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Diapositive

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 39

									       GOYA
“The Sleep of Reason
Produces Monsters.”    Inflation




     Returning to
   reasonable, old,
  efficient physics.
                                                                  2

       “Anomalous” frequency shifts in
        astrophysics. By Jacques Moret-Bailly May 2006
               Jacques.Moret-Bailly@u-bourgogne.fr

I       Spectroscopy.

I. 1    Conditions for Doppler-like frequency shifts.
I. 2    Coherent Raman Effect on Incoherent Light (CREIL).
II   Propagation of a far UV continuous spectrum beam in atomic
hydrogen: periodicities, generation of circles.
III     Applications in astrophysics.
III. 1 In the solar system.
III. 2 Origin of the “CMB”.
III. 3 High redshift objects.
                                                           3
         I) Spectroscopy
I. 1Conditions for Doppler-like                frequency
shifts


 I. 1. 1 Regular physics.
 I. 1. 2 No blurring of the images.
 I. 1. 3 No blurring of the spectra.
 I. 1. 4 (Nearly) constant relative frequency shifts.
 I. 1. 5 Not Doppler shifts.
                                         4

              I. 1. 1 Regular physics.

Usual optics, spectroscopy,
 thermodynamics.
No “new physics” such as:
  Dark matter
  Dark energy
  Inflation
  ...
                                                  5


      I. 1. 2 No blurring of the images.

Coherent light-matter interactions:
Same interaction between any involved
 (molecular,...) dipole and the local involved
 electromagnetic fields.
Consequence:
From Huygens construction and Fresnel rules,
  if the number of involved molecules is large,
  the wave surfaces and images are clean.
                                                  6

            I. 1. 3 No blurring of the spectra.

A monochromatic wave must be transformed
 into a single, frequency-shifted
 monochromatic wave.
If the interactions are scatterings:
-i) the scattered wave must interfere with the
   exciting wave into a single frequency wave.
   (from the coherence, these waves have the
   same wave surfaces)
- ii) ./.
                                                       7
- ii) As the number of involved molecules is large, the
individual exchanges of energy are infinitesimal, not
quantified.
The molecules are perturbed by the waves to
non-stationary states and return to the initial stationary
state : it must be a parametric effect (i. e. matter is a
catalyst allowing interactions of the waves).
Several waves exchange energy while the molecules
are not (de)excited permanently.
The exchanges of energy must obey thermodynamics:
from hot beams, redshifted (usually light, from
Planck's law) to cold beams (usually radiofrequencies).
                                                     8



          I. 1. 4 (Nearly) constant relative
                  frequency shifts.


A strict constant relative frequency shift , as in a
Doppler effect, is not required:
 Observed variations of  are interpreted in the
“big bang” theory by a variation of the fine structure
constant.
                                                       9
        I. 1. 5 Not Doppler frequency shifts.
 t=0

            t>0
                                                R
            Relative speed: (s-r)t
A continuous wave emitted by S is received at a lower
 frequency by R. The number s-r of cycles (wavelengths)
between S and R increases : it is a Doppler effect.
Consequence: The theory of a Doppler-like effect must fail
using a CW source.
Corollary : A time-coherence parameter must appear in the
theory of a Doppler-like effect.
                                                                        10
           I. 2 Coherent Raman Effect
          on Incoherent Light (CREIL).
I. 2. 1            Recall of refraction, that is of coherent Rayleigh
scattering.

I. 2. 2       Replacing coherent Rayleigh scattering by coherent

Raman.

I. 2. 3            Preservation of space-coherence with ordinary light

:

●   Low frequency Raman resonance.

●   low pressure gas.
                                                               11
          I. 2. 1 Recall of refraction
                           Coherent Rayleigh
   Classical :                scattering :
                              E0K sin t
          E0cos t
                                      }         E0cos(t-K)

    Close wave
                      
    surfaces
E=E0[cos(t) +K sin(t)]=
= E0[cos(t) cos(K) + sin(K) sin(t)]=
= E0 cos(t-K)                                (1)
Definition of the index of refraction n, setting:
K = 2n/ = n/c (2)
                                                      12

Quantum point of view on refraction:
Set the (stationary) wave function of a refracting medium
A perturbation by an electromagnetic wave Wi transforms 
into a “dressed” (non stationary) state ii
 i emits the scattered wave delayed of  having the sam
wave surfaces than the exciting wave.
The EM wave Wi perturb  into ii .                     13


Two simultaneously refracted EM waves Wi and Wj
transform
  intoij.
ij is not equal to ij if it exists an interaction operator O
such that (i |O| j
transfers energy, produces frequency shifts of the
refracted beams.
may result from a global behaviour (plasma) or from
molecular properties, through Raman type interactions
because the molecular states excited by Wi and Wj have
the same symmetries.

               Look at Coherent Raman Effects !
       I. 2. 2 Replacing coherent Rayleigh scattering 14
I
           (which produces refraction) by coherent Raman
                                 scattering.
    For coherent anti-Stokes scattering, (1) is replaced by:
                E = E0[sin(t)(1-K') + K' sin((+t )] with K' > 0
                                           ~1
           = E0[sin(t)(1-K') + K' sin(t)cos(t) + K' sin(t)cos(t)]
    K' is infinitesimal, and t is assumed small :
                     E0[sin(t)      +      sin(K' t)cos(t) ]
      E0[cos(K' t)sin(t) + sin(K' t)cos(t)] = E0 sin[(K' t] (3)
               ~1
    For Stokes scattering, K' is replaced by a negative K”. K'+K” is
    proportional to exp(-h /2kT)-1, approximately to /T. Thus, the
    frequency shift is proportional to
                         K'+K”)  T.        (4)
    As in refraction, the Ks are proportional to  if the dispersions of the
    polarisabilities are neglected. Thus  is nearly constant.
            I. 2. 3 Preservation of space-                       15

                ●
                        coherence resonance.
                 Low frequency Raman :
 The interactions starting at the beginning of a pulse, keeping t
  small along a light impulsion, requires a Raman period larger
 than the length of the impulsion, that is than the coherence time
                        ●   Low pressure gas.
To avoid a destruction of the space coherence, the collisional time
             must be longer than the coherence time.
   We verify that “ultrashort” (i.e. “shorter than all relevant time
       constants”) light pulses allow to keep the coherence.
         (G. L. Lamb, Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99-124, 1971)
 Problem :                                                  16
It cannot be any permanent exchange of energy between the
molecules and the light because the molecules must return to
their stationary state after the interaction ... It is necessary
that the interaction involves several beams, so that the final
balance of energy is zero for the molecules.
This coherent effect is “parametric”. The molecules act as a
catalyst.

The “Coherent Raman Effect on Incoherent Light” (CREIL)
is a SET of elementary coherent Raman effects (followed by
interference with the exciting beams) in which transfers of
energy obey thermodynamics .
                                                                     17

                        CREIL effect

Cold beams
(generally radio,                         Hot beam(s): redshifted
thermal background)           Active
                             medium
                            (catalyst)     Cold beams: blueshifted
      Hot beam(s)
    (generally light)
               Temperatures from Planck's law

    No blurring of images (space-coherence preserves the wave
    surfaces)
    Nearly constant relative frequency shift 
                                                                    18
    I. 2. 4         Application to astrophysics.
Lamb's conditions are fulfilled in any matter using femtosecond pulses;
the coherence time of ordinary light is much longer (some nanoseconds).
Long enough a collisional time requires a gas pressure generally lower
than 1000 pascals.
The frequency of the required Raman resonance must be lower than
some MHz, but not too low (formula 4 : shift proportional to 2) to
produce strong CREIL effects. Such low frequencies are not
common, or they appear in states whose population is low.
Neutral atomic hydrogen has a too high Raman frequency (1420
MHz) in its ground state. It has convenient frequencies in the 2S1/2
states (178 MHz), in the 2P1/2 states (59 MHz) and in the 2P3/2 states
(24 MHz).
Hydrogen in these states will be noted H*.
  I. 2. 5   Quest for “anomalous” frequency shifts.
It is a quest for excited atomic hydrogen H*.                      19
As the CREIL effect increases the entropy of a set of simultaneously
refracted beams, we must search the temperature of these beams by
Planck's law. Usually, the high frequency beams are hot, therefore
redshifted; the thermal, radio beams are cold, blueshifted.

H* may be obtained:
● Thermally around 100 000 K if a sufficient pressure forbids an


ionization.
● Around 15 000 K, with a Lyman    pumping.
                                
● By a cooling of a plasma.
                                                             20

     II   Propagation of a far UV continuous
                    spectrum

              beam in atomic hydrogen.

  II. 1 Invisible new lines, improved contrast of existing

lines.

  II. 2 Multiplication of the lines: periodicities.

II. 3 Generation of circles.
                                                          21
     II. 1 Invisible new lines, ...
       Intensity                 Absorbing line
                     Shift 
                                     Initially
                                     continuous
                     Weak, broad
           I                        spectrum
                      absorption
                                           Frequency 


... improved contrast of existing lines.
       Intensity I               (Constant 

           I                   

       0                                  Frequency 
                                                                           22
       II. 2 Multiplication of the lines:
       periodicities.
Intensity
                  Ly                       Ly  Ly            (Strong)
                                                                Redshift
                                                                  phase
            I               Previously written line
                                                              Frequency


Intensity              Ly LyLy    (Strong)
                                                              Absorption
            Redshift
                                                                 phase
 I
                                                              Frequency
                              <I
                                                                           23
All lines of the gas are absorbed when an absorbed line is redshifted to
the Lyman  line, in particular Lyman  and  
he absorbed Lyman  and  are shifted to the  by a frequency shift
of the light relative to the  frequency, equal to


            
            __________
    Z=                       = 3*0.0162 = 3*Zb
               

           
           __________
    Z=                      = 4*0.062 = 4*Zb
              

           Fundamental parameter
             observed in quasars
                                                                          24
Problem
Smaller periodicities are found (equivalent to Doppler shifts by a speed of
37km/s)

Look for similar computations with other molecules.

The transitions to different rotational levels of between convenient
rovibronic states of H2 may play the rôle of the Lyman transitions in
atomic hydrogen. But the spectrum of this ion is not well known.
                        +
H may be produced in the intergalactic H2 by UV radiation and its life time
is large at very low pressures.
                                         +
May all «variations of physical constants» (fine structure, ration of masses
p/e) be explained by the same CREIL dispersion?
                                                                         25
 II. 3 Generation of circles in low pressure
 H

            Transparent                   Ly pumping
              p+ + e-                         falls

               Very hot                                 Tangential emission
              small kernel                                  of a circle

         p+ + e- -> H        The high population of states 2S
                             and 2P allows a Ly superradiance



Atomic H in states 2S or 2P generated mainly by Ly pumping
The strong Ly absorption induces a strong CREIL redshift, so that the
intensity at the Ly frequency is renewed until a too low intensity is reached
                                                         26
III Applications to astrophysics
                  III. 1   In the Solar system
     III. 1. 1  Transfer of energy from solar light to
                    radio frequencies.
    III. 1. 2Frequency shifts of far UV emission lines
                      from the Sun.

         III. 2      The microwave background

                 III. 3    High redshift objects
      III. 3. 1. Full explanation of quasar spectra
             III. 3. 2. “Very Red Objects” , ...
              III. 3. 3 No need of dark matter
                                                                     27

     III. 1. 1        Transfer of energy from
       solar light to radio frequencies.
 The cooling of the solar wind generates excited atomic hydrogen
beyond 5 UA; state 2S, it is stable (at low pressure) and efficient in
                               CREIL.
  Energy is transferred from light to radiofrequencies which are
blueshifted (the blueshift being a heating of the thermal radiations)


- The blueshift is directly observed on the radio frequencies received
                 from the probes Pioneer10 and 11.
                              28




From Anderson et al. (2002)
                                                              29
III. 1. 2. Frequency shifts of the far UV emission lines of the
Sun.
  Peter & Judge (1999) use the standard interpretation of the
                            redshifts by
spicules or siphon flows, so that the shifts are supposed zero at
       the limb, in contradiction with the lab or theoretical
 Frequency                determinations.
   Accepting old frequencies, the shifts whose directions are
                           opposite are
    non-zero at the centre and large at the limb of the Sun.
                    Standard shift




                          CREIL shift                  Limb
  F0                                              Radius
       0 F : Laboratory or computed frequency
          0
                                                30
Peter & Judge (1999)




                        Doppler produced by the
                         rotation of the Sun, the
                       movement of the probe etc...
                             are eliminated.
                        31
The main function A of
previous figure is considered
as a product of functions
B and C.

B corresponds to a CREIL
shifting the temperatures to
a mean temperature (of HeI).

C corresponds to a reduction
of the column density of
excited hydrogen whose
concentration, corresponding
to its derivative D, is
maximal around 100 000 K.
                                                                              32
Problem: The temperature decreases with an increasing altitude
while, in the chromosphere it increases.
Can the previous result apply under the photosphere ?
Under the photosphere, hydrogen is neutral atomic or dissociated.
Atomic hydrogen is far from metallic state, the far UV energy is too low for
a dissociation and too high for a Lyman absorption. Protons and electrons do
not absorb: the gas is transparent.

Can the lines be sharp and the CREIL work at the high pressure ?
Yes, the Galatry lineshape is sharper than the Doppler thermal lineshape in
the low pressure gas.

Can the light cross the chromosphere ?
Not easily, mainly through the spots where the ion H- is not abundant.

Can the photosphere emit the far UV lines ?
Yes, by a Rayleigh incoherent scattering.
                                                                          33

   III. 2        The microwave background
- Amplified (blueshifted) by all redshifts

- Made almost thermal (in particular isotropic) by a powerful (resonant)
CREIL inside low frequencies

- Amplified, in particular by the redshift of the sun light beyond 5 UA
(just as the radio from the Pioneer probes).

As the anisotropy of the corona, therefore of the wind is bound to the
ecliptic, a part of the observed anisotropy of the CMB is bound to
the ecliptic.
    III. 3       High redshift objects
                                                                34
    III. 3 . 1. Spectrum of the quasars
         Model of quasar, as an accreting micro-quasar


           1                4                               6

                                                          No more
                                             5            hydrogen
                                                           or UV
                                                           light :
                                                           CREIL
                                                            stops
3                                                         during a
                      2                                    strong
                                                         absorption
    Region close to
      a hot spot
                    Broad, saturated                                               35
    Intensity
                     lines (mixed in
    1               radio-loud quasars
                3 by RF ionisation of H)                                  6
         2
                             4                         5
    Unique
      ,
                                           Lyman forest (periodicities)
    sharp          Intensities                                                    :
     line        corresponding                                                laboratory
                     to gas                                                   frequency
                  temperature                                0 : Earth         
1: Sharp line emitted in a hot region close to the kernel; No CREIL
2: Gap by a permanent redshift in 100 000 K hydrogen.
3: The emitted broad lines may be generated beyond the kernel (close to a hot
spot), so that their redshift may be larger than the redshift of the sharp lines.
3-4 : Lines broadened by saturation and a weak, simultaneous, thermal CREIL.
5: Lyman forest, periodicities; stabler excitation of H: larger mean intensity.
6: Often stop during a vanishing absorption.
                                                                    36


Arp's systems of quasars and galaxy.
These systems are surrounded by atomic hydrogen. The UV radiated
by the quasars produces H*.
As hydrogen is more excited close to the quasars, there is more H* on
the path of the light from the quasars than from the galaxy.

Relation between quasars and galaxies.
The “micro-quasars” found in our galaxy are neutron stars which have
the radio spectrum of the quasars and move quickly.
If there is more hydrogen around our galaxy than inside, they become
“isolated quasars” when they leave it, their repartition is isotropic.
The other quasars are bound to their own galaxies.
                                                         37

        III. 3. 2. The “Very Red Objects”
The VROs are generally close to the quasars : the far UV
emitted by the quasars (or similar objects) creates excited
atomic hydrogen which produces a CREIL effect.

It seems that these objects are surrounded by hot dust (up
to 100K) whose stability is a problem. It is probably not
dust, but the CREIL counterpart of the redshifts.




.
                                                        38

       III. 3. 3 No need of dark matter




As the galaxies are closer than in the standard
theory, they are smaller, so that there is no need of
dark matter or other gravitational effect to explain
their stability.


.
                                                    39
Conclusion:
It is clear that “anomalous” redshifts are observed
where the physico-chemical conditions favour the
creation of neutral atomic hydrogen in states 2S
and 2P.

Too simple, general and beautiful (a magic stick !)
to be completely wrong.
           A good rule should be:
     Search for excited atomic hydrogen.
            (or similar molecules)

								
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