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Ground Search _ Rescue Operations

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					     GROUND
 SEARCH & RESCUE
   OPERATIONS
Overview For Fire Departments
York Sunbury Search & Rescue
SAR Managers:
Glen Martin & Kenn Hong
                 Agenda
► Why  a search is an emergency
► Who is responsible for search operations
► Activation, Subject Behavior Categories,
  Tactics
► Agency resources
► Do’s and Don’ts
► Optional – Andy Warburton (25 video)
A SEARCH IS AN EMERGENCY:

►   In the recent past, most SAR teams approached
    search situations by flooding the area with large
    numbers of often untrained searchers. These
    individuals were often lined up shoulder-to-
    shoulder to comb the areas from the Point Last
    Seen (PLS).

►   This was often unsuccessful.        Often the
    individuals were not found or were found dead,
    days, weeks, months or years later.
    A SEARCH IS AN EMERGENCY
                        (Cont…)

Why was this process so unsuccessful?
►   Survival Time
      Main cause of death – Hypothermia.
      Of those found dead, 50% died within the first day
       and an additional 24% died within the second day.
      A rapid response is critical, especially in the
       Maritime environment (cold, damp, temperature
       fluctuations).
 Who is responsible for SAR
Operations in the Maritimes?




► Depends   on the “type” of incident
              Canadian SAR
Minister of National Defense responsibility:
Involves 15.5 million square kilometers
► Includes land & territorial waters, sections
  of the Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans.




                       Grand Lake, 2007
             Federal Level


► Canadian  Forces
  - mandated by federal cabinet in 1947 to
  coordinate SAR operations
► JRCC (Joint Rescue Coordination Centre)
3 SAR Zones in Canada
                        JRCC
► JRCC   Halifax is responsible for the coordination of
  all SAR operations associated with Aircraft and
  Marine emergencies in Eastern Canada.
► Collects and distributes essential information
  concerning a distress situation, arranges the
  dispatch of rescue assets & personnel to those
  aircraft or ships in distress. Coordinates the efforts
  of all responding resources
► Resources can be Federal, Provincial or
  Commercial.
 JRCC Halifax
(Joint   Rescue Coordination Center)
                  Jurisdiction
► InCanada, the overall responsibility for land
 and “inland” water SAR rests with the
 provinces, territories, and municipalities
 (Federally owned parks – excepted)
► SARinvestigations and Ops typically
 delegated to the Police Force of Jurisdiction
 (RCMP or Municipal)
    N.B. Law Enforcement Agencies
► Municipal       (8)   ► RCMP
-   Bathurst            All other areas – RURAL
-   Edmunston
-   Fredericton
-   Grand Falls
-   Miramichi
-   Rothesay
-   Saint John
-   Woodstock
                              K9 Search Teams – Allendale Rd 2010
                                     (RCMP, FPF, YSSR)
               SAR Mandate
              RCMP – “J”DIV
► To  provide SAR services in the most effective
  manner
► Places special emphasis on response,
  interdepartmental co-operation, prevention
  and volunteers
► Response
  - JDIV provides one SAR coordinator (ensures
  regional issues including policy, training and
  resources are promptly addressed).
              RCMP - Districts
► Detachment    Commanders ensure complaints of
  lost or overdue persons are promptly investigated.
  Lost/Missing report compiled. A SAR (MLPI)
  trained I.C. is appointed and searching is initiated.
► RCMP I.C. assumes overall on-site authority for
  organizing, managing the actual search
► The assistance of a SAR-trained Civilian Search
  Manager & SAR trained volunteers “may” be
  requested.
      RCMP – Initial Responses
May involve one or more of the following:
- Police Dog Services - Team
- Trained Volunteer SAR civilian dog team
- RCMP Hasty Teams, Dive Team
- RCMP helicopter equipped with FLIR
- Trained volunteer specialist teams (high angle,
  avalanche, white water, ice rescue etc. )
- Trained human trackers and other SAR trained
  persons.
   RCMP– Extended responses
More concentrated searches may involve the
  use of:
- SAR-trained volunteer teams
- Civil Air Search & Rescue Assoc (CASARA)
  or other provincial agencies with SAR
  capabilities: or
- Can Coast Guard Auxiliary (inland water)
                  RCMP JDIV
            (Interdepartmental Cooperation)

Formal written agreements (MOU) with:
- NBGSARA (NB Ground Search & Rescue Assoc)
- CASARA (Civilian Air Search & Rescue)
- CMRA (Canadian Marine Rescue Assoc/CGA)
- Canadian Parks Service (Fundy National)
- DNR (Dept Natural Resources)
- Work Safe NB (injury compensation for volunteers
  and other SAR related NGOs with standards)
           Lost Person Reports
► Family often delays reporting due to various
  reasons (wait & see, miscommunication etc)
► Reporting party must call 911 and be connected to
  the correct agency
► RCMP D2 starts investigation
  - determines if additional resources are required
  (urgency & risk scale).
  - estimated 98% of all missing/lost person files do
  not require SAR resources (called “investigative”)

     ► RCMP    Search Urgency Checklist
      Responding Police Agency
► Investigation
  - starts with police:
  (circumstances, PLS, description: physical, mental,
  clothing & equipment etc)
► Investigation must always continue…most Lost
  person complaints are resolved through
  investigative means.
► Criminality: “Lost” vs “Abducted” vs “Evading”
                 Activation
► Depending   on Investigation Police may
  choose to only deploy it’s own resources
  (K9, Helicopter & members)
► or include part or all of the local SAR Team.




                 General Briefing – Allendale Rd 2010
             RCMP - Volunteers
► Properly  trained civilian volunteers can be equally
  as effective as highly trained paid professionals –
  often more available
► Civilian SAR managers train alongside RCMP IC at
  RCMP JDIV sponsored MLPI courses.
► Provincial standards and certifications pre-
  determine qualifications (Searcher I, II, FTL,
  MLPI)
► K9 Teams – IC must ensure both dog & handler
  will recognize clues, will not destroy evidence,
  injure the lost person or become lost or injured
  themselves
   Incident Command System
           Five Major Functions (basic)
                        Incident Command
                  SAR Commander (law Enforcement)
                       SAR Manager (Civilian)

                         (Unified Command)




Planning                    Operations
                                                    Logistics




                          Grand Lake 2007
                  Incident Command System
                                                 Expanded Operations
                                                                 Incident Command
                                                           SAR Commander (law Enforcement)
                Public Information Officer
                                                                SAR Manager (Civilian)


                    Safety Officer                                (Unified Command)                          Deputy SAR Manager


                    Liaison Officer


                PSC                                                     OPS
                                                                                                                   LSC


Investigation                      ReStat          Comms Operator               Rapid Response
                                                                                                  Check In                    Equipment


                                                    Division/Group               Division/Group


                                                        Team




                                                        Team                          Team




 SM Required

 SM Preferred                                Limits span of control to 7 or less people
                  30 Subject Categories
                               ESRID Statistics
►   Abduction                             ►   Mental Retardation (Intellectual
►   Aircraft                                  disability)
►   Angler                                ►   Mountain biker
►   ATV                                   ►   Other (BASE jumper, Extreme
►   Autistic                                  sports, Motorcycle)
►   Camper                                ►   Runner
►   Caver                                 ►   Skier – Alpine
►   Child (1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15)   ►   Skier – Nordic
►   Climber                               ►   Snowboarder
►   Dementia                              ►   Snow Shoer
►   Despondent                            ►   Substance Abuse
►   Gatherer                              ►   Urban Entrapment
►   Hiker                                 ►   Vehicle Related (4WD, abandoned)
►   Horseback rider                       ►   Water Related (Powered & Non
                                              powered boats, person in water)
►   Hunter                                ►   Worker
►   Mental Illness
           Most common type of subject categories in our region:


►   Abduction                             ►   Mental Retardation (Intellectual
►   Aircraft                                  disability)
►   Angler                                ►   Mountain biker
►   ATV                                   ►   Other (BASE jumper, Extreme
►   Autistic                                  sports, Motorcycle)
►   Camper                                ►   Runner
►   Caver                                 ►   Skier – Alpine
►   Child (1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15)   ►   Skier – Nordic
►   Climber                               ►   Snowboarder
►   Dementia                              ►   Snow Shoer
►   Despondent                            ►   Substance Abuse
►   Gatherer                              ►   Urban Entrapment
►   Hiker                                 ►   Vehicle Related (4WD, abandoned)
►   Horseback rider                       ►   Water Related (Powered & Non
                                              powered boats, person in water)
►   Hunter                                ►   Worker
►   Mental Illness

                 Which type of categories would be most “urgent” ?
              Lost Person Behavior
                    ESRID Research Data

Subject categories are determined in order of:
1. Subjects Mental Status (autistic, dementia,
     despondent, etc)
2.   Subject’s age (if age 15 or under)
3.   Subject’s primary activity
        Information Per Category
               (Sample)
► Subject profile
  (Child 10-12 page 148)

► Suggested  additional investigative questions
  (Child 10-12 (23 questions)
           Child (Pre Teenager) 10-12
                            Initial Reflex Tasking

Investigation:                          Initial Planning Point
- Determine planning data (subject      - Local search
    category, distance rings)           - Highly systematic structure/
-    Determine searching data               grounds search
    (description, experience,           - Tracking dogs
     circumstances)                     - Task sign cutters/trackers
-    Home range, places child tends     - Search neighbors’ yards where
     to play or prefer                      child tends to play
-    Focus on lost person scenario      - Repeat above searches
     with concurrent criminal
     investigation
-    decide if child meets “Amber”
     alert criteria
       Child (Pre Teenager) 10-12
                  Initial Reflex Tasking

Hub/Immediate Area:           Containment:
- Canvas campground or        - Establish containment
  neighborhood                - Use statistical max zone or
- Thorough search to            theoretical zone.
  median distance, sweep      - Containment provided by
  area with dogs                road patrols, road blocks,
- Notify community by           etc
  media, emergency            - In urban environment use
  telephone, and door to        road, bike, air patrols.
  door.                         Contain entrances to gated
- Aerial search                 communities.
       Child (Pre Teenager) 10-12
                  Initial Reflex Tasking


High Probability Tasks:
- Check historical finds
- Previous lost locations
- High hazard areas,
  trunks
- vehicles
- Brush areas
- Recreational areas
                                           Waterford, 2009
           Tactical Considerations
► Apply    resources in the proper sequence
- (K9 and Sign Cutters before search teams)
► Tactics vary with Subject category (e.g. “sound”
  attraction may not be effective or recommended
  for Autistic, Children, Dementia, Despondent,
  Mental Illness, Intellectual Disability categories)
► Resource types vary with subject category
  -Indirect: let the subject come to you (lights, sirens, whistles etc)
  -Direct: Hasty, Sound Sweep, Critical Separation, Grid Search
              Resource Types
► Public Safety Agencies (Trained)
  - Police, GSAR, CG/CGA, FD, EMS etc
  each agency has it’s own role based on
  authority, training and equipment.
► Optional (many pros, cons & restrictions)
  - Family members
  - Local residents
  - Drive in’s



                                  Nashwaak River, 2009
         Spontaneous Volunteers
Source                                   Pros/Cons:
Family members                               - motivated but may not
                                             be physically or
                                             emotionally fit.
                                             - Familiar with subjects
Local residents                              personality etc.
                                           - Familiar with geography &
                                             local resources, unknown
                                             reliability, CPIC required
Drive in’s                                  - Possible source of extra
                                             bodies for some
                                             tasks/untrained, unknown
                                             reliability, CPIC required

             Police – responsible to conduct criminal records check
       Personnel                   Equipment

RCMP   -IC                         -4x4/ATV/Snowmobiles
       -Investigators              -HelicopterAccess (RCMP, DND, Other)
       -Confinement  & patrols     -Radio & cell communications
       -Media relations
       -Dive Team



GSAR   25-30 local responders      -Command   Post (fully equipped digital mapping
                                   & GPS navigation)
       -SAR manager & overhead
                                   -Radio & cell communications
       - Trained type I, II, FTL
                                   -Rescue wheel, first aid supplies, body bags etc
       searchers (CPIC cleared)
                                   - mountain bikes, generator, lights, tent
                                   -Members with personal Kayaks


UKFD   -Tasking for:               -Rescue  Van, jet boat, chain saws, rescue
       - water search, transport   wheel, first aid supplies, generator, lights
       -Confinement, patrols,      thermal camera, radio communications,
       -Thermal cam searches
                                   rescue sled
       buildings etc               -Members with personal ATV’s
       (CPIC?)
                      Do’s & Don’ts
FD Agency:
► Refer all media inquiries to ICP
► Respond when requested to command base or agreed upon location
  (no emergency lights or sirens unless specified)
► Send 1 F.D. commander to SAR CP with resource list, meet with SAR
  overhead, tasks will be delegated through 1 FD commander to all
  responding FD’s.
► Document and debrief ICP Ops staff on tasking progress &
  completeness.
► Provide FD portable to GSAR CP. Avoid agency specific codes. Speak in
  the clear or use cell additional privacy is required.
► ATV Policy: must have License, training, insurance & protective
  clothing. Only deploy if requested.


                                                             Footprint
                      Do’s & Don’ts
FD Members:
► Refer all Media to Command Post (Law enforcement member).
► Respect chain of command. Wait for tasking (reduces contamination)
► Professional behavior (i.e. no black humor, assume family is present).
► Pass along information from the field back to the I.C.P. (don’t assume)
► Evidence: don’t disturb in any way. Protect from others, report !
► Improve subject detection: reduce noise from equipment, clothing, non
  search related communications. No smoking or discarding items on the
  ground (false evidence) etc.
  - flashlight discipline (maintain night vision).
► K9: stay away from it, if approached do not react, stay still, cross
  arms, Do not vocalize to animal – handler will control it.
► Keep notes regarding tasks.




                                      Evidence, Allendale Rd 2010
                  ATV Policy
► Owner    (19 yrs or older) must:
► Have no criminal record (CPIC if necessary)
► Sign Liability release form, follow instructions (no
  ad hoc).
► Have valid: Drivers license, registration, ATV
  operators card, INSURANCE
► Have Communications (cell, radio)
► Must be briefed on subject details and special ATV
  tactics.
      Andy Warburton Search
► Canada’s largest search operations
(25 min video)

				
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