAN          Partial        Full             Full                                                Full



Message           Mires           Full          Full             Full            Partial          Partial            Full


                 Page 48 Of 49              Iran University of Science and Technology                 November 2006
                                                    Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network




Conclusion

•       There is not a method and tool to analysis and evaluation of
        Middleware in WSN
•       current middlewares can not be used for Real time applications
•       most of QoS Features can be apply to middleware specially
        dependability
    –      Reliability
    –      Achievability
    –      Safety




    Page 49 Of 49          Iran University of Science and Technology      November 2006

				
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