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					     LET’S LEARN HINDˆ
   Through English Medium
  Advanced Hindi Learning and Hindi Literature




  Hindi Levels II and III



             Ratnakar Narale




SANSKRIT HINDI RESEARCH INSTITUTE



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                                               INDEX
                               HINDI LEVELS II & III
               Hindi Level II Syllabus and Teacher’s Guide    xiii
               Hindi Level III Syllabus and Teacher’s Guide   xiv
               Hindi Level II 1st Quarterly rest              xv
               Hindi Level II 2nd Quarterly rest              xvi
               Hindi Level II 3rd Quarterly rest              xvii
               Hindi Level II 4th Quarterly rest              xviii
               The Golden Pages from Book I                   1
                Chart of Alphabet with Vowel Signs            2
                Preliminary Vocabulary of Key Words           3
                Hindi Compound Letters and Words              4
                Ratnakar’s Tenth Noble Truth                  7
                Hindi Vowel Sandhi Chart                      8
                Hindi Level I Charts of Action Words          10
                Ratnakar’s Nine Noble Truths                  12
                TABLE 18, Charts of Twelve Tenase             13
                Charts of Cases                               22
                Chart of Verb Applications                    30
                Ratnakar’s Rules for Hinglish                 31
               Hindi Grammar Keys                             34
               Roadmap for Hindi Meetups and Role Plays       49
               Hindi Verbs                                    58
   Lesson 1 Hindi Word Processing                             59
   Lesson 2 Review of Volume I, Tenses and Cases              61
   Lesson 3 Degree of Comparison                              67
   Lesson 4 Adverbs                                           68
   Lesson 5 Number Conversion                                 69
   Lesson 6 Gender Conversion                                 70
   Lesson 7 Prepositions and Post-positions                   70
   Lesson 8 Particles of Expression                           81


HINDI LEVEL III
   Lesson 9     Hindi freading                                102
   Lesson 10    Role Plays                                    108
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Lesson 11   Letter Writing                                          112
Lesson 12   Idioms and Proverbs                                     115
Lesson 13   Synonyms                                                117
Lesson 14   Words with Many Meanings                                121
Lesson 15   Resembling Words                                        122
Lesson 16   Antonyms                                                125
Lesson 17   One word for Many Words                                 126
Lesson 19   ih>dI k’ mahana saaihtyakar (The Great Hindi Writers)   128
Lesson 20   maere Bajana (My Devotional Songs)                      161
Lesson 21   Bollywood Terminology                                   164
            English Words with Hindi Twist                          165
Lesson 22   Hindi Learner’s
            English-Hindi Fully Transliterated Dictionary           166




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LEVEL-II SYLLABUS AND TEACHER’S GUIDE

Name of the self learner : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Name the Instructor : --------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------


Step 1 :
  (1) Review of Chart of Alphabet with Vowel Signs.             (page 1)
  (2) Review of the Preliminary Vocabulary of Key Words. (page 2)
  (3) Study of the Hindi Compound Letters and Words. (page 3)


Step 2 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level II (for 15 min\).
  (2) Counting to One Hundred in Hindi. (page 9)


Step 3 :
  (1) Review what we learned so far; practicing to speak what we learned in 2 steps (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of Hindi Vowel Sandhi Chart with examples. (page 7)


Step 4 :
  (1) Review of what we learned so far; practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Review of the Hindi Level I Charts of Action Words (page 10)
  (3) Study of Ratnakar’s Nine Noble Truths. (page 12)


Step 5 :
  (1) Review of what we learned so far; practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of TABLE 18. (page 13) Charts of Twelve Tenase.


FIRST QUARTER TEST


Step 6 :
  (1) Review of what we learned so far; practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of the Charts of Twelve Tenase. (page 14)


Step 7 :
  (1) Review of what we learned so far; practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
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  (2) Using the Chart of Verb Applications (page 30)
  (3) Study of Ratnakar’s five Rules for Hinglish (page 31)


SECOND QUARTER TEST
Step 8 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Learning Hindi Word Processing. (page 35)


Step 9 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of Degree of Comparison in Hindi. (page 42)


Step 10 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Use of Hindi Adverbs. (page 44)


Step 11 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of Number Conversion with examples. (page 45)


Step 12 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of Gender Conversion with examples. (page 46)


Step 13 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Use of expressions such as : h& hI (page 47), bh& BaI (page 47), kar kr (page 49),
      va@la@ vaaLaa (page 49), laga@ Lagaa (page 51), cha@he caahe (page 52),


  Step 14 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Use of expressions such as : saka@ saka (page 52), pad<a@ paDña (page 52),
                                @
      gaya@ gayaa (page 52), d<ala@ DñaLaa (page 53), hua@ huAa (page 53), bhar Bar (page 54)


THIRD QUARTER TEST
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Step 15 :
 (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
 (2) Use of expressions such as : sa@ saa (page 55), tak tak (page 55), to taae (page 55),
      o bh& taae BaI (page 55), apna@, apn&, apne Apanaa, ApanaI, Apanae (page 57),
     apne a@p Apanae Aapa (page 58)


Step 16 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Use of expressions such as : ke pa@s k’ paasa (page 58), ke sa@th k’ saaYa (page 58),
       ke liye k’ iLayae (page 59), ke pahale k’ pahLae (page 59), ke ba@d k’ baad (page 60),
       ke pa@r k’ paar (page 60)


Step 17 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Use of expressions such as : ke a@ge k’ Aagae (page 61), ke sa@mane k’ saamanae (page 61),
       ke p&chhe k’ paICe (page 61), ke paha@Ü k’ yahaã (page 61), k& tarah kI tarh (page 62),
       k& taraf kI tarf (page 62)


Step 18 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Use of expressions such as : te hue tae hu] (page 62), na@ cha@hata@ naa caahtaa (page 63),
       na@ cha@hiye naa caaihyae (page 63), ne d&jiye nae dIijayae (page 64),
       ne la@yak nae Laayak (page 64)


Step 19 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Use of expressions such as : fir ifr (page 64), fir se ifr sae (page 64);
       and use of Word Duplication. (page 66)


Step 20 :
 (1) Grand Review of what we learned; practicing to speak what we learned so far.


FOURTH QUARTER, FINAL TEST

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                     LEVEL-III SYLLABUS AND TEACHER’S GUIDE



Name of the self learner or Student in the class: -------------------------------------------------------


Name of the Instructor : --------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------


Step 1 :
  (1) Review of Levels I and II
  (2) Practice of Editing the Mistakes in Hindi Sentences. (page 67)


Step 2 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level III (for 15 min\).


  (2) Satging the Role plays given in Sections 6.1 and 6.2 (page 72)


Step 3 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level III I(for 15 min\).


  (2) Satging the Role play given in Section 6.3 (page 73)


Step 4 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level III (for 15 min\).


  (2) Satging the Role play given in Section 6.4 (page 74)


Step 5 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level III (for 15 min\).


  (2) Satging the Role plays given pages 74-75


FIRST QUARTER TEST (Do the unfinished Tests from Level I and Level II)


Step 6 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak           what we learned in Level III (for 15 min\).
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  (2) Satging the Role plays given pages 74-75


Step 7 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level III (for 15 min\).


  (2) Satging the Role plays given pages 74-75


SECOND QUARTER TEST


Step 8 :
  (1) Review of the 1st Step; practicing to speak what we learned in Level III (for 15 min\).


  (2) Satging the Role plays given pages 74-75


Step 9 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Hindi Letter Writing. (page 77)


Step 10 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Use of Hindi Idioms and Proverbs (page 80)


Step 11 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of Hindi Synonyms. (page 82)


Step 12 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Study of Hindi Words with many meanings. (page 86)


Step 13 :
  (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
  (2) Use of Hindi Resembling Words. (page 87),


  Step 14 :

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 (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
 (2) Use of Hindi Antonyms. (page 90)


THIRD QUARTER TEST



Step 15 :
 (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
 (2) Use of Hindi One Word for many words.(page 91),



Step 16 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Use of Hindi Prepositions. (page 93)


Step 17 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Knowing about the Great Hindi Writers. (page 95)


Step 18 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Learning Hindi Bhajans. (page 121)


Step 19 :
   (1) Review of what we learned. practicing to speak what we learned so far (for 15 min\).
   (2) Knowing the meaning of Bollywood Films. (page 125)


Step 20 :
 (1) Using English-Hindi Dictionary. Grand Review of what we learned; practicing to speak what
   we learned so far.


FOURTH QUARTER, FINAL TEST




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            LEVEL II, MODEL FORMAT FOR THE FIRST QUARTERLY TEST

QUESTION 1 : Read and Write the Following Hindi words five times.
1. savaae|dya --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. raP@¼Iyapar>para --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. baui&maTaa ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Êdyaspa>dna ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. sa\iP@caÛ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 2 : Say it in Hindi.
1. She is not coming today. --------------------------                    2. We will go tomorrow -------------------------
3. They were drinking tea. ---------------------------                    4. Can he drive now? ----------------------------
5. Will you write in Hindi?&. ------------------------                    6. What will you write? -------------------------


QUESTION 3 : Say it in Hindi.
1. She was not here at two O[‘ Clock. ----------------------- 2. The cat was sleeping on the chait. --------------
3. Anita used to come on Sunday. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. They could not run 10 km. ------------------------------- 5. You are a nice person. ----------------------------


QUESTION 4 : Write the names of the verbs (action words) in Hindi :
6. sit ---------       7. go --------          8. do ---------          9. die ---------   10. read -------- 11. drive ---------
12. run --------       13. cry -------         14. can ------           15. want ------- 16. cut --------           17. stay ---------
18. laugh --------- 19. cook ---------         20. tell -------         21. dig --------   22. lick -------         23. buy ---------


QUESTION 5 : Say it in Hindi.
1. Please send me an email. ---------------------------- 2. It is snowing in Toronto. -----------------------------
3. It is raining in Delhi. -----------------------------            4. It is very hot in Kanpur. -----------------------------
5. What would you line to eat? -------------------------- 6. Please give me a cup of tea. -------------------------
7. Please do not close the window. -------------------              8. I ate two samosa@/. -------------------------------------
9. I like Hindi Movies. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10. The tea not hot. --------------------------------------- 11. Where are the new books?. ------------------------
12. You can sit on that chair. ---------------------------- 13. Chris did not come today. --------------------------
14. Say the following numbers in Hindi :                 15,      13,     300,     70,     44,      25,       72,       28,      92



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         LEVEL II, MODEL FORMAT FOR THE SECOND QUARTERLY TEST


QUESTION 1 : Write the order of Hindi SYNTAX for the words of a sentence :
1. @aenaI kI iktaaba bahuta AcCI hE_ Ton& k& kita@b bahut achhi hai.


QUESTION 2 : Write the Hind& names of following words (Refer to the English-Hindi Dictionary):
1. Computer ------ 2. Road -------- 3. Air --------             4. Samplet -------- 5. Wire --------- 6. Tree ---------
7. Story ---------    8. City --------    9. Country -------10. Fire ---------- 11. Water ------- 12. Watch ------
13. Cable --------- 14. Cap -------- 15. Pen -------            16. Butter --------- 17. Tomato ----- 18. Potato ------
19. Wool --------     20. Wheel ------- 21. Oil --------- 22. Office --------- 23. Law --------- 24. King -------


QUESTION 3 : Say in Hindi :
1. Where is Toronto’s airport? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. I will go to London in April. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. She came from Agra in July. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. She does not know it. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. I used to work in Boston. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 4 : Say in Hindi :
1. R&ta@’s brother is in New York. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Neil’s book was on the table. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Do not give him money. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 5 : Say in Hindi :
1. He will come by car. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Niagara is 80 k.m. from Toronto. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Give the letters to Ra@m. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 6 : Say in Hindi :
1. Ra@dha@ used to live in Moti Bagh. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. S&ta@ can write in Hindi very well. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Please call the dogs in now. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




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           LEVEL II, MODEL FORMAT FOR THE THIRD QUARTERLY TEST

QUESTION 1 : Type and Print the following Hindi words :
1. kdr ---------     2. kmaLa -------- 3. dukana ---------- 4. paILaa ----------                      5. saUrja ----------
--
6. oaIoaI --------- 7. paEr --------  8. kma| ----------- 9. stauita ----------                       10. ca>dR ----------


QUESTION 2 : Type and print the Hindi meanings of the following :
1. Where does she live? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. What is your teacher’s name? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. When is Diwal&? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. What was yeaterday? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. What is the name of your city? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Who is in the room? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Where is Himalay? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 3 : say and type in Hindi :
1. Only the money ---------- 2. Money also ------------3. Fruits seller --------------            4. The red one ---------
5. You and me -------------- 6. Tea or milk --------- 7. He went ------------------ 8. She went ------------


QUESTION 4 : Say in Hindi :
1. The car owner is not here. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. He could run 20 k.m. in three hours. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Having seen the movie I went home. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. The cat is fighting with the dog. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 5 : Say in Hindi :
1. The car started to move. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Tony’s car was not there. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Please stop at my house. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Keep the book also on the table. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Keep one news paper on the table also. --------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Lisa@ will not be able to eat four Samosa/. -----------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Bela@ also can not eat four Samosa/. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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         LEVEL II, MODEL FORMAT FOR THE FOURTH QUARTERLY TEST

QUESTION 1 : Say in Hindi :
1. I will work up to 7 O’ Clock. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. They sat near the window. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. I opened the doorwith his key. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Please come with me. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Please give money for the tea. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 2 : Say in Hindi :
1. I will go after 8 O[ Clock. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Please do not sit infront of the door. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Keep the cables behind the computer. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Come tomorrow at Sunil’s place. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Come again on Sunday. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


QUESTION 3 : Tell in Hindi :
1. How to make Samosa/?
2. How to make French Fries?
3. Which good movies you saw this year?
4. How is Delhi (or any other) airport?
5. How to go to Singapur (or any other city)?


QUESTION 4 : Say in Hindi :
1. He jumps like a monkey. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2. Let him go home now. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. Please say it again. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4. Please come again on Saturday. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5. Please come later. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. I want to go now. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. The hospital is infront of the railway station. -------------------------------------------------------------------
8. Have tea after lunch. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9. The airport is on the other side of the river. ---------------------------------------------------------------------
10. I love Hindi. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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TABLE 19 in Level I Book - CHART OF SUFFIXES FOR MASCULINE NOUNS
                      THE Hind& Chart (The English Chart is on the Next Page)


NOTES : (i) ] (e) is added to m\ singular nouns ending in Aa (a@) and (ii) Aae> (oÜ) is added to all
  plural nouns m\ and f\, before attaching any suffix.


                                   m\ (i) a child, m\ (ii) a boy,         m\ (iii) a saint, m\ (iv) a saint
Words ending in #                  (i) A (baaLak) (ii) Aa (LaDñka)        (iii) } (yaaegaI)    (iv) q (saaZau)
with suffix nae     singular# baaLak nae              LaDñk’ nae          yaaegaI nae          saaZau nae
1N\ (Perfect, transitive ) plural# baaLakae> nae LaDñkae> nae yaaigayaae> nae  saaZauAae> nae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 A\      to kae    singular# baaLak kae              LaDñk’ kae          yaaegaI kae          saaZau kae
                 plural#     baaLakae> kae   LaDñkae> kae     yaaeigayaae> kae saaZauAae> kae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 I\ with, by sae singular# baaLak sae                LaDñk’ sae          yaaegaI sae          saaZau sae
                 plural#     baaLakae> sae   LaDñkae> sae     yaaeigayaae> sae saaZauAae> sae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4 D\ for k’ iLayae singular# baaLak k’ iLayae         LaDñk’ k’ iLayae    yaaegaI k’ iLayae    saaZau k’ iLayae
                 plural#     baaLakae> k’ iLayae LaDñkae> k’ iLayae yaaeigayaae> k’ iLayae saaZauAae> k’ iLayae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5 A\ from sae         singular# baaLak sae            LaDñk’ sae          yaaegaI sae          saaZau sae
                   plural# baaLakae> sae     LaDñkae> sae     yaaeigayaae> sae saaZauAae> sae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6 P\      of ka       singular# baaLak ka             LaDñk’ ka           yaaegaI ka           saaZau ka
                   plural# baaLakae> ka      LaDñkae> ka      yaaeigayaae> ka  saaZauAae> ka
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7 L\      in mae>     singular# baaLak mae>           LaDñk’ mae>         yaaegaI mae>         saaZau mae>
                      plural# baaLakae> mae>          LaDñkae> mae>       yaaeigayaae> mae>    saaZauAae> mae>


       on, at par     singular# baaLak par            LaDñk’ par          yaaegaI par          saaZau par
                      plural# baaLakae> par           LaDñkae> par        yaaeigayaae> par     saaZauAae> par
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            TABLE 20 in Level I Book - CHART OF CASES, MASCULINE NOUNS
                  The English Chart      (The Hindi Chart is on the Previous Page)


NOTES : (i) ] (e) is added to m\ singular nouns ending in Aa (a@) and (ii) Aae> (oÜ) is added to all
 plural nouns m\ and f\, before attaching any suffix.
                              m\ a child,          m\ a boy,            m\ a saint,      m\ a saint
Word ending in #              (i) a (ba@lak)       (ii) a@ (ladñka@)    (iii) & (yog&)   (iv) u (sa@dhu)
with suffix ne    singular# ba@lak ne              ladñke ne           yog& ne           sa@dhu ne
1N\ (Perfect, transitive ) plural# ba@lakoÜ ne ladñkoÜ ne yogiyoÜ ne        sa@dhuoÜ ne
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 A\    to ko     singular# ba@lak ko              ladñke ko           yog& ko           sa@dhu ko
                 plural#     ba@lakoÜ ko     ladñkoÜ ko   yogiyoÜ ko        sa@dhuoÜ ko
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 I\ with, by se singular# ba@lak se               ladñke se           yog& se           sa@dhu se
                 plural#     ba@lakoÜ se     ladñkoÜ se   yogiyoÜ se        sa@dhuoÜ se
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4 D\ for ke liye singular# ba@lak ke liye          ladñke ke liye       yog& ke liye     sa@dhu ke liye
                 plural#     ba@lakoÜ ke liye lad<koÜ ke liye yogiyoÜ ke liye[ sa@dhuoÜ ke liye
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5 A\ from se      singular# ba@lak se              ladñke se            yog& se          sa@dhu se
                 plural#     ba@lakoÜ se     ladñkoÜ se     yogiyoÜ se      sa@dhuoÜ se
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6 P\   of   ka@   singular# ba@lak ka@             ladñke ka@           yog& ka@         sa@dhu ka@
                 plural#     ba@lakoÜ ka@    ladñkoÜ ka@    yogiyoÜ ka@     sa@dhuoÜ ka@
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7 L\   in meÜ singular#       ba@lak meÜ           ladñke meÜ           yog& meÜ         sa@dhu meÜ
                  plural#     ba@lakoÜ meÜ         lad<koÜ meÜ          yogiyoÜ meÜ      sa@dhuoÜ meÜ


   on, at par     singular# ba@lak par             lad<ke par           yog& par         sa@dhu par
                 plural#     ba@lakoÜ par    lad<koÜ par    yogiyoÜ par     sa@dhuoÜ par
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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                                              LESSON 5

                                    NUMBER CONVERSION

                    NUMBER CONVERTION : FROM SINGULAR TO PLURAL
(1) If a Masculine word ends in   A, }, }|, q or Q # it remains unchanged in plural numbers.
    ]k zar     û caar zar,         makana û makana,              saaãpa        û saaãpa,
    baaLa      û baaLa,            ±$ñ     û ±$ñ,                dUiPata       û dUiPata,
    LaaLa      û LaaLa,            mauina  û mauina,             haYaI         û haYaI,
    yaaegaI    û yaaegaI,          saaZau  û saaZau,             Lazau         û Lazau,
    kÖw        û kÖw,              rzau    û rzau,               baabaU        û baabaU


(2) If a Masculine word ends in   Aa # Aa changes to ]
    LaDñka     û LaDñk’,           gaZaa     û gaZae,             baDña            e
                                                                              û baDñ,
    AcCa       û AcCe,             kaLaa û kaLae,                 dULha       û dULhe,
    Saataa hE             >
               û Saatae hE,        jaataa hE û jaatae hE>         kÖTaa       û kÖTae,


(3) If a Feminine word ends in A or Aa #      ]ã is added
    rata             >
               û ratae,         baata  û      baatae,
                                                    >             paustak               >
                                                                              û paustak’,
    dukana              >
               û dukanae,       maataa û      maataa]ã,           baaLaa      û baaLaa]ã,
    Lataa      û Lataa]ã,       oaaSaa û      oaaSaa]ã,           rah               >
                                                                              û rahe.
(4) If a Feminine word ends in yaa # yaa changes to yaaã
    icaiDñyaa  û icaiDñyaaã,                       >
                                  kÖi@yaa û kÖi@yaaã,             gauiDñyaa   û gauiDñyaaã


(5) If a Feminine word ends in } or }| # that } or }| is changed to }yaaã
    gaita                >
               û gaitayaaã,      rIita   û rIitayaaã,
                                                   >             itaiYa       û   itaiYayaaã,
    nadI       û naidyaaã,       caI>@I û caI>i@yaaã,            za>@I        û   za>i@yaaã,
    YaaLaI     û YaaiLayaaã,     ibaLLaI û ibaiLLayaaã,          ivaduPaI     û   ivaduiPayaaã
    gaaDñI     û gaaiDñyaaã,     caabaI û caaibayaaã,            ranaI        û   rainayaaã
(6) If a Feminine word ends in q, Q or AaE # ]ã is added to the word
    vastau              >ã
               û vastau],        Zaenau û Zaenau], >ã           /tau          û /tau]ã
    jaUã            ã ã
               û jau],           bahU   û bahu], ã              gaaE          û gaaE]ã


NOTE: Names of relationships remain same in plural.
  maamaa   û maamaa,           caacaa û caacaa,                   naanaa      û naanaa
  taayaa   û taayaa            caacaI û caacaI                    dada        û dada


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                                                LESSON 6

       GENDER CONVERTION : FROM MASCULINE TO FEMININE
(1) If a word ends in A or Aa # it is changed to }|
    deva       û devaI,                dasa   û dasaI,                pau%a         û pau%aI,
    saaLaa     û saaLaI,               naanaa û naanaI,               kaLaa         û kaLaI,
    SaDña      û SaDñI,                baE#a  û baE#I,                naILaa        û naILaI.
(2) If a word ends in Aa # it is changed to }yaa
        ñ
    baU$a      û baui$ñyaa,           caUha   û cauihyaa,             iDbbaa        û iDibayaa,
    mau²a      û mauinayaa            gau¥a   û gauiDyaa              kÖTaa         û kÖitayaa.
(3) If a word (relating to an occupation) ends in A, Aa, } or }| # it is sometimes changed to }na
    Lauhar      û Lauhairna,           gvaaLaa û gvaaiLana,           ZaaebaI   û Zaaeibana
(4) The words (relating to a status) are sometimes suffixed with Aa}na at the end
    pa>iDta   û pa>iDtaa}na,           #akÖr û #kÖra}na,           caaEbae      û caaEbaa}na
(5) To many words ending in A û naI or AanaI is aded
    isa>h    û isa>hnaI,           Qã@     û Qã@naI,                  oaer          û oaernaI
    naaEkr   û naaEkranaI,         devar   û devaranaI,               sae#          û sae#anaI
(6) Some word ending in }| are changed to # }naI
    yaaegaI  û yaaeiganaI,          svaamaI û svaaimanaI,             tapasvaI      û tapaisvanaI
(7) If a word ends in Aana` û Aana` is changed to AtaI
    Bagavaana` û BagavataI,              ÃImaana` û ÃImataI,          gauNavaana`   û gauNavataI
(8) If a word ends in Ak # it is changed to }ka
    LaeSak     û LaeiSaka,           AZyaapak û AZyaaipaka,           saevak        û saeivaka
(9) Original Sanskrit words ending in A # change A to Aa
    ca>caLa    û ca>caLaa,           maUSa| û maUSaa|,                sauta         û sautaa
(10) Some original Sanskrit words are changed to %aI
    kiva      û kvaiya%aI,          ktaa|  û k%aI|,                   saivataa      û saiva%aI
(11) Many masculine words take an unspecific form when changed to feminine gender.
    rajaa    û ranaI,              var    û vaZaU,            baELa      û gaaya,
    pauwPa   û ÅI,                 ipataa û maataa            mad|       û AaErta,
    deva     û devataa,            sasaur û saasa,            ivaZaur    û ivaZavaa


EXERCISE 42 : Change the GENDER of the words given in previous lesson and make PLURAL of the
   words given in this lesson.


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                                                             LESSO 22
                                                HINDI LEARNRS’
                                                       Transliterated
                          ENGLISH-HINDI DICTIONARY
A
                                                  AnaupaisYata, gaErhaijar
Abandon (v\) tya@gna@, chhod>na@ tyaaganaa,                                                    Acknowledge (v\) ma@nana@, kabu@l
 CaeDñnaa*                                       Absolutely (av\) bilkul ibaLakÖLa              karna@, sv&ka@r karna@ maananaa. kbaULa krnaa,
Abbreviated (aj\) san[ks<ipta sa>ixapta          Absorption (m\) s{os<an< oaaePaNa              svaIkar krnaa*

Abbreviation (m\) san[ks<ep sa>xaepa             Abstinence (f\) parhez, tya@g parhejña,       Acknowledgement (f\) kabu@l&, sv&ka@r,
                                                  tyaaga                                        sv&kr<ti kbaULaI, svaIkar, svaI×ita
Abdomen (m\) udar, pet> qdr, pae@
                                                 Absurd (aj\) asan[gat, betuka@ Asa>gata,      Acquaintance (m\) parichay, (f\)
Abduction (m\) apaharan<, bhaga@na@
                                                  baetauka                                      ja@naka@r& paircaya, jaanakarI
 ApahrNa, Bagaanaa
Abide (v\) sahana@, barda@s{ta karna@            Abundant (aj\) prachur, adhik, bahut          Acquire (v\) pa@na@, pra@pta karna@ paanaa,
                                                  paRcaur, AiZak, bahuta                        paRapta krnaa*
 sahnaa, bada|ota krnaa*
Ability (f\) ks<amata@, (m\) sa@marthya          Abuse (m\) durupayog duwpayaaega              Acronym (m\) san[ks<ep sa>xaepa
 xamataa, saamaYya|                              Accept (v\) kabu@l karna@, ma@nana@ kbaULa    Across (av\) ke pa@r k’ paar
Able (aj\) saks<am, samartha, ka@bil saxama,      krnaa, maananaa*
                                                                                               Act (m\) ka@m, ka@rya, karma kama, kaya|,
 samaYa|, kaibaLa                                Acceptance (m\) sv&ka@r, svikr<ti              kma|
Abnormal (aj\) asa@ma@nya, alag                   manzur& svaIkar, svaI×ita, ma>jaUrI
                                                                                 ñ
                                                                                               Act (v\) karna@ krnaa*
 Asaamaanya, ALaga                               Accident (f\) durghat>na@ duza|@naa           Acting (m\) abhinay AiBanaya
Abode (m\) ghar, a@va@s zar, Aavaasa             Accidental (aj\) a@kasmik Aakismak            Action (f\) kriya@, ka@m iÛyaa, kama
Abolish (v\) sama@pta karna@, uka@d>na@          Accomodation, place (m\) a@va@s Aavaasa
 samaapta krnaa, qSaaDñnaa*
                                                                                               Active (aj\) sakr&ya, furt&la@, chapal
                                                  (a place of accomodation for today = a@j      saÛIya, fÖrtaILaa, capaLa
Abortion (m\) garbhapa@t gaBa|paata               ke a@va@s ke liye jagah)
                                                                                               Activity (f\) kriya@, ka@m iÛyaa, kama
Abortive (aj\) nis<phal inaPfLa                  Accomplishment (f\) safalta@, pra@pti,        Actor (m\ f\) kala@ka@r kLaakar
About (av\) 1. kar&b, a@sapa@s, lagbhag           upalabdhi safLataa, paRaipta, qpaLaibZa
                                                                                               Actual (aj\) asl&, sach AsaLaI, saca
 krIba, Aasapaasa, LagaBaga (about ten k.m. =    According (prep\) ke anusa@r k’ Anausaar
                                                                                               Actuality (f\) asl&yat, sacha@&, satyata@
 lagbhag das k.m.); 2. ke ba@re meÜ k’ baare
                                                 Account (m\) hisa@b ihsaaba                    AsaLaIyata, sacaa}|, satyataa
 mae> (a book about India = bha@rat ke ba@re
                                                 Accountant (m\) mun&m maunaIma                Acute (aj\) ghor, tez, t&ks<n<a, prakhar
 meÜ kita@b)
                                                 Accumulated (aj\) ikat>t>ha@, jama@,           zaaer, taejña, taIxNa, paRSar
Above (av\) u@par Qpar
                                                  san~chit }k¤a, jamaa, sa>icata               Adamant (aj\) at>al, dr<d<ha; zidd&, ad<iyal
Abroad (m\) pardes{a pardeoa                                                                    A@La, ±$ñ; ijaªI, AiDñyaLa
                                                 Accurate (aj\) sah&, s{uddha sahI, oau&
Abrupt (aj\) a@kismak Aakismak                                                                 Add (v\) mila@na@, jod<na@, kul karna@ imaLaanaa,
                                                 Ache (m\) dard, p&d>a@, vedna@, s{u@l dd|,
Abruptly (av\) eka@ek, ekdam, acha@nak                                                          jaaeDñnaa, kÖLa krnaa*
                                                  paIDña, vaednaa, oaULa
 ]ka]k, ]kdma, Acaanak                                                                         Addict (aj\) a@sakt, vyasan&, lat>t>u@
                                                 Achieve (v\) pa@na@, pra@pta karna@ paanaa,
Absence (f\) anupasthiti, gairha@jir&                                                           AasaKta, vyasanaI, La@`@U
                                                  paRapta krnaa*
 AnaupaisYaita, gaErhaijarI                                                                    Addiction (f\) a@sakti, nas{a@, (m\) vyasan
                                                 Acid (m\) teza@b, amla taejñaaba, AmLa
Absent (aj\) anupasthit, gairha@jir                                                             AasaiF, naoaa, vyasana,

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Work (m\) ka@m kama                            Wriggle (v\) chhat>pat>a@na@ C@pa@anaa       Yogurt (m\) dah& dhI
Work (v\) ka@m karana@ kama krnaa*             Wring (v\) nichod<na@ inacaaeDñnaa*          Yoke (m\) ju@a@ jaUAa
Worker (m\) s{ramik, majdu@r OaRimak,          Wrinkle (f\) s{ikan, jhurr& ioakna, JaurI|   Yolk (f\) zard& jñardI
  majadUr
                                               Wrist (f\) kala@& kLaa}|                     Yonder (av\) udhar qZar
World (m\) duniya@, jagat duinayaa, jagata     Write (v\) likhana@ iLaSanaa*                You (pron\) tu@, tum, a@p taU, tauma, Aapa
Worm (m\) k&d<a@ kIDña                         Writer (m\) lekhak LaeSak                    Young (aj\) jawa@n javaana
Worry (f\) chinta@, pares{a@n& ica>taa,        Writhe (v\) chhat>pat>a@na@ C@pa@anaa        Your (pron\) tera@, tumha@ra@, a@pka@ taera,
  pareoaanaI
                                                                                              taumhara, Aapaka
                                               Writing (m\) lekh LaeSa
Worry (v\) chinta@ karna@ ica>taa krnaa*                                                    Your honour (m\) s{r&ma@n, (f\) s{r&mat&
                                               Wrong (aj\) agalat gñaLata
Worse (aj\) badtar badtar                                                                    OaRImaana`, OaRImataI
                                               Wrongdoing (m\) anya@y Anyaaya
Worship (f\) pu@ja@ paUjaa                                                                  Yourself (pron\) a@p h& Aapa hI
                                               Wrought (aj\) kr<t, ghat>it ×ta, zai@ta
Worship (v\) pu@ja@ karana@ paUjaa krnaa*                                                   Youth (m\) yuvak, (f\) yuvat& yauvak,
                                                                                             yauvataI
Worst (aj\) sabase bura@ sabasae baura
Worthy (aj\) yogya yaaegya                     Y
Wound (f\) jakhm, (m\) gha@v jañSñma, zaava    Yam (m\) rata@lu@ rtaaLaU                    Z
Wrangle (m\) jhagd<a@, (f\) takra@r JagaDña,   Yard, 3ft. (m\) gaz gajña                    Zebra (m\) gorkhar gaaerSar
  takrar
                                               Yard, court (m\) a@n[gan Aa>gana
                                                                                            Zero (aj\) s{u@nya oaUnya
Wrap (v\) lapet>na@ Lapae@naa*                 Yarn (m\) dha@ga@, su@t Zaagaa, saUta        Zest (m\) ras rsa
Wrath, anger (m\) ros< raePa                   Yawn (f\) jambha@& jaãBaa}|                  Zigzag (aj\) t>ed>ha@-med<ha@ @e$ña-mae$ña
Wreath (m\) ha@r har                           Year (m\) sa@l, vars< saaLa, vaPa|           Zink (m\) jasta@ jastaa
Wrench (m\) pa@na@ paanaa                      Yearn (v\) lalakna@ LaLaknaa                 Zone (m\) vibha@g ivaBaaga
Wrest (v\) chh&nana@ CInanaa*                  Yeast (f\) kham&r SamaIr
                                                                                            Zoo (m\) chid<iya@ghar icaiDñyaazar
Wrestle (v\) lad<na@ LaDñnaa                   Yellow (aj\) p&la@ paILaa                    Zoology (m\) pra@n<&s{a@stra paRaNaIoaaÅ
Wrestler (m\) pahalwa@n pahLavaana             Yelp (v\) ch&khana@, chilla@na@ caISanaa,    Zucchini (f\) lauk& LaaEkI
Wrestling (f\) kus{ti kÖiota                     icaLLaanaa
Wretch (aj\) abha@ga@ ABaagaa                  Yesterday (m\) kal kLa
Wretched (aj\) badnas&b badnasaIba             Yet (av\) ab tak Aba tak




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