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					                      Mexico


Did you know Mexico City is the 2nd largest city
               in the world?

       *Adapted from AP Comparative Government and Politics by Ethel Wood.
          Introduction
 Model LDC
 “Mexican Miracle”
 Zapatistas and Chiapas
 Newly industrialized countries
 2006 Election
Sovereignty, Authority and
Power
  Spanish arrival in early 16th century

  Centralized and authoritarian rule

  Significant economic growth and
   decentralization reshaping political
   system.
Legitimacy
  Revolution of 1910-1911

  Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

  Historical Traditions:
       Authoritarianism
       Populism
       Divisions within elite
       Instability and legitimacy issues
            Political Culture
Some important characteristics of the national identity are:



   The importance of religion

   Patron-clientism

   economic dependency
  Geographical features
 Some geographical features that have influenced the
  political development of Mexico are:

 Mountains and deserts, varied climates
 Natural resources
 A long (2000-mile-long) border with the
  United States
 106 million population
 Urban population
Political and Economic
        Change
 Historical influences
   Independence in 1821
     Colonialism
     Independence/new nationhood
     Porfiriato
              Colonialism
 From 1519 to 1821 Spain controlled the area that is
  now Mexico.

 Social status hierarchy, with Spanish born in Spain on
  top and the native Amerindians on the bottom.

 Colonialism left several enduring influences:
    cultural heterogeneity
    Catholicism
    economic dependency.
      INDEPENDENCE:
  NEW COUNTRY (1810-1911)
 Spain finally recognized Mexico's independence
  in 1821.
 Stability and order did not follow, with a total of
  thirty-six presidents serving between 1833 and
  1855.
 Important influences during this period were:
      instability and legitimacy issues -
      rise of the military.
      domination by the United States
      liberal vs. conservative struggle
          “EL PORFIRIATO"
             (1876-1911)
 Porfirio Diaz - one of Juarez's generals - staged a military coup in
  1876 and instituted himself as the President of Mexico with a
  promise that he would not serve more than one term of office.

 Ruled Mexico with an iron hand for 34 years.
 Influences of the "Porfiriato" are:
       stability
       authoritarianism
       foreign investment and economic growth
       growing gap between the rich and the poor


 Diaz' regime ended with a coup from within the elite, sparking the
  Revolution of 1910.
  Influences since 1910

 The Revolution of 1910 marked the end
  of the "Porfiriato" and another round of
  instability and disorder.
 THE CHAOS OF THE
EARLY 20TH CENTURY
 Revolution of 1910
 Patron-client system
   caudillos - political/military strongmen from
    different areas of the country - rose to
    challenge one another for power.
   Two popular leaders - Emiliano Zapata and
    Pancho Villa - emerged to lead peasant
    armies and establish another dimension to
    the rebellion.
Which led to…

  Constitution of 1917

  Conflict with the Church

  The Establishment of the PRI
    THE CARDENAS UPHEAVAL -
           1934 - 1940
 “The Roosevelt of Mexico” brought change

 Redistribution of land

 Nationalization of industry Investments in public
  works

 Encouragement of peasant and union
  organizations

 Concentration of power in the presidency
THE EMERGENCE OF THE
  TECNICOS AND THE
  PENDULUM THEORY

 Pendulum Theory
 Tecnicos
 Politicos
 Mexican Miracle
Citizens, Society and
State
 Cleavages that have direct impact on the
  political system:

     Urban v. rural
     Social class
     Mestizo v. Amerindian
     North v. south
  Political Participation

 Protests: citizens included in political
  process:
 Tlatelolco Plaza

 Chiapas – Zapatista uprising

 Oaxaca – 2006: fraudulent elections
Patron-Client System
 Roots in warlordism and loyalty to the early 19th century
  caudillos.
 Camarilla
 Most positions within the President's cabinet are filled
  either by supporters or by heads of other camarillas that
  the President wants to appease.

 Patron-Clientism:
      compromise among contending elites
      behind the scenes conflict resolution
      distribution of political rewards
      control in the hands of the government elite
 2006: Controversy over the Presidential election
Voter Behavior

 Factors that influence voter behavior today:
   PRI controlled elections on local, state, and national
    levels.
   Competing parties exist
   Voter turnout high in 1994 - 78%
   Over 60% last two presidential elections
 Factors that influenced presidential election 2006
   Region
   Education
   Income
Civil Society

  PRI = Umbrella party over elites
  Public protests are acceptable
  PRI – state corporatism: controlled
   interest groups
  What’s next?
    Old state corporatism
    Neocorporatism
    pluralism
Political Institutions

  Mexico is a country in economic and
   political transition
  Underdeveloped economy
  Political parties becoming more
   competitive
  Political and economic reforms have
   altered the ways that government officials
   operate.
Developed? Developing?
Or Less Developed?
    GNP per capita
    PPP
    HDI
    Economic dependency
    Economic inequality

  Somewhere in the middle
Transitional Democracy

  Political accountability

  Political competition

  Political freedom

  Political equality
   Mexico’s Democratic
     Characteristics
 Mexico - especially in recent years - has developed
  some democratic characteristics, but still has many
  vestiges of its authoritarian past.

 Another often used standard for considering a country
  a democracy is the longevity of democratic practices.

 If a nation shows consistent democratic practices for a
  period of 40 years or so (a somewhat arbitrary
  number), then it may be declared a stable democracy.

 Mexico does not fit this description.
      Political parties

 Three largest parties:
 PRI

 PAN

 PRD
PRI - The Partido
Revolucionario Institucional
  party is characterized by:

  a corporatist structure

  patron-client system
PAN - The National Action
Party
    PAN's platform includes:
    regional autonomy
    less government intervention in the economy
    clean and fair elections
    good rapport with the Catholic Church
    support for private and religious education

  PAN is usually considered to be PRI's
   opposition to the right.
PRD - The Democratic
Revolutionary Party
  PRI's opposition on the left.
  Their presidential candidate in 1988 and 1994
   was Cauhtemoc Cardenas

  PRD has been plagued by problems
    trouble defining a left of center alternative to the
     market-oriented policies established by PRI.
    Their leaders have also been divided on issues poor
     organization
    Cardenas is not as charismatic as his famous
     father.
ELECTIONS
 Directly elected president, Chamber of Deputy
  Representatives, and Senators, as well as a
  host of state and local officials.
 Typical voter profiles are:
   PRI - small town or rural, less educated, older,
    poorer
   PAN - from the north, middle-class professional or
    business, urban, better educated (at least high
    school, some college)
   PRD - younger, politically active, from the central
    states, some education, small town or urban
  ELECTION REFORMS

 Campaign finance restrictions

 International watch team

 The election of 2000 broke all precedents
  when a joint PAN/PRD candidate -
  Vicente Fox - won the presidency, finally
  displacing the 71 year dominance of PRI.
  Elections of 2006
 Elections in Mexico today are :
 Competitive primarily in urban areas.
   Fraudulent
   patron-client system encourages bribery and
    favor-swapping
   Pressure for fairer elections

   PRI lost in both houses
   Calderon v. Obrador
          Interest Groups

 Business interests have networked with
  political leaders to protect the growth of
  commerce, finance, industry and
  agriculture.
   State corporatism v. neocorporatism

 Labor has been similarly accommodated
  within the system
 Powerful interest group = Educational
  Worker’s Union
Media

  PRI monopolized media

  In 1980’s, media became more
   independent.

  Access to broader range of political
   opinions.
  Government Institutions
 Mexico is a federal republic with three
  branches:
   executive branch
   legislature
   judiciary
 Democratic in name, traditionally the country
  has been authoritarian and corporatist.
 Theory v. Practice:
   According to the Constitution of 1917, Mexican
    political institutions resemble those of the U.S.
   Actually, Mexican system is very different from that
    of the United States.
   Strong presidential system.
The Executive
  Fox v. Labastida 2000

  This election may mark the end of patron-clientism and
   the beginning of a true democratic state.

  Policy making in Mexico had centered on the
   presidency.

  The president almost always was a member of the
   preceding president's cabinet.

  Calderon v. Obrador 2006
        Presidential Details
 The President is the Head of the United Mexican States,
  which is the official name of the country.

 Directly elected by the people

 Fixed term of six years (sexenio). The President cannot
  be re-elected.

 The President appoints a Cabinet of 17 Secretaries, plus a
  Comptroller General and the Attorney General

 President Vicente Fox's administration: Special
  Coordinators have been appointed for Public Policies, the
  Citizens Alliance, the Strategic Planning and Regional
  Development and the National Security Council.
    Vicente Fox
   In 1991 Fox ran for governor

   Ran again in 1995 and won after significant electoral
    reforms.

   In 1997 Amigos de Fox formed - a Mexican-style
    PAC - to help Fox seek the presidency.

   Fox won the hearts of the Mexican voters. His
    pragmatic approach steered the conservative party
    more toward the middle, and even captured PRD
    support, after PRD became disenchanted with
    Cardenas.

   Goals:

        Pluralism
        Decentralization
        Electoral Reform
        Rule of law
        Anti-Narcotics
Andres Manuel Lopez
Obrador
                  PRD

                  Former
                   Mayor of
                   Mexico City

                  Election of
                   2006
President Felipe Calderon

                    President
                     2006-2012

                    PAN

                    Controversy
THE BUREAUCRACY

 Almost 1 1/2 million people work in the federal
  bureaucracy, most of them in Mexico City.

 Officials are generally paid very little, but those
  at high and middle levels have a great deal of
  power.
 Para-statal sectors (quangos)
 PEMEX
         The Legislature
 Bicameral
    Chamber of Deputies
    Senate.
 All legislators are directly elected

 PRI's grip on the legislature slipped earlier than
  it did on the presidency.

 A competitive multiparty system begins to
  emerge
 Chamber of Deputies and
  the Senate.

 Within Congress, senators
  and deputies debate and
  make new laws or change
  old ones.

 Each state is represented
  by four senators, and the
  people are represented by
  deputies (similar to MPs).

 Elections for the Chamber
  of Deputies (500 seats)
  are held every three years,
  and for the Senate (128
  seats) every six years.
             The Judiciary
 Mexico does not yet have an independent judiciary, nor
  does it have a system of judicial review.
 Constitution of 1917 is still in effect, it is easily
  amended and does not have the same level of
  legitimacy as does the U.S. Constitution.
 Federal and state courts
 The Supreme Court is the highest federal court, and on
  paper it has judicial review, but in reality, it almost
  never overrules an important government action or
  policy.
 Historically, then, the courts have been controlled by
  the executive branch.
 Change:
    President Zedillo
    Vicente Fox has vowed to work for an independent judiciary.
            The Military
 Military generals dominated Mexican politics
  throughout the 19th century and into the early
  20th century.

 Depoliticizing the military

 Military has been heavily involved in efforts to
  combat drug trafficking, and rumors abound
  about deals struck between military officials
  and drug barons.
          Policies and Issues
             The Economy
 Standard of living has improved greatly since the 1940s.
      Rates of infant mortality, literacy, and life expectancy have steadily
       improved.
      Provision of health and education services have expanded, despite
       severe cutbacks after the economic crisis of 1982.

 "THE MEXICAN MIRACLE"
 Between 1940 and 1960 Mexico's economy grew as a whole by
  more than 6 percent a year.

    Industrial production rose even faster, averaging nearly 9 percent
    for most of the 1960s.

 All this growth occurred without much of the inflation that has
  plagued many other Latin American economies.
          PROBLEMS

 A growing gap between the rich and
  the poor was a major consequence of
  the rapid economic growth.

 Rapid and unplanned urbanization
             REFORM
 One of the most dramatic economic
  turnarounds in modern history.
   Sharp cuts in government spending
   Debt reduction
   Privatization

 Problems persist today, particularly those
  of income inequality, urban planning, and
  pollution.
    Policies and Issues
      Foreign Policy
 Drug Trafficking

 Immigration Policy

 Maquiladora and NAFTA
   ETHNIC REBELLIONS

 Zapatistas
 The EZLN (Zapatista National Liberation Front began
  in 1994 in the southern state of Chiapas in protest to
  the signing of the NAFTA treaty.

 The Zapatista rebellion was based on ethnicity - the
  Amerindian disaffection for the mestizo, urban-based
  government.
 It has since spread to other areas and ethnicities, and it
  represents a major threat to Mexico's political stability.
Democracy

 Tradition of authoritarianism works
  against democratization.
 Modernization of the economy, the
  political value of populism, and
  democratic revolutionary impulses work
  for it.

 CFE (Federal Election Commission)
             Terms to Know
   Zedillo           Corporatism
   Salinas           Ejidos
   Cardenas          Democardura
                      Los Pinos
   Colosio           NAFTA
   Porfirio Diaz     Municipio
   Emiliano Zapata   PRONASOL
   Bracero           PAN
   Cacique           PRD
                      PRI
   Camarilla         Patron-client
   Capitalinos       Porfiriato
   Caudillos         Sexenio
   Chiapas           Tecnico
   CTM               Toltec
                      Zapatistas
   Asymmetrical      Co-optation
    interdependence   Mexico’s miracle
   Pendulum theory   Mexican Revolution
  Discussion Questions

 What are the lasting consequences of the
  Mexican Revolution on contemporary
  Mexican politics?

 Explain the unique characteristics of the
  office of the President of Mexico.
  Discussion Questions

 Evaluate the term limitation rule of non-
  reelection for Mexico.

 Why was the Chiapas insurgency
  important?

 Explain the significance of Mexico’s
  efforts at election reform.
  Discussion Questions

 Discuss the control of media and its
  relevance to the election process.

 What are the trade-offs between
  developing an export led economy and a
  self-sustaining, subsistence based
  agricultural economy?
Discussion Questions

  Discuss the development and rules
   regarding the separation of church and
   state in Mexico. Why was there an anti-
   clerical movement and what role does
   the church now have in Mexican politics?
  Discussion Questions

 What did Porfirio Diaz mean by the
  statement: ‘Poor Mexico! So far from
  God and so close to the United States.’

 Compare the nationalization of Mexico’s
  petroleum and its domestic
  consequences with that of Nigeria.

				
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