02 - Goal 2 - Nationalism & Sectionalism - Nationalism & Sectionalism by pptfiles

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									                  Nationalism & Sectionalism
                             Industry & Transportation

Transportation Revolution ~ Roads
             Some states chartered companies to operate turnpikes – roads for
             which users had to pay a toll. Only a few of the turnpikes made a profit,
             and most failed to lower transportation costs or increase the speed of
             travel.

The National Road was funded by the federal
government. This roadway extended west from
Maryland to the Ohio River in 1818.

Transportation Revolution ~ Steamboats
                 The steamboat was the first major advance in transportation.
                 American Robert Fulton designed the first commercially successful
                 steamboat – The Clermont.

                   Steamboats unlocked the great potential of
                   the Mississippi River. Mostly built in
                   the Northeast, canals provided efficient
                   water transportation that linked farms to the
                   expanding cities.

The best known canal of the era was the Erie Canal. Before the Canal went into
service, it could cost $100 to ship a ton of freight overland from Buffalo to NYC.
The canal lowered that cost to just $4. The Erie Canal helped make NYC the nation’s
greatest commercial center.
Transportation Revolution ~ Railroads
       Railroads were largely developed in Great Britain, and began to appear in the
       U.S. in the 1820s. Horses pulled the first American trains. Inventors soon
       developed steam-powered engines, which could pull heavier loads at higher
       speeds than horses could manage.

Compared to canals, railroads cost less to build.
Trains moved faster than ships and carried more
weight. Their introduction put a quick end to the
brief boom in canal building.
Industrial Revolution
              The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. To protect its
              industrial advantage, the British banned the export of machinery, as
              well as the emigration of workers with knowledge of the technology.
Industrial Revolution – Period in which production of goods shifted
     from using hand tools to using complex machines, and from
     human and animal power to steam power.

Samuel Slater defied the British law and moved to the United States.
Slater used his detail knowledge of the textile machinery to build the
nation’s first water-powered textile mill.


                       Francis Cabot Lowell built textile mills that not
                       only produced thread, but cloth as well. Lowell’s industrial
                       system employed young, single women. These women were
                       recruited from area farms. These young girls became known
                       as “Lowell Girls.” Lowell girls were required to obey strict rules.

They were housed in closely supervised boarding houses.
1. Machines increased the pace of work.
2. Specialization of work.
3. Demand for skilled labor decreased.
Innovations and Inventions
Eli Whitney’s notion of having identical parts that could be used in
place of one another, was revolutionary for the production of goods.
Whitney used the concept of interchangeable parts in his musket factory.
Historical Significance: Made it possible for much more efficient
production of a wide range of manufactured goods.

             Samuel Morse’s telegraph allowed electrical pulses to travel
             long distances along metal wires.

             Historical Significance: Communication was now almost instant.


              Farms became more productive, raising larger crops for the markets.
              Farmers adopted better methods of planting, tending, and harvesting
              crops and for raising livestock.
              Large farms employed the steel plow invented by John Deere.




           Large farms employed the mechanical reaper
           developed by Cyrus McCormick.
                   Nationalism & Sectionalism
                                       Sectional Differences

North Embraces Industry
The War of 1812 cut off access to British goods
(Embargo Act 1807), so the Americans built their
own factories in New England.

After the war was over, British goods flowed
into the U.S., threatening American manufacturers.

Congress imposed a tariff on imports designed to protect American industry. The price
of goods increased by 20-25% because of the lack of competition.

Historical Significance: The tariff helped industries, but it hurt farmers, who had to pay
the higher prices for goods.

Why did factories emerge in the Northeast?
1. There was greater access to capital.
2. The Northeast had more cheap labor to work in factories.
3. The Northeast had many swift flowing rivers that could
   provide water power.
4. The South had land and climate that favored agriculture.

Social Change in the North
Organized labor unions emerged to aid skilled workers. Skilled artisans that were
suffering declining wages organized the Workingman’s Party to compete in local and
state elections.

                                                    Labor Union – Organization of labor.

                      Upper Class
                    (Factory Owners)                Middle class began to move away
                                                    from the crowds, noise, and smells of
                                                    factories. Factory workers, however
                    Lower Class
                      Middle Class                  could not afford that move.
                (Bankers, Lawyers, Accountants,
                 (Factory Workers)                  Neighborhoods, therefore, became
                  Clerks, Auctioneers, Brokers,
                           Retailers)
                                                    segregated by class as well as by race.


                        Lower Class
                     (Factory Workers)
Emigration from Ireland
                In Ireland, a fungus destroyed the potato
                crop, which was the primary food source for
                the Irish poor.

                  It is estimated that 1 million died of
                  starvation and famine related diseases.
                  Immigrants provided for urban growth.
Opposition to New Immigrants
              Nativists campaigned for laws to discourage immigrants or to deny
              political rights to newcomers. In order to defend their interests, many
              immigrants became active in the Democratic Party.

               Nativism – Belief that native-born white Americans
                          are superior to newcomers.



Southern Agricultural Economy
In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which made the
cultivation much more profitable. Previously a minor crop, cotton
became the South’s leading product.
                             The need for slaves increased greatly. Slavery flourished
      Cotton Production      and became deeply entrenched in the Southern economy.
    1793 – 5 million lbs.
  1820 – 170 million lbs.                  Price of a Slave:      Number of Slaves:
                                           1802 - $600            1820 – 1.5 million
                                           1860 - $1,800          1860 – 4 million
                                   Most of the south became too dependent on one
                                   crop. Plantations dispersed population. There was
                                   no urban growth, which was needed for an industrial
                                   economy. The South did not attract immigrants.

Historical Significance: In 1850, the North had twice as many free people as did the
South. That trend increased the political power of the North, especially in the House of
Representatives.

Why did southern whites defend the slave system?
1. Common farmers aspired to someday acquire their own slaves and plantations.
2. Fear that freed slaves would seek bloody revenge.
3. Poorest whites felt a sense of racial superiority.
4. Proslavery forces believed that slavery was kinder to African-Americans than
   industrial life was to white workers.
                   Nationalism & Sectionalism
                                 An Era of Nationalism

Election of 1820
                   In 1817, a newspaper in Boston described politics as entering an
                   “Era of Good Feelings.” The Democratic Republican Party operated
                   almost without opposition.

                   John Quincy Adams received one electoral vote. A spirit of
                   nationalism swept the country.

                   Nationalism – A glorification of a nation.

American System
               Henry Clay advocated the new economic nationalism that was
               taking place under the protective tariffs. Clay called this ambitious
               federal program, the protective tariffs.

                   Clay supported:
                           1. Tariff of 1816
                           2. Second Bank of the U.S.
                           3. Internal Improvements
                                at federal expense.
                                    -ex. National Road




                                  American System




                WEST                    EAST                SOUTH

              Got roads,               Got the            Did not really
             canals, and              backing of          get anything!
             federal aide             protective
                                     tariffs from
                                       the west
John Marshall’s Supreme Court
John Marshall’s Court limited a state government’s
power to interfere in business contracts.
1.Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
2.Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

The Marshall Court insisted that federal law was superior to state law.
1.McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
2.Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Marshall’s Court encouraged the development of large business corporations by
freeing them from meddling by the states.

Economy Experiences Panics
The economy became subject to periodic shocks, or panics. These panics were the
result of “boom and bust ” cycle that is common in capitalism.

        There were 3 great panics that occurred: 1819,
        1837, and 1857. Thousand of factory workers
        lost their jobs and farmers and planters lost
        demand for their grain or cotton.

American Art and Literature
Nationalism also influenced art and literature. Artists
celebrated America’s beautiful landscape. Novelists
expressed pride in the nations immense potential.

Expanding the United States
In 1819, American pressure and Adam’s diplomacy
persuaded Spain to sell Florida to the United States.

                                                    Ratified in 1821, the Adams-Onis
                                                    Treaty, also ended Spanish claims
                                                    to the vast Pacific Coast territory of
                                                    Oregon.

                                                    The British also claimed Oregon, but
                                                    in 1818, the United States and Great
                                                    Britain agreed to share the
                                                    contested territory.
The Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe presented the Monroe Doctrine
to Congress on December 2, 1823.

The doctrine announced that the United States would
NOT allow European nations to establish new colonies
in the Americas, or to interfere with the internal affairs
of independent nations in the western hemisphere.

Historical Significance: Declared that European
monarchies had no business meddling with American
republics. In return, the U.S. promised to stay out
of European affairs.

Missouri Compromise
                         There was a crisis over Missouri’s admission to the Union as a
                         new state. The Union had an equal number of slave and free
                         states – which meant regional power in the United States
                         Senate.

                         Henry Clay crafted the Missouri Compromise. The northern
                         district of Massachusetts would enter the Unions as the free
                         state of Maine to admission of Missouri as a slave state.


The compromise also drew a line across the continent from the southwestern corner of
Missouri to the nation’s western boundary. Territories south of that line would enter as
states. Those north of the line would become free states.

Historical Significance:
The compromised solved
the short-term crisis. But
that crisis had exposed the
growing division between
the North and the South
over the expansion of
slavery.
                  Nationalism & Sectionalism
                         Democracy & the Age of Jackson

Election of 1824
                                               Candidate       Popular Vote   Electoral Vote
Andrew Jackson won more popular             Andrew Jackson        43%               99
votes than did Adams. Neither won             J.Q. Adams          31%               32
a majority of the electoral votes           William Crawford      13%               41
                                               Henry Clay         13%               37
needed for the election. The House of
Representatives had to determine the
outcome of the election.

At the House of Representatives, Clay threw his support to Adams, who became
President. When Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State, Jackson accused them
of a “Corrupt Bargain,” in which he thought Clay supported Adams in exchange for an
appointment as Secretary of State.
Jackson’s Next Campaign
Andrew Jackson relied upon New York’s Martin Van Buren, who
worked behind the scenes to support Jackson. Jackson traveled
the country drumming up support among the voters – a new practice.

                             During this time period, the expansion of
                             democracy was taking place. Property
                             requirements were being abolished,
                             thus many more men were voting. The expansion of
                             democracy did not benefit all Americans.
                             Those still not afforded the right to vote:
                                   • Free African-Americans
                                   • Women
                                   • American Indians
Election of 1828
Jackson’s supporters called themselves Democrats, not Democrat-Republicans.
Andrew Jackson became the symbol of American Democracy (represented the
“common man”). Historians refer to the movement as Jacksonian Democracy.
Jackson won 56% of the popular vote and two thirds of the electoral votes.
A New Party Structure
There was a return to Jeffersonian principles: strong states and a weak federal
government that would not interfere in interfere. Only those principles, Van Buren
argued, could keep sectional tensions from destroying the Union.

The new party rewarded the faithful with government jobs. Van Buren’s “reward” was
appointment as Secretary of State.
Spoils System – Practice of the political party in power giving jobs and
appointments to its supporters, rather than to be based on their qualifications.


Native American Removal
Jackson political base lay in the South, where he captured 80% of the vote. Those
voters expected Jackson to remove the 60,000 American Indians living in the region.
These Indians belonged to five nations:
                                          • Cherokee
                                          • Chickasaw
                                          • Creek
                                          • Choctaw
                                          • Seminole

Worcester v. Georgia
                             Between 1827 and 1830, the states of Georgia,
                             Mississippi, and Alabama dissolved the Indian
                             governments and seized land from the five nations. In
                             1832, after the Indians appealed their case to the federal
                             courts, John Marshall’s Supreme Court tried to help the
                             Indians.



In Worcester v. Georgia, the Court ruled that
Georgia’s land seizure was unconstitutional.
The federal government had treaty obligations
to protect the Indians, the Court held, and
federal law was superior to state law.
President Jackson, however, ignored the
Court’s decision.




                      Andrew Jackson’s Presidency


      Democrats             Elections            Government            Native
      develop a            become the           jobs are given      Americans are
      new party            business of          to members of         removed
      structure.          professional           the winning          using the
                          politicians &         party. (Spoils         Indian
                            managers.              System)          Removal Act.
                    Nationalism & Sectionalism
                             Constitutional Disputes & Crises

The Nullification Crisis
In 1828, Congress adopted an especially high tariff. Southerners
called it the Tariff of Abominations. Jackson’s Vice President,
John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, violently opposed the tariff.

Calhoun had been a strong nationalist. But his opinion changed
after the Missouri controversy of 1819 and 1820. This episode
convinced him that the future of slavery, which he supported,
required a stronger defense of states’ rights. Toward that end,
he began to champion the concept of nullification.

                 Nullification – Concept in which states could nullify, or void, any
                                 federal law they deemed unconstitutional.

                 In 1832, the South Carolina legislature nullified the protective tariff and
                 prohibited the collection of federal tariff duties in S.C. Further, the
                 state threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government
                 employed force against South Carolina. Calhoun
                 resigned the vice presidency and instead became a senator.

In Congress, Daniel Webster of                                 Nullification
                                             Andrew Jackson                    John Calhoun
Massachusetts became the great
champion of nationalism. In 1833,         Opposed Nullification            Supported Nullification
Webster led the way in pushing for
passage of a Force Bill,                   Opposed most tariffs              Opposed all tariffs
giving Jackson authority to use
troops to enforce federal law in S.C. Willing to use force to maintain
                                                                             Willing to secede.
                                                    the Union.

                                                With Jackson’s support, Congress reduced
                                                the tariff. This reduced South Carolina’s
                                                militancy. The crisis had passed. Jackson
                                                and Webster could declare victory.

                                                Historical Significance: The difficult
                                                question of nullification and secession,
                                                however, had been postponed rather than
                                                resolved.
The Bank War
                Jacksonian Democrats suspected that the new
                economy encouraged corruption and greed.
                To Jackson and his followers, industry seemed
                mainly to enrich wealthy people at the expense
                of everyone else.

The Bank had many supporters in Congress. In 1832, they
voted to renew the Bank’s charter. Jackson however vetoed
the renewal.

The Bank’s supporters denounced Jackson as a power-hungry
tyrant trampling on the rights of Congress. The veto
shocked them because the previous Presidents had so rarely used that power – only
nine times in forty-two years.
                            Reasons for Chartering the Bank
                            ~ To establish a national paper currency
                               ~Manage Government Finances
                                   ~ Regulate private banks



           Bank Supporters                                Bank Opponents (Jackson)

        ~ The Bank supplied a stable                      ~ Bank favors rich investors.
      currency which helped economic                    ~Control of the banking is too far
                  growth.                                   removed from the public.
     ~Important to regulate state banks.                   ~Restrains private bankers.
    ~Imposes restraint on issuing credit.


                    Led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, in 1832 the Bank’s friends
  The Whig          formed a new political party known as the Whigs. The Whigs were
    Party           nationalists who wanted a strong federal government to manage the
   Forms            economy.

Relying on a broad interpretation of the Constitution, they favored
the American System of protective tariffs, internal improvements,
and a national bank.

Historical Significance: The emergence of the Whigs renewed
two-party politics in the United States. The Whigs challenged
Jackson’s Democrats in local, state, and national elections.
              Jackson was able to undermine the Bank, but the destruction weakened
              the economy. Relieved from federal regulation, state banks expanded,
              inflating prices with a flood of paper bank notes. The inflation hurt the
              common people that Jackson had professed to help.

                                              The face of value of bank notes exploded from:
                                                          $10 million in 1833 to
                                                           $149 million in 1837.
Politics After Jackson
Economic troubles were plaguing the country when Martin Van Buren took office in
1837, the economy suffered a severe panic. A key trigger was Jackson’s decision,
taken months earlier, to stop accepting paper money for the purchase of federal land.

                    Results:•
                       Hundreds of banks & businesses that had invested in land
                         went bankrupt.
                       Thousands of planters and farmers lost their land.
                       1 out of 3 urban workers lost their jobs.
                       Those who kept their jobs saw their wages drop by 30%
                       The Panic of 1837 was the worst depression suffered by
                         Americans to that date.

The Whigs Taste Brief Victory
The depression in 1837 revived the Whigs. In 1840, they
ran William Henry Harrison for President and John Tyler
for Vice President. The Whigs ran a campaign that was light
on ideas but heavy on the sort of theatrics that would
become common in American politics.




Turning the political tables, the Whigs persuaded voters that Van Buren was
ineffective, corrupt, and an aristocrat who threatened the republic. Harrison won the
Presidency, and the Whigs succeeded in capturing Congress.

                    A month after assuming office, Harrison died of pneumonia. Vice
                    President John Tyler of Virginia became the President. Tyler
                    surprised and horrified the Whigs by rejecting their policies.

                    The Whigs would have to wait for a future election to exercise
                    full control of the government.

								
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