Dublin Airport Local Area Plan by yaohongm

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 205

									   Dublin Airport Local Area Plan
Strategic Environmental Assessment




                             June 2006
Errata

Page 90

After
          Utilities
          EO22 Ensure sufficient capacity for development

Insert
          Human Health
          EO23 Minimise noise, vibration and emissions from traffic.


Page 92, in Table 7.1c

1.Change

          Surface Water Management               •   Chemical river water
          EO18 Conserve and enhance                  quality
          bio-diversity.                         •   Biological Water Quality
          EO19 Protect the environment by        •   River flood hazard (area
          minimising waste and pollution.            affected)
                                                 •   Attenuation methods and
                                                     standards (GDSDS)

To
          Surface Water Management               •   Chemical river water
          EO20 Promote an integrated                 quality
          catchment management initiative        •   Biological Water Quality
          to ensure that there is no             •   River flood hazard (area
          deteriorating quality trends in the        affected)
          catchment area.                        •   Attenuation methods and
          EO21 Reduce risk of flooding.              standards (GDSDS)


2.After

          Utilities                              •   Attenuation methods and
          EO22 Ensure sufficient capacity            standards (GDSDS)
          for development                        •   Level/ type of development


Insert
                                                 •   General level of health
          Human Health                           •   Noise nuisance
          EO23 Minimise noise, vibration         •   Road accidents
          and emissions from traffic
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment



NON -TECHNICAL SUMMARY

Background

The requirement to carry out Strategic Environmental Assessment came into effect
under the SEA Directive (Directive 2001/42/EC of 27th June 2001). This Directive
requires plan makers to carry out an assessment of the likely significant environmental
effects of implementing a plan or programme before the plan or programme is adopted.

This document is concerned with the Strategic Environmental Assessment that was
carried out for the Masterplan for Dublin Airport 2006-2012.

Dublin Airport Masterplan 2006-2012

Fingal County Council, in consultation with the Dublin Airport Authority, has prepared a
Masterplan for Dublin Airport in the context of the Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011.
The Masterplan is concerned with an area of some 1084 hectares which is zoned ‘DA –
Designated Airport Area’ with the objective ‘to ensure the efficient and effective
operation of the airport in accordance with an approved Airport Action Plan’. This
Masterplan, which will be used as the primary development control tool for the area, will
provide the future development strategy for the designated airport area and sets out how
the proposed expansion and development of the Airport will occur over the six year plan
period.

Methodology

The methodology that was employed in the undertaking of this Strategic Environmental
Assessment meets the requirements of the SEA Directive. Regard has also been had to
the experience of Irish and UK authorities in the undertaking of this assessment.

The main steps undertaken in the carrying out of this assessment are outlined below.

1. SCOPING

Scoping is the procedure whereby the range of environmental issues and the level of
detail required for the Environmental Report are decided upon in consultation with the
prescribed environmental authorities. Fingal County Council issued the scoping report to
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Minister for the Environment, Heritage
and Local Government and to the Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural
Resources. No formal submissions were received.

2. CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES

Article 5 of the SEA Directive requires the environmental report to consider ‘reasonable
alternatives taking into account the objectives and the geographical scope of the plan or
programme’ and the significant environmental effects of the alternatives selected.




______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           i                   NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                              Strategic Environmental Assessment



A ‘do-nothing’ option was considered in the first instance which set out the likely
evolution of the Airport if the policies and objectives of the Masterplan were not
implemented. This alternative is not considered to be a viable option.

Various development options for Dublin Airport were reviewed including the westward
expansion of the airport, an east/west expansion of the airport, a northward expansion
and finally an eastward expansion. The four options were ranked according to
functionality, deliverability and cost. This eastward expansion option was re-examined by
the Pascal Watson study and in this turn guided development of the Airport.

3. BASELINE STUDY

Baseline data was collected based on the information contained in the scoping report
and in line with requirements of the SEA Directive. The indicators included employment
and economic development, traffic and transportation, noise, air quality, built heritage,
natural heritage and bio-diversity, soils and groundwater, surface water management,
utilities and landscape. Human health was considered indirectly under a number of
indicators. Much of the data was obtained from existing sources. The likely evolution of
each of the indicators without the implementation of the Dublin Airport Masterplan was
also set out as required under the SEA Directive.

The key findings of the baseline study are summarised below.

Employment and Economic Development

Dublin Airport is one of the largest concentrations of employment in Ireland. In 2003 it
was estimated that there were 13,300 people employed on site consisting of 11,000 full-
time and 1,200 part-time/seasonal staff.

In terms of economic development, it is estimated that on-site activities generated an
annual income of €242 million (at 2001 prices), for Fingal County, €407 million for the
Dublin Region, €490 million for the Greater Dublin Area and €564 million for the Irish
Republic as a whole.

Traffic and Transportation

In 2005 approximately 18.4 million passengers passed through Dublin Airport. The main
mode of access to the airport for all passengers is the private car, followed by bus and
taxi.

The major access roads to Dublin Airport are the M1 Airport Motorway, the M50 Dublin
Orbital Motorway and the N1 Swords Road.

In terms of public transport, there are 12 Dublin Bus routes serving the airport in addition
to a number of other public and private operators. On average there are 30 buses
operated by Dublin Bus serving the airport per hour. Services are also offered by a
number of other operators.



______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           ii                  NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                              Strategic Environmental Assessment



Existing parking at the airport consists of short-term and long-term facilities consisting in
the order of 24,320 spaces.

The taxi pick up area caters for approximately 300 taxis per hour at full capacity. There
is an additional holding area close to the Great Southern Hotel and in addition
passengers can be dropped off at the departures ramp.

Noise

The existing noise environment consists of noise emanating from Aircraft Transport
Movements (ATM’S) and road traffic.

Aircraft Transport Movements (ATM’s)
In terms of aircraft movements, three ‘levels of annoyance’ are identified which are
expressed in decibels. The number of people (2003 figures) living within these noise
contours is as follows:

    •    Low Annoyance (57dB) - 9,636 persons
    •    Moderate Annoyance (63 dB) - 1,168 persons
    •    High Annoyance (69dB) - 99 persons

Road Traffic
Traffic count information supplied by the NRA for 2004-2005 indicate that the average
annual daily count of vehicular traffic is 89,685 vehicles with 6.2% HGV’s along the M1
road at the Airport Interchange. Traffic flow information between M50/R108 and M50/M1
interchanges ranged between 70,000 and 80,000 vehicles as an annual daily average.

Air Quality

The existing air quality at Dublin Airport is good with results indicating that the primary
source of air pollution in the area is from road vehicle exhausts. The concentrations of
key pollutants are higher closer to major junctions and can be temporarily be related to
periods of increased road usage.

Built Heritage

There are six protected structures and six recorded monuments located within the
Designated Airport Area.

Two of the protected structures, the 1937 Terminal Building and Corballis House, are
located within the main airport campus.

Natural Heritage and Bio-Diversity

The SEA study area is not subject to any conservation designation, proposed, candidate
or otherwise under current legislation. The range of habitats present within the study
area is limited with a number of common fauna species present.



______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           iii                 NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                              Strategic Environmental Assessment



Soils and Groundwater

Chemical analysis of the soil indicates that the soil is largely as expected for a mostly
greenfield site with levels of metals and inorganic contaminants at low levels
(corresponding to background or natural conditions). A site investigation carried out in
September 2004 indicated that the soil strata consist of topsoil overlying clays of varying
composition. Limestone bedrock was encountered in nine of the trial pits.

The limestone aquifer is confined by boulder clay which acts to isolate the groundwater
system from the surface and affording a level of protection from potential pollution from
surface activities.

Surface Water Management

With the exception of the St. Margaret’s Stream, which drains the undeveloped north-
western portion of the Airport Zone to the Ward River, the current water quality in
streams draining the airport is poor and there is little fisheries potential. Flooding occurs
on some downstream stretches of these rivers. While the current operations at the
Airport appear to be influencing the water status of the rivers draining the Airport Zone,
the downstream catchments of these rivers are largely urbanised and already at
significant risk from intensive land use.

Utilities

1. Sewage Network
The subject lands lie within the catchment of the North Fringe Sewer as delineated in the
North Dublin Connection Study (September 2004). The sewage network within the
airport is the responsibility of the airport authority. Based on the findings of the North
Dublin Connection Study, the existing network is adequate to cater for current flows.

2. Water Supply
The subject lands straddle the Blanchardstown High Level Water Supply Area and the
Airport Water Supply Area. The 36’’ trunk main supplying the area delivers in the region
of 6660 l/s. Current demand for water by the Airport is 2040 m3/day equating to an
average demand of 26 l/s from the 24’’ main via a 250 mm connection to the airport.

Landscape

In general the airport is set within a gently rolling pastoral landscape of fields enclosed
by a network of hedgerows and hedgerow trees, with either scattered individual farm
buildings or residential properties, sometimes grouped together into small settlements.
The larger residential areas are at Swords to the north and to the south of the M50 at
Poppintree and Santry.




______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           iv                  NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment



4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DUBLIN AIRPORT MASTERPLAN

SEA Objectives and Indicators

The policies contained in the Dublin Airport Masterplan were tested against
environmental objectives through the use of matrices. The matrices indicate whether the
policy has a negative, positive or uncertain impact. The environmental objectives were
derived from government policy, SEA guidelines and best SEA practice in Ireland and
the UK.

The performance of the Masterplan is measured by using indicators. For example the
indicators that can be used to measure the objective, EO1 – support employment and
economy, include the number of people employed, unemployment levels, etc.

Assessment of Impacts

Employment and Economy

The implementation of the various policies and objectives of the Masterplan will have a
positive impact on economy and employment. In particular the development of the
northern parallel runway and the development of the second terminal will serve to
facilitate employment be it direct, indirect or induced.

• Traffic and Transportation

The road improvements as proposed in the Masterplan will have an impact in terms of
the land take required. The provision of improved access to the airport will result in
improved road capacity with resulting impacts on emissions. However, most of the
impacts are indirect and are discussed in the air and noise section of this environmental
report.

Public Transport
The provision of enhanced public transport facilities will serve to ameliorate current and
projected proportional demand for road space for parking, reduce traffic congestion, car
exhaust emissions, and prolong the life span of existing road facilities.

Car Parking
As the airport expands, the number of car spaces required will also increase. Parking
policies to limit the number of spaces provided, in particular employee spaces, will make
public transport facilities more attractive.

Mobility Management
The mobility management policies set out in the Masterplan will increase the proportion
of staff and passengers using non-motorised and public transport with subsequent
decreases in emissions and congestion levels.




______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           v                   NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                              Strategic Environmental Assessment



• Noise

1. Aircraft Noise
Take off and landing policies have positive impacts on both environmental standards
and with regard to noise control measures. Restrictions on engine testing also have a
positive impact on noise control objectives.

The gradual phasing out of noisier aircraft has resulted, and will result in a reduction of
noise levels at Dublin Airport. This will be counter-balanced to a degree by the projected
growth in traffic at Dublin Airport.

The development of the second runway will be likely to have an impact in terms of
aircraft noise. However, even if the Northern Parallel Runway is not built, the area will
experience an increase in noise levels due to increased numbers of aircraft movements.

2. Traffic Noise
Road traffic noise in relation to surface access has been examined. Due to the existing
internal road network and high noise climate within the airport campus, the impact to
noise is not considered to be significant. The development of alternative access points to
the airport has the potential to have a negative impact on the surrounding noise climate.
The objectives in relation to public transport will have a neutral impact on noise levels in
the surrounding environment.

• Air Quality

In relation to the impact of aircraft on air quality, it is considered that the impact of
aircraft emissions with the Northern Parallel Runway will be substantially below the
National Air Quality Standards specified in the AQS Regulations 2002 downwind of the
airport boundary.

The impact of surface access on air quality is also examined. The impact to air quality
from alterations to the internal road access is not considered to be significant due to the
already busy internal network and aircraft emissions in this area. The external access
objectives aim to distribute traffic on a more even basis on the road network around the
campus. The overall impact of these objectives on air quality will largely depend on the
successful development of all plans collectively.

The development of the public transport network will have a neutral to positive impact on
air quality.

• Built Heritage

There are a number of archaeological sites or features listed on the Record of
Monuments and Places (RMP) that are contained within the boundary of the Airport
Masterplan. There is also the potential for unknown archaeological sites to be unearthed
elsewhere in the study area if these lands are developed as part of the expansion of the
airport.



______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           vi                  NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment



The development of the Dublin Airport Masterplan area will have an impact on the built
heritage of the area. The development of Terminal 2 will have a negative impact on
Corballis House. Other buildings which will require relocation or removal where their
locations impede necessary development include Collinstown House (short term) and
the Church (medium to long term).

• Natural Heritage and Bio-diversity

As a result of the phased development of the Masterplan, not all of the SEA study area
will be affected at the same time. In the areas targeted for development, there will be a
significant loss of habitat and species therein, the latter at least in the short term.

The predicted impacts in relation to natural heritage and bio-diversity are expected to
include loss of hedgerows, removal of trees, removal of agricultural grasslands, loss of
wet ditches, small streams and ponds, habitat severance and noise impacts. Positive
impacts are expected in relation to number of skylarks and Irish hares present at the
study area which favour airfield type habitats.

• Soils and Groundwater

Potential significant impacts on groundwater from airport activities may result from the
release to ground of de-icing agents, hydrocarbons and other dangerous substances.
The major part of the undeveloped lands overlie a moderately productive aquifer which
has a shallow cover of over burden. Attenuation measures will help to protect the this
aquifer.

• Surface Water

Masterplan objectives in relation to airport infrastructure and surface access have the
greatest potential to impact negatively on the surface water environment. A ‘worst case
scenario’ is considered regarding the impact of development on the water environment.
Assuming the airport expands so that the full site would be developed to include
industrial/commercial development on the west side of the site, potential impacts
include: increased run-off from areas of hard standing, reduced volume of infiltration to
groundwater, reduced quality of water draining to surface and groundwater, increased
volume of wastewater discharge and increase demand for drinking water supply.

The objectives in relation to surface access including increased road access to the site
and provision of sufficient car parking may have the following impacts: increased rate of
run-off to surface waters from road and car park surfaces and reduced quality of water
draining to surface and groundwater.

• Utilities

1. Sewage Network
The modelled ‘ultimate design scenario’ included in the North Dublin Connections Study
allowed for a total foul/storm infiltration contribution from the Airport Zone of 870 l/s,
approximately 50% of which is attenuated within the Airport Zone System. Relative to
the development currently proposed in the Masterplan, the criterion assumed in the
______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           vii                 NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                              Strategic Environmental Assessment



model were conservative and thus existing/planned sewage infrastructure should be
sufficient to cater for the development identified in the Masterplan.

2. Water Supply

Initial analysis of the impact of increased demand of up to 30 MPPA on the existing
system using an existing model of the trunk main system indicates that there is sufficient
capacity in the trunk main to meet the demand although it is likely that the existing 250
mm airport connection will require up grading.

The increase of passenger capacity to 40 million passengers a year would result in a
further water demand. Initial analysis of the system indicates that the total projected
demand could be met by existing/planned infrastructure.

• Landscape

In the short to medium term, one of the most significant impacts on the landscape will be
from the development of the proposed Northern Parallel Runway. The impacts that will
result include loss of hedges and hedgerow trees, demolition of farm buildings and a
change in views from a number of roads.

Much of the landscape between the existing and proposed runways will be altered in the
medium to long tem term by the development of airport related facilities. The south-
eastern portion of the site will also experience change as a result ancillary aviation
development.

5. MITIGATION MEASURES

As part of the SEA process, mitigation measures have been identified to negate any
potential negative impacts associated with the objectives and policies contained in the
Masterplan.

6. MONITORING

Article 10 of the SEA Directive requires Member States to monitor the significant
environmental effects of the implementation of plans ‘in order, inter alia, to identify at an
early stage unforeseen adverse effects and to be able to undertake appropriate remedial
action’. The SEA outlines the monitoring proposals that will be undertaken following
implementation of the policies and objectives of the Masterplan.




______________________________________________________________________________________
                                           viii                NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


                                        CONTENTS
List of Figures

List of Tables

1.0    INTRODUCTION

2.0    SEA METHODOLOGY
       2.1  Introduction
       2.2  Screening
       2.3  Scoping
       2.4  Consideration of Alternatives
       2.5  Baseline Study
       2.6  Environmental Assessment of the Dublin Airport Masterplan
       2.7  Mitigation Measures
       2.8  Monitoring

3.0    SUMMARY OF KEY OBJECTIVES OF THE PLAN
       3.1  Introduction
       3.2  General Policies
       3.3  Airport Infrastructure
       3.4  Aircraft Operations
       3.5  Surface Access
       3.6  Drainage and Utilities
       3.7  Built Heritage
       3.8  Natural Heritage
       3.9  Design
       3.10 Commercial Development

4.0    RELATIONSHIP OF THE PLAN WITH OTHER RELEVANT PLANS
       AND PROGRAMMES
       4.1  National Spatial Strategy (2002 - 2020)
       4.2  Regional Planning Guidelines Greater Dublin Area (2004 –
            2016)
       4.3  Sustainable Development – A Strategy for Ireland (1997)
       4.4  Dublin Transportation Office, A ‘Platform for Change’ Strategy
            2000–2016
       4.5  Department of Transport Investment Programme - Transport 21
       4.6  Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011
                  4.6.1    Airport Operations and Airport Development
                  4.6.2    Terminal and Runway Facilities
                  4.6.3    Safety
                  4.6.4    Noise
                  4.6.5    Air and Water Quality Management
                  4.6.6    Greenbelt
                  4.6.7    St. Margaret’s and Other Residential Communities
                  4.6.8    M50 Belt
                  4.6.9    Airport Car Parking
                  4.6.10   Environmental Legislation and Standards
                  4.6.11   Public transport



                                              1
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


5.0    ALTERNATIVES
       5.1  Introduction
       5.2  Do-Nothing
       5.3  Strategic Development Options
       5.4  PM/SOM Masterplan Options
               5.4.1   Expansion Options
       5.5     Terminal Options

6.0    CHARACTERISTICS OF EXISTING ENVIRONMENT OF DUBLIN
       AIRPORT AND ENVIRONS
       6.1  Introduction
       6.2  Employment and Economic Development
               6.2.1   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.3     Traffic and Transportation
               6.3.1   Existing External Road Network
               6.3.2   Internal Road Network
               6.3.3   Public Transport Network
               6.3.4   Car Parking
               6.3.5   Taxi
               6.3.6   Existing Traffic Survey Data
               6.3.7   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.4     Noise
               6.4.1   Introduction
               6.4.2   Existing Noise Environment
               6.4.3   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.5     Air Quality
               6.5.1   Introduction
               6.5.2   Pollutants Sampled
               6.5.3   Assessment Criteria
               6.5.4   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.6     Built Heritage
               6.6.1   Introduction
               6.6.2   Protected Structures
               6.6.3   Recorded Monuments
               6.6.4   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.7     Natural Heritage and Bio-Diversity
               6.7.1   Introduction
               6.7.2   Desk study
               6.7.3   Habitat verification
               6.7.4   Evaluation and impact assessment methodologies
               6.7.5   Habitats and Vegetation
               6.7.6   Brief description of the principal habitat types present
               6.7.7   Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.8     Soils and Groundwater
               6.8.1   Introduction
               6.8.2   Soil
               6.8.3   Groundwater
               6.8.4   Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.9     Surface Water Management
               6.9.1   Introduction
               6.9.2   Legislation
               6.9.3   Surface Water
               6.9.4   Quality Objectives

                                            2
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


               6.9.5  Typology, Pollution and Risk Status (ERBD Characterisation
                      Report)
               6.9.6 Water Quality Status – Biological (River stretches adjacent to
                      Airport lands)
               6.9.7 Fisheries Status
               6.9.8 Relevant Designated Conservation Areas
               6.9.9 Water Quantity – Existing Flooding issues
               6.9.10 Summary
               6.9.11 Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.10    Utilities
               6.10.1   Introduction
               6.10.2   Sewage Network
               6.10.3   Water Supply
               6.10.4   Non-implementation of Masterplan Policies
       6.11    Landscape
               6.11.1 Introduction
               6.11.2 Existing Landscape
               6.11.3 Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies

7.0    ASSESSMENT OF DUBLIN AIRPORT MASTERPLAN
       7.1 Introduction
       7.2 SEA Objectives and Indicators
       7.3 Matrices
       7.4 Assessment of Impacts
               7.4.1  Employment and Economy
               7.4.2  Traffic and Transportation
               7.4.3  Noise
                      7.4.3.1 Aircraft Noise
                      7.4.3.2 Traffic Noise
                      7.4.3.3 Construction Noise
               7.4.4 Air Quality
                      7.4.4.1 Aircraft
                      7.4.4.2 Road Traffic
               7.4.5 Built Heritage
               7.4.6 Natural Heritage and Bio-diversity
               7.4.7 Soils and Groundwater
               7.4.8 Surface Water
               7.4.9 Utilities
                      7.4.9.1 Sewage Network
                      7.4.9.2 Water Supply
               7.4.10 Landscape

8.0    INCORPORATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES AND
       ASSESSMENT RESULTS INTO THE PLAN
       8.1  Traffic and Transportation
       8.2  Noise
               8.2.1    Residential Sound Insulation Programme
               8.2.2    Construction Noise
               8.2.3    Traffic Noise
       8.3     Air Quality
       8.4     Built Heritage
       8.5     Natural Heritage and Bio-Diversity
               8.5.1    Compensation Habitat

                                           3
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


               8.5.2   Mitigation Measures for Birds
               8.5.3   Mitigation Measures for Bats
               8.5.4   Mitigation Measures for Other Vertebrates
       8.6     Soils and Groundwater
       8.7     Surface Water
       8.8     Utilities
               8.8.1   Water Supply
               8.8.2   Foul Drainage
       8.9     Landscape

9.0    MONITORING
       9.1  Introduction
       9.2  Traffic and Transportation
       9.3  Noise
               9.3.1   Noise and Flight Track Monitoring System
               9.3.2   Traffic Noise
       9.4     Air Quality
       9.5     Built Heritage
       9.6     Natural Heritage
       9.7     Surface Water Drainage
       9.8     Groundwater
       9.9     Sewage
       9.10    Water Supply
       9.11    Landscape

APPENDIX A     SCOPING REPORT AND REVISED SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX B     LIST OF REFERENCES
APPENDIX C     ECOLOGY APPENDICES
APPENDIX D     ECOLOGY PHOTOGRAPHS
APPENDIX E     HABITAT EVALUATION
APPENDIX F     LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT




                                          4
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


                                   List of Figures
1.0       Introduction

Fig 1.1         Airport Masterplan Area

2.0       Methodology

          No Figures

3.0       Summary of Key Objectives of the Plan

Fig. 3.1        Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan Zoning Map

4.0       Relationship of the Plan with other Relevant Plans and Programmes

Fig. 4.1        Proposed Greater Dublin Area Rail Network as outlined in the
                Transport 21 investment programme

5.0       Alternatives

Fig. 5.1        Westward Expansion Option
Fig. 5.2        East/West Expansion Option
Fig. 5.3        Northward Expansion Option
Fig. 5.4        Eastward Expansion Option
Fig. 5.5        Terminal Option 1
Fig. 5.6        Terminal Option 2
Fig. 5.7        Recommended Terminal Option

6.0       Characteristics of Existing Environment of Dublin Airport and Environs

Traffic and Transportation
Fig. 6.1      Existing External Road Network
Fig. 6.2      Existing Internal Road Network
Fig. 6.3      Traffic Flows on the Internal and External Road Network in the AM
              Peak
Fig. 6.4      Passenger Trip Origins to Dublin Airport (2001 Passenger Survey)
Fig 6.5       Passenger Trip Origins to Dublin Airport (2001 Passenger Survey)

Noise
Fig. 6.6        Noise Contours (2003) showing ‘levels of annoyance’

Air Quality
Fig 6.7         Map of Dublin Airport showing Monitoring Locations

Natural Heritage
Fig. 6.8      Habitats
Fig. 6.9      Aerial View of Masterplan Area

Soils and Groundwater
Fig. 6.10    Trial Hole Locations

Surface Water
Fig. 6.11    Receiving Catchments


                                           5
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


Landscape
Fig. 6.12      Landscape Character Zones

7.0    Assessment of the Dublin Airport Masterplan

Traffic and Transportation
Fig. 7.1      Proposed Road Improvements
Fig. 7.2      2015 Peak Hour Saturn Two-Way Link Flows with Proposed
              Infrastructure and Airport Upgrades in Place

Air Quality
Fig 7.3        Air Quality – Aircraft Emission Sources

Built Heritage
Fig 7.4        Cultural Heritage Sites (within the Northern Parallel Runway site)

8.0    Incorporation of Mitigation Measures and Assessment Results into the
       Plan
       No Figures

9.0    Monitoring
       No Figures




                                           6
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


                                   List of Tables
1.0    Introduction

       No Tables

2.0    Methodology

       No Tables

3.0    Summary of Key Objectives of the Plan

       No Tables

4.0    Relationship of the Plan with other Relevant Plans and Programmes

       No Tables

5.0    Alternatives

       No Tables

6.0    Characteristics of Existing Environment of Dublin Airport and Environs

Employment and Economy
Table 6.1   Airport Generated Employment
Table 6.2   Constrained Employment Forecast

Traffic and Transportation
Table 6.3     Current Car Parking at Dublin Airport
Table 6.4     Overall Dublin Airport Passenger Access Mode Distribution (2001
              Passenger Survey)
Table 6.5     Mode Split of PCUs arriving at Dublin Airport in 2001

Noise
Table 6.6:     Typical traffic noise levels measured 1m from the façade

Air Quality
Table 6.7      Ambient Air Monitoring Locations
Table 6.8      Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulphur
               dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and
               lead in ambient air”
Table 6.9      EU Ambient Air Standard 2000/69/EC “Directive of the European
               Parliament and of the Council on limit values for benzene and carbon
               monoxide in air”
Table 6.10a    Target Values for Ozone from 2010
Table 6.10b    Long term Objectives for Ozone from 2020
Table 6.10c    Information and Alert Thresholds
Table 6.11     EPA Indicative Air Quality Bands

Built Heritage
Table 6.12     Protected Structures with the Masterplan defined area
Table 6.14     Recorded Monuments located within the Designated Airport Area



                                           7
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment


Natural Heritage
Table 6.14a: Key Codes
Table 6.14b: Target notes
Table 6.15    Summary of the bat species recorded during the Northern Parallel
              Runway EIS bat survey

Surface Water
Table 6.16   Water Quality Status – Chemical. Summary of surface water quality
             and potential salmonid fisheries status at stream sites draining Dublin
             Airport
Table 6.17   Summary of water chemistry results from Dublin Airport Surface Water
             Drainage Network
Table 6.18   Designated Nature Conservation Areas in North Co. Dublin

7.0    Assessment of the Dublin Airport Masterplan

SEA Objectives and Indicators
Table 7.1a-c Links between SEA objectives and collected data/indicators

Impact Matrices
Table 7.2a   Airport Infrastructure
Table 7.2b   Airport Operations
Table 7.2c   Surface Access
Table 7.2d   Utilities
Table 7.2e   Heritage, Design and Commercial

Employment and Economy
Table 7.3   Projected Employment Impact of Dublin Airport

Noise
Table 7.4      Populations within ‘annoyance contours’ 2010 and 2025

Air Quality
Table 7.5      Aircraft Emission Sources

8.0    Incorporation of Mitigation Measures and Assessment Results into the
       Plan
       No Tables

9.0    Monitoring
       No Tables




                                           8
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment



1         INTRODUCTION
Fingal County Council, in consultation with the Dublin Airport Authority, has prepared
a Draft Masterplan (Local Area Plan) for Dublin Airport, in the context of the Fingal
Development Plan 2005-2011 and having regard to the policies and objectives
contained therein. The lands with which the Draft Masterplan is concerned comprise
a total of 1084 hectares and are zoned ‘DA – Designated Airport Area’ in the Fingal
County Development Plan 2005-2011 with the objective ‘to ensure the efficient and
effective operation of the airport in accordance with an approved Airport Action Plan.’

The purpose of the Masterplan is to provide the optimal future development strategy
for the designated airport area whilst ensuring its proper planning and sustainable
development. The Masterplan will be used as the principal development control tool
for the area, and will specify the long-term disposition and mix of uses and the
primary circulation systems, and work towards a high and consistent standard of
design for Dublin Airport as an important national gateway location. The Masterplan
is a statutory Local Area Plan (LAP) under the Planning and Development Act 2000.
The procedures set out under section 20(2) of the Act will be followed in the plan
preparation in the interest of transparency and the proper planning and sustainable
development of the area.

The need for the preparation of a Masterplan to guide the future development of
Dublin Airport is evident from an examination of the growth in passenger numbers.
The number of passengers using Dublin Airport has increased from 2 million
passengers per annum (MPPA) in 1982 to over 18 MMPA at the end of 2005. It is
projected that 38 MPPA will use Dublin Airport by the year 2025. In order to support
this growth the number of aircraft movements will increase from 2003 levels of some
166,000 movements to some 304,000 movements per annum. 1

A number of key infrastructural projects are planned for Dublin Airport in the short to
medium term to cater for the predicted increase in traffic and passenger numbers.
These include the provision of a second parallel runway to the north of the airport
lands, expansion of aircraft aprons, new pier facilities, expansion to the existing
terminal building and the development of a second terminal building. Further
development is expected to take place on the western campus of the airport over the
longer term.

The Masterplan sets out how the proposed development and expansion of Dublin
Airport will take place over the six-year plan period, and also has regard to the long-
term development of the area.




1
    Dublin Airport Authority Forecast 2004 Commercial Aircraft Forecast
                                                9
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig 1.1 Airport Masterplan Area




                                  10
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Dublin Airport Masterplan
This Strategic Environmental Assessment report has been prepared in tandem with
the preparation of the Airport Masterplan as required under the SEA Directive
(Directive 2001/42/EC of June 27th June 2001). This Directive requires plan makers
to carry out an assessment of the likely significant environmental effects of
implementing a plan or programme before the plan or programme is adopted.

The Planning and Development (Strategic Environmental Assessment) Regulations
2004 (S.I. 436 of 2004) give effect to the Directive in relation to land use planning.

The information to be contained within the SEA report is outlined in Annex I of the
SEA Directive and can be summarised as follows:

(a) an outline of the contents, main objectives of the plan or programme and
relationship with other relevant plans and programmes;
(b) the relevant aspects of the current state of the environment and the likely
evolution thereof without implementation of the plan or programme;
(c) the environmental characteristics of areas likely to be significantly affected;
(d) any existing environmental problems which are relevant to the plan or
programme;
(e) the environmental protection objectives, established at international, community
or Member State level, which are relevant to the plan or programme and the way
those objectives and any environmental considerations have been taken into account
during its preparation;
(f) the likely significant effects on the environment, including effects on biodiversity,
population, human health, fauna, flora, soil, water, air, climatic factors, material
assets, cultural heritage including architectural and archaeological heritage,
landscape and the interrelationship between the above factors;
(g) mitigation measures proposed;
(h) reasons for selecting the alternative development options considered;
(i) monitoring measured proposed;
(j) a non-technical summary.

The criteria for determining the likely significance of environmental effects are
contained in Annex II of the Directive.

Regard has been had to the SEA Guidelines in the preparation of this SEA report.
These guidelines are published by the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and
Local Government under sections 23(5) and 28(1) of the Planning and Development
Act 2000 which respectively require regional authorities and planning authorities to
have regard to the guidelines in the performance of their functions under the Act.

This Environmental Report has been prepared by RPS Planning and Environment,
with additional input from RPS Consulting Engineers and from Ecological Advisory
and Consultancy Services (EACS), on behalf of Fingal County Council.




                                           11
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                  12
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment



2      SEA METHODOLOGY
2.1    Introduction

The adopted methodology used to carry out the SEA of the Dublin Airport Masterplan
reflected the requirements of the SEA Directive while drawing on the experience of
both UK and Irish authorities. A full list of references is included in Appendix B.

The main steps taken in the process involved screening, scoping, the carrying out of
a baseline study, the consideration of alternatives, the environmental assessment of
the objectives and policies of the Dublin Airport Masterplan and the formulation of
mitigation and monitoring measures.

2.2    Screening

Under Article 14A of the Planning and Development (Strategic Environmental
Assessment) Regulations 2004 it is necessary to determine whether or not the
proposed plan would be likely to have significant effects on the environment, in order
to ascertain whether an SEA should be carried out. This process is termed
‘screening’. The key determinant if an SEA is appropriate is whether the plan would
be likely to have significant effects on the environment.

Dublin Airport is of international and national importance and represents the most
significant economic entity in Fingal and the region. Given the character, activity and
proposed scale of development within the Designated Airport Area and the potential
environmental effects, the Planning Authority considers there is a prima facie case
for SEA. Article 14A of the Planning and Development (Strategic Environmental
Assessment) Regulations 2004 states that where the Planning Authority determines
that the implementation of a plan would be likely to have significant effects on the
environment, it should bypass screening and proceed to scoping for the
environmental report.

2.3    Scoping

Scoping is defined as the procedure whereby the range of environmental issues and
the level of detail to be included in the Environmental Report are decided upon, in
consultation with the prescribed environmental authorities. Article 5(4) of the SEA
Directive requires that the prescribed Environmental Authorities be consulted when
deciding on the scope and level of detail to be included in the environmental report.

The purpose of the scoping report is to ensure that the relevant environmental issues
are identified so they can subsequently be addressed in the Environmental Report.
This report is based on the criteria set down in the SEA Guidelines in particular:
    • The current knowledge and methods of assessment
    • The contents and level of detail in the plan
    • The stage of the plan in the decision making process
    • The extent to which certain matters are more appropriately assessed at
       different levels in the decision making process in order to avoid duplication of
       the environmental assessment.

A scoping report was prepared following the scoping procedure and this identified the
information to be included in the environmental report, as well as taking account of


                                          13
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


any recommendations from the environmental authorities. This was revised to take
account of any potential gaps in information.

The scoping report, and the revised scoping report, are included in Appendix A and
was issued by Fingal County Council to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government and to the Minister
for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources. No formal submissions were
received. The final scoping report reflects the comments of the Services Departments
of Fingal County Council.

2.4    Consideration of Alternatives

Article 5 of the SEA Directive requires the environmental report to consider
‘reasonable alternatives taking into account the objectives and the geographical
scope of the plan or programme’ and the significant environmental effects of the
alternatives selected.

A ‘do-nothing’ option was firstly addressed. This set out the likely evolution of the
airport if the policies and objectives of the Airport Masterplan were not implemented.

Secondly, strategic development options including inter alia increased use of other
airports and improved use of existing infrastructure at Dublin Airport were reviewed. It
was found that the preferable option, both economically and environmentally, was
maintaining airport facilities at their current location.

The various development options at the airport were then reviewed. The chosen
development option was chosen on the basis of a number of criteria which included:
   • the needs of a sound capacity enhancement plan for the prudent future
       growth of Dublin Airport
   • the ability to maintain necessary essential operations whilst developing
       affordable core future requirements
   • compatibility as well as adaptability to future business demands
   • delivery of new pier facilities with the tight programming windows set down by
       the government, namely a new pier by 2007 and a new terminal by 2009.

Finally, the various options with regard to the proposed second terminal were
identified.

2.5    Baseline Study

Baseline data was collected based on the information included in the scoping report
as well as having regard to the requirements of the SEA Directive. The various
indicators included employment and economic development, traffic and
transportation, noise, air quality, built heritage, natural heritage and bio-diversity,
soils and groundwater. surface water management, utilities and landscape. Human
health was considered, either directly or indirectly, under a variety of indicators
including traffic and transportation, noise, air quality and surface water management.

Much of the data was extracted from existing data sources. The Environmental
Impact Statement submitted as part of the application for the Northern Parallel
Runway (Reg. Ref. F04A/1755) provided an important data source. A significant
proportion of the, as yet undeveloped, Airport Masterplan area is the subject of an
Environmental Impact Statement (2004) for the proposed Northern Parallel Runway.


                                          14
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


This report draws upon the detailed information collated during that process,
including Further Information (2005).

With regard to Natural Heritage and Bio-diversity an additional desk study, habitat
verification and consultations were carried out for the SEA process in January 2006
in order to bring the information up to date and to include small areas to the east and
south east which were not included in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS studies.

Other major data sources included technical reports prepared by consultants in
relation to the Northern Parallel Runway and the PM/SOM Master Planning work
carried out in 2002/2003. Information on the existing noise climate was gathered from
the EIS for the Northern Parallel Runway, and the National Road Authorities (NRA)
road traffic counter report (2004-2005). Where gaps in information were identified, a
limited amount of fieldwork was carried out in order to ensure that these were
addressed. A full list of sources consulted is included in Appendix B.

The likely evolution of each of the indicators without the implementation of the Dublin
Airport Masterplan was also set out, as is required under the SEA Directive.

2.6     Environmental Assessment of the Dublin Airport Masterplan

This can be considered the crucial element of the SEA process. Initially this involved
the identification of a number of environmental criteria and assessing these in a
matrix format against Draft Masterplan Objectives. The environmental criteria were
devised taking into account the SEA directives, Government Policy, the SEA
Guidelines and current best practice in the UK and Ireland.

The matrices record the following:
   • positive impact
   • negative impact
   • uncertain impact

In the interests of legibility a neutral impact was left blank on the matrix table.

The various impacts of the Masterplan policies were then discussed and any
potentially significant impacts highlighted. This, in turn, led to a refinement and
refocusing of the objectives and policies of the Airport Masterplan.

2.7     Mitigation Measures

Environmental measures have informed all stages of the preparation of the Airport
Masterplan, so as to ensure the potential for significant adverse effects is minimised.
Some mitigation measures, such as noise control measures, have been continuing
on an ongoing basis for a number of years. Other measures have arisen as a result
of specific development proposals.

2.8     Monitoring

Some impacts resulting from the implementation of Masterplan policies cannot be
avoided and therefore monitoring measures have been put in place to monitor such
indicators as noise, air quality and water quality.




                                             15
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                  16
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment



3 SUMMARY OF KEY OBJECTIVES
OF THE MASTERPLAN
3.1    Introduction

The Masterplan contains a large number of objectives regarding the future
development of Dublin Airport which are categorised according to: airport
infrastructure, airport operations, surface access, utilities, heritage, design and
commercial development. The key objectives in relation to each of the
aforementioned sections are summarised below.

3.2    General Policies

The zoning map (Fig. 3.1) will guide the development of Dublin Airport over the six-
year Plan period. It reflects the rational operational requirements of the airport at
present and over the plan period, as well as over the longer term. While many of the
proposals for the western portion of the Airport lands will not be carried out over this
period, it was considered prudent to reserve lands for these longer-term objectives.

The eastern portion of the airport lands is dominated by the limitations and
constraints imposed by the Public Safety Zones. Only those uses that are considered
compatible with these restrictions are acceptable in these areas. These uses include
logistics, taxi-feeder park, light industrial, staff and long stay parking and car hire.
Commercial uses are considered to be most logically located in the eastern portion of
the site outside the restrictions of the Public Safety Zone.

The northern edge of the Airport lands will facilitate the development of the Northern
Parallel Runway.




                                          17
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 3.1 Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan Zoning Map




                                             18
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


3.3    Airport Infrastructure

In relation to the future development of runways, it is an objective of the Masterplan
to facilitate the provision of a second major east-west runway at Dublin Airport and to
restrict the use of the crosswind runway to essential occasional use following the
completion of the second east-west runway. It is a further policy to secure future
runway extensions.

The key objective contained in the Masterplan in relation to terminals and piers is to
facilitate the on-going augmentation and improvement of terminal facilities at the
Airport including the provision of a new Pier D, the extension of Terminal 1 (T1), the
development of a new Terminal 2 (T2) to the south of the existing terminal by 2009,
the development of new piers in association with T2, a review of current access/kerb
facilities at T1, the development of appropriate new kerbing for T2, the renovation
and extension of Pier B, a review of the long-term operation of Pier A, the reservation
of lands to the west between the parallel runways for future airport expansion and the
identification of a location for additional terminal facilities.

As part of the future development of airport infrastructure, it is also an objective of the
Masterplan to facilitate the orderly development and expansion of apron areas and to
facilitate the development of new taxiways where necessary.

The stated Masterplan objectives in relation to cargo are to monitor commercial
requirements of cargo operation, to review the complimentarity of continued
operation of cargo facilities beside the proposed T2 and to reserve appropriate lands
for cargo facilities as part of any long-term expansion to the west.

In relation to Hangarage and Maintenance, the Masterplan objectives are to support
the continuance of these activities within the airport campus as well as maintaining
fuel farm facilities within the campus area.

3.4    Aircraft Operations

The Masterplan objectives regarding aircraft operations which relate specifically to
take-off and landing include: to facilitate the development of a second east-west
runway at Dublin Airport, the promotion of appropriate land use patterns in the vicinity
of the flight paths, the implementation of Government policies in relation to Public
Safety Zones, the restriction of inappropriate development in the Outer Noise Zone
and the restriction of noise sensitive uses in the Inner Noise Zone, to make
information available on the Noise and Flight Track Monitoring system and to ensure
that landing and take-off maneuvers have the least possible effect on nearby
communities.

In relation to engine testing, it is an objective of the Masterplan to move the site for
engine ground running events away from the northern boundary of the airport i.e.
away from populated neighbouring areas.

3.5    Surface Access

The objectives contained in the Masterplan in relation to surface access are
subdivided into the following categories: (1) external access, (2) internal access, (3)
public transport, (4) car parking, and (5) mobility management. The objectives that
relate specifically to each of these categories can be summarised as follows:


                                            19
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


Objectives in relation to external access includes measures to maintain and protect
accessibility to the airport and to implement a programme of road development on
the external road network and to ensure the network has the capacity for estimated
growth in traffic. A number of specific roads objectives are outlined also. These
include; to improve and provide alternative access points to the Airport from the
external road network, in particular via Collinstown Lane and Forrest Little Road, to
realign and upgrade the road network surrounding the Airport (the Airport Box) to
Dual Carriageway standard, to reserve an alignment for the Blanchardstown to
Baldoyle Airport Road, to provide for road access to the west, to allow for a future
connection to a possible western by-pass of Swords to link to the airport box and to
improve and upgrade the R108 south of Collinstown Lane to the Ballymun
interchange to dual carriageway standard.

Other objectives in relation to external access include; to develop a strategy for
unexpected incidents on both the external and internal road networks, to develop
electronic signage facilities, to provide an emergency access plan in consultation with
the relevant bodies and to develop a detailed transportation model to monitor the
growth of the airport and help passenger growth targets to be achieved in a
sustainable way.

In relation to internal access, the stated objectives of the Masterplan are to review
the circulation of traffic around the airport campus, to provide a high quality high
capacity link between the Eastern and Western campuses, to reserve an alignment
around the southern airport perimeter for a transport service linking the terminal
buildings with long-term car parks and to ensure passenger experience of using the
airport is prioritised. Further objectives are to provide a corridor for the construction of
a northern distributor road through DAA lands to connect the N2 to R132 and to
provide for improved capacity on the R132 corridor from the northern and southern
distributor roads.

With regard to public transport the Masterplan sets out objectives which include aims
to facilitate the provision of an integrated public transport network to serve Dublin
Airport as well as other measures to ensure optimal public transport access to the
airport including an objective to reserve lands at the centre of the Airport campus for
the development of a Metro station and to provide an alignment for the Orbital Metro
(Metro West). Further objectives include to increase emphasis on the promotion of
public transport usage among staff and passengers, to investigate links from the
western campus to the recently approve Metro system and to provide Bus Priority on
approach roads to the Airport as required.

Objectives in relation to car parking include measures to ensure good access to car
parks, to control the supply of car parking so as to maximise the use of public
transport and to facilitate the removal of some staff parking in the centre of the
campus in order to ensure a more efficient utilisation of land. Other objectives in
relation to car parking include measures to limit the growth of employee parking in
order to improve public transport usage and to secure the implementation of a
parking management strategy.

The Masterplan also includes policies and objectives which aim to implement a
Mobility Management Plan and to identify and implement measures to maximise non-
motorised and public transport use.




                                            20
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


3.6     Drainage and Utilities

The policies and objectives contained in the Masterplan regarding utilities are
subdivided according to (1) surface water drainage, (2) ground water (3) water
supply, (4) foul drainage, and (5) telecommunications and utilities.

There are a number of objectives which relate to surface water drainage and these
include objectives to collaborate with the Eastern River District (ERD) integrated
catchment initiative, to intercept and collect, for separate treatment and disposal,
runoff contaminated with de-icing chemicals with achieving and maintaining
‘salmonoid water’ quality in the receiving waters, to develop a stormwater
management system and to implement recommendations arising from flood impact
assessments.

Other objectives include inter alia a study of foul drainage misconnections and to
implement pollution control measures in respect of oil and fuel storage and handling.

With regard to ground water, the objectives set out in the Masterplan are to quantify
potentially significant impacts relating to aquifers and to identify and implement
mitigation measures for existing and proposed development and to implement long
term groundwater quality monitoring as part of an environmental management
system.

Objectives in relation to foul drainage include an aim to undertake a study by 2008
into the true level of inflow/infiltration/exfiltration in the drainage within the airport and
to reduce these levels, to treat trade effluent at source and to implement measures to
reduce fats, oils and grease.

Polices with regard to Water Supply include aims to expand the water supply
network, to develop a water management and conservation plan and to ensure
security of supply.

With regard to Telecommunications and Utilities it is an objective to ensure that
strategic telecommunication and utilities infrastructure is maintained and protected in
any development proposals in the Masterplan area.

3.7     Built Heritage

The stated Masterplan objectives concerning built heritage are to support the
conservation and protection of the archaeological and built heritage, so far as is
consistent with the development of necessary airport facilities. This section also
identifies structures of potential architectural significance within the Masterplan Area.

3.8     Natural Heritage

The policies and objectives set out in the Masterplan seek to conserve and enhance
the biodiversity of the area, ensure that any impacts resulting from development are
mitigated and to minimise the impact on landscape and watercourses. Specific
objectives include inter alia to complete a survey of all Masterplan lands to determine
habitats and species present and to complete a Landscape and Habitat Management
Framework.




                                             21
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


3.9    Design

Objectives in relation to design include; to require a design statement to accompany
each planning application for development within the DAA to ensure architectural
coherence and quality, to require a design appraisal to accompany significant
development showing how the proposal responds to the site, the locality and policy
context; to require that public spaces should be generous and well designed and to
improve qualitative standards of sustainable design in proposed developments.

3.10   Commercial Development

There are a number of objectives in relation to commercial development and these
include; to support the provision of airport related economic activities in the
appropriate locations on the airport campus, to support the location of appropriate
tourism related activities, including new hotel buildings, at appropriate locations
within the airport campus. to facilitate limited commercial development within the
Designated Airport Area through the zoning of an appropriate area for such
development, to ensure that the provision of commercial development in the
Designated Airport Area does not prejudice the core functions of the Airport, to
ensure that the provision of non aviation related commercial developments is phased
in tandem with the delivery of the Metro and other additional public transport facilities,
to require the production and implementation of a mobility management plan for each
commercial development, to require any proposed commercial development to
submit a comprehensive Traffic Impact Assessment and to require the provision of a
high quality high capacity public transport system linking the core airport campus,
including the Metro Station and the Public Transport Interchange, with the
commercial zone.

It is noted in the Masterplan that non-aviation related office development is not
permitted under the current Development Plan and therefore, any proposals to
develop the identified lands would require a variation to the 2005 Development Plan.
It is further noted that it is vital that any such Variation would be linked to the delivery
of a high quality high capacity public transport system linking the core airport
campus, including the Metro Station and the Public Transport Interchange, with the
commercial zone.




                                            22
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment



4 RELATIONSHIP OF THE PLAN WITH
OTHER RELEVANT PLANS AND
PROGRAMMES
4.1     National Spatial Strategy (2002 - 2020)

The National Spatial Strategy is a twenty year planning framework with the aim of
achieving a greater balance of social, economic, physical development and
population growth between regions resulting in an improved quality of life for the
island’s inhabitants, a strong, competitive economic position and a high quality
environment.

In terms of ensuring the continued prosperity and growth of the Greater Dublin Area,
the Strategy indicates that good international access through Dublin Airport is one of
the key determining factors in this regard.

The National Spatial Strategy also highlights the importance of good national and
regional airports and their associated services in terms of Ireland’s global
competitiveness. It is noted that Dublin Airport has the greatest number of
international connections and that ‘expanding the level of services available from
Dublin Airport to an even wider range of destinations is essential in the interests of
underpinning Ireland’s future international competitiveness’.

The Strategy further indicates that national and regional benefits of expanded
services from Dublin Airport can be enhanced through improved connections with;

(i) The integrated public transport network proposed by the Dublin Transportation
Office in ‘A Platform for Change’,

(ii) The national roads network, and

(iii) Regional airports.

The Masterplan for Dublin Airport is consistent with the National Spatial Strategy
2002-2020.

4.2     Regional Planning Guidelines Greater Dublin Area (2004 – 2016)

The Regional Planning Guidelines provide a long-term strategic planning framework
for the development of the Greater Dublin Area over a 12-year period.

In relation to transport, Dublin Airport is identified as a premier international access
point to the Dublin region and to the country as a whole. Continued development of
the airport is recognised as being crucial to underpinning Ireland’s future international
competitiveness. Landside access is identified as being a significant issue regarding
the future growth of the airport and the guidelines state that this will be improved
through the provision of ‘an extensive, high quality, fully accessible, integrated public
transport network’.

The guidelines further state that in order to achieve predicted airport passenger
numbers by 2020, a new runway will be required by 2009 with extended apron

                                           23
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


facilities and additional terminal passenger processing facilities. It is also indicated
that increased airfreight will require the relocation and provision of additional freight
facilities on new sites within the airport area.

The Masterplan for Dublin Airport is consistent with the Regional Planning Guidelines
Greater Dublin Area (2004-2016).

4.3       Sustainable Development – A Strategy for Ireland (1997)

The stated purpose of this strategy is ‘to provide a comprehensive analysis and
framework which will allow sustainable development to be taken forward more
systematically in Ireland’. It is stated that this will require a continuing adaptation and
review of policies, actions and lifestyles.

In order to make transport more sustainable, the Strategy focuses on making
transport more efficient, reducing its environmental impact and the intensity, and
examining and implementing the internalisation of the external costs of transport.

The strategy recognises that air transport is an increasing source of polluting
emissions but highlights that a number of initiatives and actions have been
undertaken to address this issue such as implementing standards for noise
certification and limitation, monitoring development planning near airports to reduce
the impacts on noise pollution, improved aircraft technology and improved attention
to operational matters within airports to reduce the noise impacts.

The Masterplan for Dublin Airport is consistent with this strategy.

4.4  Dublin Transportation Office, A ‘Platform for Change’ Strategy
2000–2016

Platform for Change contains proposals for an integrated transport network for the
Greater Dublin Area. Relevant recommendations to Dublin Airport are:

      •   The provision of a Metro system from the city centre to Dublin Airport linking
          onto Swords is supported.

      •   The construction of a Luas line from the City Centre to Dublin Airport via
          Santry.

It is also recommended in the strategy that the Luas and Metro systems be
supported by the provision of Quality Bus Corridors (QBCs), which would be
operational by 2006.

The Masterplan for Dublin Airport is generally consistent with the Strategy.




                                            24
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


4.5    Department of Transport Investment Programme - Transport 21

Transport 21 outlines proposals for an integrated transport system for Dublin with a
budget of €34.4 bn, which provides for seven new Luas projects, two Metro lines
with a link to Dublin airport, and an underground station at St. Stephen's Green
integrating all services and the Western Rail Corridor.

Transport 21 also includes new commuter rail services for Cork City and Galway
City, DART extensions in Dublin, and a new road route connecting Donegal, to
Galway, Limerick, Cork and Waterford, known as the Atlantic Corridor.

The key proposal for the Airport is the implementation of the Metro North line by 2012
linking Dublin City Centre with the Airport and Swords. The predicted journey time
from the City Centre to the Airport is 17 minutes by Metro.

The Masterplan for Dublin Airport is consistent with this programme.




                                          25
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 4.1 Proposed Greater Dublin Area Rail Network as outlined in the Transport 21
                    2
investment programme




2
    Department of Transport www.transport.ie

                                               26
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                                           Strategic Environmental Assessment


4.6       Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011

The Fingal Development Plan 2005 – 2011 is the statutory development plan for the
Airport area. The plan provides for a Designated Airport Area (DAA), which is zoned
‘DA’, and has the objective, ‘to ensure the efficient and effective operation of the
airport in accordance with an Airport Action Plan’.

The policies and objectives contained in the development plan in relation to the
airport lands and its environs are based on findings of the South Fingal Planning
Study 2004. The primary aim of this study was ‘to advise on a strategic “vision” and
framework for South Fingal to 2011 – a rational and flexible strategy to manage the
growing pressure for development north of the city – in a way which benefits the local
population whilst meeting national and regional needs’.

The Fingal Development Plan states that ‘the future expansion of Dublin Airport and
associated development will take place within this area and only confirmed airport-
related uses (i.e. those uses that need to be on or near the airport) should normally
be permitted therein. The uses indicated in the zoning objective as being ‘Permitted
in Principle’ are those uses that must be on the airside and/or landside airport area,
and represent the core activities associated with operation of the airport’. 3

The vision for the Designated Airport Area is as follows:

‘Within this area, only airport related uses (i.e. those uses that need to be on or near
the airport) should normally be permitted. The airport’s detailed development should
be planned via an agreed Airport Action Plan (Masterplan) for the land within the
Designated Airport Area. All development within the DAA should be of a high
standard of design, to reflect the prestigious nature of an international gateway
airport, and its location adjacent to Dublin City. Minor extension or alteration to
existing properties located within the DAA which are not essential to the operational
efficiency and amenity of the airport should be permitted, where it can be
demonstrated that these works will not result in material intensification of landuse.’

The Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011 contains a number of key policies and
objectives in relation to Dublin Airport as follows:




3
   Land uses permitted in principle: Aircraft Areas: Runways, Taxiways, Aprons, Terminal Airside/Jetties, Fuel
Storage, Maintenance Hangars/Engineering Shops, Air Traffic Control/Meteorology, Airline and Handling Agents,
Aero Club/GA, Health/Security/etc. (Infirmary, Police, Fire Service, etc.), Airline / Airport Operator Office Facilities,
Control Functions: Customs, Immigration, Concessions (Duty Free Shopping, Cafe_s and Restaurants, etc.) Car Hire
Front Desks, Car Hire Holding Areas, Hotel Booking/Information/General Tourist Information/etc. Counters, Hotel
(Either Inside the Terminal or Immediately Adjacent), Traffic ‘Waiting’ (as Opposed to ‘Parking’) Areas: Drop-Off/Pick-
Up, Taxis, Buses, Coaches, Short Term MSCP Parking, Limited Warehouse and Office Space for Freight
Companies, Car Parking (Long Term; also for Employees), Freight Forwarders (Back-Up Warehouse Space), Petrol
Filling Station, Retail Development Directly Associated with Air Traveller/Airport Workforce Needs, Coach Park,
Park’n’Ride, Cargo Handling, Air Catering, Places of Worship, Conference Centre, Childcare Facilities, Cultural Use,
Health Centre, Hotel/Conference Centre, Open Space, Public House, ,Utility Installations, Public Transportation
Station, Restaurant/Cafe_.

Land uses not permitted: Garden Centre, Home Based Economic Activity, Household Fuel Depot, Special Industry,
Extractive Industry, Light Industry, General Industry, Motor Sales Outlet, Office-Based Industry, Non Aviation/Airport
Related Office, Residential, Residential Institution, Retail Warehouse, Residential Care Home, Science And
Technology Based Enterprise, Shop-Discount Food Store, Shops-Major Sales Outlet.



                                                          27
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


4.6.1   Airport Operations and Airport Development

   •    To safeguard the current and future operational, safety, technical and
        developmental requirements of Dublin Airport, having regard to the
        environmental impact on local communities (DAP1, TP15).

   •    To realise the optimal use of lands around the airport (DAP2, TP20).

   •    To promote the continued co-ordinated, sustainable and well-planned
        physical and economic development of Dublin Airport, having regard to its
        sustainability within Fingal and to Government policies in relation to
        decentralisation and the National Spatial Strategy (DAP3).

   •    To protect and enhance the transportation capacity required to provide for the
        surface access needs of the Airport, which is an important national asset, but
        also a major source of employment growth potential in its own right (DAP5
        and TP16).

   •    To provide for the efficient and effective operation of the airport within the
        Designated Airport Area in accordance with the Airport Action Plan when
        adopted (DAP6).

   •    To ensure that all development within the DAA will be of a high standard of
        design, to reflect the prestigious nature of an international gateway airport,
        and its location adjacent to Dublin City (DAP7).

   •    To determine a Designated Airport Area for Dublin Airport, and to zone the
        lands included in that area for uses integral or ancillary to the functions of the
        airport as such (TO20).

   •    To prepare an agreed Airport Action Plan (masterplan) for the land within the
        Designated Airport Area, in consultation with the airport authority and all other
        relevant stakeholders, to serve as the formal basis for Fingal County
        Council’s planning control of change within that zone (DAO1).

   •    To restrict development which would impede surface access to Dublin Airport
        (TO26).

   •    To establish an Airport Consultative Committee, including representatives
        from local authorities, airport operators, community and other stakeholders, to
        provide a forum for discussion of environmental and other issues (DAO5).

   •    To require that an urban design statement accompany each planning
        application for development within the DAA, to ensure architectural coherence
        and quality in the airport area; this shall demonstrate compliance with the
        Airport Action Plan when adopted (DAO6).

4.6.2   Terminal and Runway Facilities

   •    To facilitate the early development of a second major east-west runway at
        Dublin Airport (DAO2 and TO21).

   •    To restrict the Crosswind Runway to essential occasional use on completion
        of the second east-west runway (DAO3 and TO22).

                                           28
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


   •    To facilitate the on-going augmentation and improvement of terminal facilities
        at Dublin Airport (DAO4 and TO23).

4.6.3   Safety

   •    To promote appropriate land use patterns in the vicinity of the flight paths
        serving the Airport, having regard to the existing and anticipated
        environmental impacts of aircraft movements (DAP8 and TP18).

   •    To implement the policies to be determined by Government in relation to
        Public Safety Zones for Dublin Airport (DAP9 and TP19).

   •    To continue to take account of the advice of the Irish Aviation Authority with
        regard to the effects of any development proposals on the safety of aircraft or
        the safe and efficient navigation thereof (DAP10).

4.6.4   Noise

   •    To strictly control inappropriate development and to require noise insulation
        where appropriate within the Outer Noise Zone, and to resist new provision
        for residential development and other noise sensitive uses within the Inner
        Noise Zone, as shown on the Development Plan maps (DAP11).

   •    To prepare a baseline noise study with a long-term horizon taking account of
        the proposed Airport Action Plan (objective DAO7).

   •    To review the operation of the Noise Zones on an ongoing basis in light of the
        forthcoming EU Directive on Environmental Noise, the ongoing programme of
        noise monitoring in the vicinity of the airport flight paths, and the availability of
        improved noise forecasts (DAO8).

4.6.5   Air and Water Quality Management

   •    To ensure that every aircraft related development proposed in the Airport
        takes account of the impact of noise on established residential communities
        (DAP12).

   •    To ensure that every development proposal in the environs of the airport take
        account of current and predicted changes in air quality and local
        environmental conditions. This should form part of the Environmental Impact
        Statement where an EIA is required, and of the Health Impact Assessment
        (DAP13).

   •    To ensure that every development proposal in the environs of the Airport
        takes into account the impact on water quality and flooding of local streams.
        This should form part of the Environmental Impact Statement where an EIA is
        required (DAP14).

4.6.6   Greenbelt

   •    To continue to foster agricultural uses and to promote recreational and leisure
        activities within this area for the benefit of the community at large (DAP15).




                                             29
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


4.6.7   St. Margaret’s and Other Residential Communities

   •    To restrict housing development in order to minimise the potential for future
        conflict between airport operations and environmental conditions for residents
        (DAP16).

   •    To permit improvement and extension to existing properties in the area where
        it can be demonstrated that such works do not represent significant
        intensification of development, and that appropriate consideration of potential
        noise impacts are incorporated within the proposals (DAP17).

   •    To develop a consultative board based on international best practices
        involving the existing communities, Fingal County Council, Aer Rianta and
        other appropriate stakeholders, to consult about the detailed resolution of the
        future of the communities in the area and to seek consensus about the nature
        of change (DAO9).

   •    To prepare a strategy for ‘St. Margaret’s Special Policy Area’ involving
        consultation between the existing community, Fingal County Council and the
        Dublin Airport Authority (DAO10).

   •    To restrict development which would give rise to conflicts with aircraft
        movements on environmental or safety grounds on lands in the vicinity of the
        airport itself and of the main flight paths serving the airport, and in particular
        to restrict residential development in areas likely to be affected by levels of
        noise inappropriate to residential use (TO24).

4.6.8   M50 Belt

   •    To maintain and protect accessibility to the airport as a priority (DAP18).

   •    To promote intensification of existing industrial premises along Swords Road
        within their existing curtilages, where such development contributes to the
        consolidation and environmental improvement of the area. Planning
        applications for extensions to industrial premises should be accompanied by
        design statements, which demonstrate compliance of the proposal to high
        quality landscaping and architectural treatment appropriate to their gateway
        location (DAP19).

4.6.9   Airport Car Parking

   •    To control the supply of car parking at the Airport so as to maximise as far as
        is practicable the use of public transport by workers and passengers and to
        secure the efficient use of land (TP17).

4.6.10 Environmental Legislation and Standards

   •    To promote the extension of the provisions of the Environmental Protection
        Act and EU environmental standards to all relevant activities at Dublin Airport
        including noise control, engine run-up and air pollution (TP21).

4.6.11 Public transport

   •    To encourage and facilitate the provision of an integrated public transport
        network to serve Dublin Airport (DAP4).
                                            30
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment


   •   To facilitate and promote the development of a new and improved rail based
       transportation system including a METRO rail link from the City to Swords via
       the Airport, a new rail line from Clonsilla to Dunboyne and from Baldoyle to
       Dublin Airport, and additional stations and operational facilities on the
       Drogheda to Dublin and Maynooth to Dublin lines (TP12).

   •   To facilitate and promote the development of a METRO line from the City
       Centre to Dublin Airport and on to Swords by protecting the preferred route
       identified by the Railway Procurement Agency, preparing and implementing
       proposals for the integration of this line with the development of adjoining
       lands in cooperation with the developers of such lands, and implementing a
       scheme under Section 49 of the Planning and Development Act 2000 to
       secure contributions from developers of lands in the vicinity towards the cost
       of developing the line, and co-operating with other public agencies and the
       private sector in this regard (TO6).

   •   To identify and protect a route for the proposed Orbital METRO from the
       Airport through Blanchardstown towards Clondalkin and Tallaght (TO7).

The Masterplan for Dublin Airport is consistent with the policies and objectives
contained in the Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011.




                                         31
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                  32
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                           Strategic Environmental Assessment



5         ALTERNATIVES
5.1       Introduction

Article 5 of the SEA Directive requires the environmental report to consider
‘reasonable alternatives taking into account the objectives and the geographical
scope of the plan or programme’ and the significant environmental effects of the
alternatives selected.

This section firstly discusses the ‘do-nothing’ scenario (i.e. if the policies and
objectives of the Masterplan are not carried out). Strategic development options for
the airport are then discussed. The various different options for development at
Dublin Airport itself are then outlined. This section makes reference to the Dublin
Airport Alternatives Report produced by Scott Wilson in 2004, the Dublin Airport
Terminal and Piers Development Study carried out by PM, SOM and TPS Consulting
as well as the ‘Capacity Enhancement Recommendation Report for Dublin Airport –
Final Draft (September 2005)’ prepared by Pascall + Watson Architects.

5.2       Do-Nothing

If the policies and objectives of the Masterplan are not are not implemented the
projected growth of the airport would be severely curtailed due to airside and
landside infrastructural deficits.

At a county level the potential economic benefits of an efficient international airport
would not be realised in full due to constraints on direct, indirect and induced
employment. The attractiveness of the country as a whole as a business and leisure
location would be negatively impacted upon due to the decreasing levels of service
and congestion associated with airport infrastructural deficits. Non-implementation of
Masterplan policies are further discussed in Chapter 6 – Characteristics of the
Existing Environment of Dublin Airport and Environs.

5.3       Strategic Development Options

The ‘Dublin Airport – Runway 10L/28R Alternatives Report’4 identifies a number of
concept options which include:

      •   Increased Use of Other Airports
          Other airport locations, such as Cork and Shannon, are not in areas that
          would best suit the needs of the majority of passengers that currently use
          Dublin Airport. They would therefore either not serve demand or require
          increased surface access provisions.

      •   Improved Use of the Existing Infrastructure at Dublin Airport.
          Various studies, including the study carried out by National Air Traffic
          Services (NATS), of the existing three runway system concluded that there
          are no improvements to infrastructure or procedures that could deliver
          significant additional capacity without building or replacing a runway.

          It has been shown that the current facilities cannot cater for 20 MPPA without
          significant additions or alterations and that substantial new airside, terminal

4
    Scott Wilson - Dublin Airport – Runway 10L/28R Alternatives Report Final December 2004
                                              33
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


          and landside capacity must be in place by 2020 in order to meet demand at
          an acceptable level of service.5

      •   Alternative locations for the second runway at Dublin airport
          The extension of runway 11-29 was considered as the only option sufficiently
          compatible with the local development plan to be a feasible alternative.
          However there were a number of significant disadvantages associated with
          this option which included limitations on capacity, removal of existing facilities
          and not a specified policy of the County Development Plan. It was also found
          that the extension of this runway would have an impact on areas not
          previously identified for airport use and that noise levels would not be
          significantly different in the best operational scenario.

      •   Provision of a single runway elsewhere in the Greater Dublin Area
          This would either take the form of a new single runway airport or change the
          use of an existing airfield to civil use. Impacts on land use would be increased
          and noise impacts may be less but only at the expense of increased travel
          distance and road use.

      •   Replacement of Dublin Airport on a new site
          Due to the timescale of the Government’s proposed infrastructure programme
          this option was not considered feasible. In addition, the high costs involved in
          this option means it would only be justifiable if the environmental benefits
          were very significant. This is not likely as sites close enough to Dublin to
          minimise access impacts would have similar impacts on the surrounding
          communities and any undeveloped sites away from developed areas often
          have high ecological value.

5.4       PM/SOM Masterplan Options

The Dublin Airport Authority (formerly Aer Rianta) commissioned a comprehensive
Master Plan project to examine the various development options for Dublin Airport.
This study was carried out by Project Management Group (PM), Skidmore, Owings
and Merrill LLP and TPS Consult and examined a number of development options.
The study concluded in 2004 and is commonly known as the PM/SOM Study6.
Substantial research was undertaken for this study and regard was had to this
research in the preparation of the Masterplan and for this environmental report.

Each of the different development scenarios was limited by a number of constraints
which included:
   • The retention of the Old Central Terminal Building (OCTB)
   • Development of the Northern Parallel Runway
   • Retention of the cross wind runway
   • Possible relocation of the cargo terminal area, aircraft maintenance, fuel farm
       and other existing landside facilities.
   • The provision of a Metro station
   • Development Plan policies




5
    PM/SOM Dublin Airport Terminal and Piers Development Study
6
    ibid
                                             34
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


5.4.1   Expansion Options

A number of options were considered as part of the PM/SOM study. These included
the westward expansion of the airport, an east/west expansion of the airport, a
northward expansion and finally an eastward expansion.

The westward expansion essentially involved the construction of a new large 30
MPPA terminal and piers to the western side of the airport lands, with landside
access from the west with connections to the M50 and the N2.

East/West expansion would see the development of a second terminal and piers to
the west of the existing facilities, as well as the redevelopment and extension of the
existing terminal. This would result in a two-terminal, two-landside airport.

Northward expansion involved the construction of a new terminal and pier complex
on the north side in the area of the existing hangers, as well as the alteration and
expansion of the existing terminal. The result is a two terminal airport but with
considerable shared landside infrastructure.

Eastward expansion involved the expansion and extension of the existing terminal
building to the south and east of the existing site to form large single terminal building
with a single set of landside and airside facilities with a capacity of 30 million
passengers per annum (30 MPPA). The main benefit of this option would be to
provide as much flexibility and common use as possible and to utilise and share
existing infrastructure within the constraints of the existing terminal and piers site.
Landside access is from the east.

The four options were evaluated in the SOM study with regard to functionality,
deliverability and cost. It found that the ‘Eastward Expansion’ option ranked highest
in this evaluation and as such it was recommended as the preferred framework of
development of Dublin Airport. This option was re-examined by the Pascal Watson
study7 and in turn contributed towards the overall Masterplan.




7
  Pascal Watson Architects – Capacity Enhancement Recommendation Report for Dublin
Airport – September 2005 Final Draft
                                           35
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan           Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 5.1 Westward Expansion Option




                                     36
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan            Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 5.2 East/West Expansion Option




                                      37
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan            Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 5.3 Northward Expansion Option




                                      38
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan           Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 5.4 Eastward Expansion Option




                                     39
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


5.5     Terminal Options

Pascall Watson Architects were commissioned by DAA in 2005 to review the SOM
study and to recommend a preferred Terminal Option having regard to a
concentrated stakeholder consultation process. Three alternative options for
Terminal 2 were identified, taking into consideration criterion such as planning,
logistics, affordability and meeting programme targets. A southern location was
chosen on the following basis:
    • Fast implementation of initial phase of works, meeting 2007 pier and 2009
        terminal completion targets set by the Government,
    • Good utilisation of existing infrastructure and assets
    • Good balance and utilisation of the landside, terminal and airside
        development zones in an ordered and logical arrangement.
    • Capable of meeting the needs of the airlines and other users
    • Incremental projects that prudently address and ensure supply meets
        demand whilst maintaining on-going operational integrity.8




Fig. 5.5 Terminal Option 1




8
 Pascal Watson Architects – Capacity Enhancement Recommendation Report for Dublin
Airport – September 2005 Final Draft
                                          40
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan             Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 5.6 Terminal Option 2




Fig. 5.7 Recommended Terminal Option




                                       41
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                  42
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment



6 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
EXISTING ENVIRONMENT OF DUBLIN
AIRPORT AND ENVIRONS
6.1       Introduction

This section of the report describes the current state of the environment in the Airport
area and it highlights the environmental indicators that were considered most
relevant, arising from the scoping procedure. The existing environment was
considered under a number of headings which include employment and economic
development, traffic and transportation, noise, air quality, built heritage, natural
heritage and bio-diversity, soils and groundwater, surface water management,
utilities and landscape.

The likely evolution of the various indicators in the absence of the implementation of
the objectives and policies of the Dublin Airport Masterplan are also considered.

6.2       Employment and Economic Development

Dublin Airport is one of the largest concentrations of employment in Ireland. The
table below shows the on-site employment at Dublin Airport in 2003.

It is estimated that on-site activities generated an annual income of around €242
million (at 2001 prices) for Fingal County, €407 million for the Dublin Region, €490
million for the Greater Dublin Area and €564 million for the Irish Republic as a whole9.

In 2003 it is estimated that there were a total of 13,300 people employed on site at
the airport. This consisted of about 11,000 full-time and 1,200 part-time/seasonal
staff.

Direct off-site activities accounted for an annual income of around €19 million (at
2001 prices) for Fingal, €32 million for the Dublin Region, €38 million for the Greater
Dublin Area, €44 million for the Irish Republic as a whole.

Indirect impact generated around €6 million for Fingal, €60 million for the Dublin
Region, €85 million in the Greater Dublin Area and €255 million for the Irish Republic
as a whole.




9
    Dublin Airport Northern Parallel Runway Environmental Impact Statement December 2004
                                             43
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment



Category           Fingal         Dublin             Greater          Irish Republic
                                  Region             Dublin Area
Employment (full-time equivalents)
Direct On-Site    11,600          11,600             11,600           11,600
Direct Off-Site   900             900                900              900
Indirect          200             1,900              2,800            8,300
Induced           600             4,500              8,300            18,500
Total             13,300          19,000             23,600           39,300
Income (€ million at 2001 prices)
Direct On-Site    242             407                490              564
Direct Off-Site   19              32                 38               44
Indirect          6               60                 85               255
Induced           17              139                256              570
Total             284             638                868              1,432
                                          10
Table 6.1      Airport Generated Employment

6.2.1   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies

While it is difficult to quantify the impact on employment resulting from the policies
and objectives of the Masterplan not being implemented, the EIS for the proposed
Northern Parallel Runway sets out the predicted impact on employment resulting
from a decision not to build the runway (constrained scenario). Table 6.2 shows this
constrained scenario. While in the short to medium-term (2010) the impact on
employment is not great, the impact over the longer term is more pronounced.




10
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                         44
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment



Projected Employment Impact of Dublin Airport in 2010, 2017 and 2025 (Full-
time equivalents)*
Constrained
Employment        Fingal           Dublin            Greater          Irish Republic
Category          County           Region            Dublin
                                                     Area
2010
Direct            13,700           13,700            13,700           13,700
Indirect          200              2,200             3,100            9,200
Induced           600              5,000             9,100            20,300
Total             14,600           20,900            25,900           43,200
2017
Direct            13,700           13,700            13,700           13,700
Indirect          200              2,100             3,100            9,000
Induced           600              4,500             9,000            20,000
Total             14,600           20,800            25,800           42,700
2025
Direct            12,500           12,500            12,500           12,500
Indirect          200              1,900             2,800            8,300
Induced           600              4,500             8,300            18,500
Total             13,300           19,000            23,600           39,300
                                         11
Table 6.2 Constrained Employment Forecast

6.3     Traffic and Transportation

6.3.1   Existing External Road Network

In 2005 approximately 18.4 million passengers passed through Dublin Airport. Almost
all passengers using Dublin Airport have their origin or destination in Ireland rather
than transfer passengers between other flights.

The major access roads to Dublin Airport are the M1 Airport Motorway, the M50
Dublin Orbital Motorway and the N1 Swords Road which together form the National
Primary Route from Dublin to the north of the country. The R132 (Swords Road) runs
along the eastside of the Airport Campus into the Airport Roundabout. The existing
external road system is shown below.

The continued growth of the airport over the next 20 years, and the related regional
and socio-economic benefits depend on a transfer of trips, especially at peak times,
to more sustainable modes such as public transport, cycling and walking.




11
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                            45
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 6.1 Existing External Road Network




                                          46
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                             Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.3.2     Internal Road Network

The internal road network is maintained by the DAA. The network is a one-way loop
system. The terminal, administration and maintenance buildings area positioned on
the exterior of the internal road network with car parking and other ancillary activities
inside. The two roads linking Corballis Road North and South are the Eastlink and
Westlink roads respectively.




Fig. 6.2 Existing Internal Road Network

6.3.3     Public Transport Network

At present there are 12 different Dublin Bus routes serving Dublin Airport and there
are also a number of other public and private operators serving the airport. At the AM
peak hour there are 42 buses run by Dublin Bus and 45 in the PM peak hour. The
daily average is 30 buses per hour.12

Other private operators include Aircoach, which is a 24 hour bus service which
serves most of the major hotels in Dublin.


12
     ILTP Consulting: Dublin Airport Masterplan - Transport Masterplan
                                               47
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


Given that the airport is not located immediately adjacent to major residential areas,
the number of people walking or cycling are low. The number of cycle lane, cycle
parking spaces and pedestrian crossings are relatively low in the vicinity of the
airport. There are pedestrian crossings from the short-term car park to the terminal
building. However there is a lack of footpaths and cycle lands in the remainder of the
airport lands and poor connections in the wider area.

6.3.4   Car Parking

Car parking at any airport is an essential consideration, given that the majority of
travellers at most airports arrive and depart by road and many of them park at short-
term or long-term car parking areas. In addition, parking is required for employees,
well-wishers, commercial vehicles and ancillary airport uses like hotels, restaurants,
freight areas etc.

Existing passenger parking at Dublin Airport comprises of short-term and long-term
parking. Short-term parking is provided close to the terminal building. Long-term
parking which is the majority of the parking, is located further away from the terminal
building due to the requirement for large areas of space which are not readily
available immediately adjacent to the terminal.

Dublin Airport currently has in the order of 24,320 spaces. A breakdown of these
spaces is outlined below:


Car Park        Short      Long       Employee     Car          Location      Remark
                Term       Term                    Hire/Taxi/                 s
                                                   Executive
Car Park 1      2,450                                           Adjacent to   Multi-
                spaces                                          Terminal      Storey
Carpark 2       1,350                                           Adjacent to   Surface
                spaces                                          Terminal
Carpark 3 –                5,800                                Eastlands –   Surface
Eastlands                  spaces                               general
Carpark 4 –                2,050                                Eastlands –   Surface
Dardistown                 spaces                               south
Carpark 5 –                2,550                                Eastlands –   Surface
Eastlands                  spaces                               north
Green
Carpark 6 –                3,600                                Southlands    Surface
Southlands                 spaces
Overall         3,800      14,000     5,360        1,160
Total
Table 6.3 Current Car Parking at Dublin Airport

It is also noted that there are 140 taxi, and 120 Executive Parking Spaces.

The peak demand for long-term spaces in 2005 was 20,500 and the 6,500 shortfall
was made up as follows:
   • 3,500 long term spaces provided by Quickpark, a private operator.
   • 1,000 additional spaces provided in Eastlands by using “Block Parking”
   • 2,000 additional spaces provided by utilising spare capacity in the short-term
      car park.

                                              48
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.3.5     Taxi

The pick up area at full capacity caters for approximately 300 taxis per hour. There is
also an additional holding area close to the Great Southern Hotel in the Airport
grounds. This reduces waiting periods for passengers wishing to travel via taxi to
their destination from the Airport. Taxis can also drop off passengers along the
departures ramp.

6.3.6     Existing Traffic Survey Data

There have been numerous traffic surveys conducted in the vicinity of the airport, and
these include counts undertaken by the NRA, ILTP (on behalf of FCC) and as part of
the Environmental Impact Statement for the Northern Parallel Runway.

The survey carried out by ILTP indicated that during the AM peak hour approximately
2,000 vehicles entered the airport with 1,300 departures.




                                                                              13
Fig. 6.3 Traffic Flows on the Internal and External Road Network in the AM Peak

Passenger Behaviour
Understanding the travel behaviour patterns of airport travellers is critical to
designing good ground access facilities and terminal facilities. Mode of travel,
passenger origins and destinations and taking account of ‘meeters and greeters’ are
all important factors in developing good transportation systems for modern airports.




13
     ILTP Consulting: Dublin Airport Masterplan - Transport Masterplan
                                               49
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment


Mode of Travel
The predominant mode of Airport access for all Airport passengers is the private car,
followed by bus and taxi as mode of travel to the airport. Also significant is the car-
hire to areas outside metropolitan Dublin. Car hire use is in fact higher than that
found at other European airports.

Access Mode         All Airport Passengers          Passengers Outside Greater Dublin
Private car         43.5%                           50.5%
Car-hire            12.0%                           16.9%
Taxi                21.8%                           8.6%
Bus                 22.3%                           23.7%
Other               0.4%                            0.3%
Table 6.4 Overall Dublin Airport Passenger Access Mode Distribution (2001 Passenger
       14
Survey)

There is a high proportion of staff using private car transport. In total 80% of staff use
the private car and of those only 6% are passengers. Therefore 68% are single
vehicle occupancy trips. Public transport usage by staff is lower than that of
passengers, even though staff live closer to the airport and have better access to
public transport than that for passengers.15

The table below shows the mode split of PCU’s arriving at Dublin Airport for
Passengers and Staff.

                         Passengers                                      Staff
Transport Mode           1998                      2001                  2001
Private Cars             52.2%                     43.5%                 80.2%
Car-Hire                                           12.0%                 0%
Taxis                    27.8%                     21.8%                 1.5%
Bus/Coach                17.4%                     22.3%                 16.2%
Other                    2.6%                      0.4%                  2.1%
                                                              16
Table 6.5 Mode Split of PCUs arriving at Dublin Airport in 2001

Origin/Destination
The number of connecting passengers at Dublin Airport is very low, only accounting
for less than 5 percent of Dublin Airport passengers. This low level of connecting
passengers means that the ground access facilities at Dublin Airport take heavier use
that most other airports of the same size. The very high level of origin-destination
travellers at Dublin Airport makes comparison with similar sized airports problematic.
Most airports have 20-25 percent connecting passengers and therefore have
proportionally reduced ground access facilities. This heavy origin-destination pattern
places a uniquely heavy burden on landside facilities compared to other facilities.

Passenger origin/destination has been shown to be different to that of staff using the
airport. Staff originated in the North of Dublin, Swords, Balbriggan, Malahide and
close to the airport whereas passengers using the airport will originate from further
afield.


14
   Dublin Airport Transport Study Aer Rianta: Task 1 Baseline Conditions Report Final Draft
2002
15
   ILTP Consulting: Dublin Airport Masterplan - Transport Masterplan
16
   Aer Rianta Car Parking Strategy Document 2003-2020 for Dublin Airport November 2003
                                              50
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                                      Strategic Environmental Assessment



                                 Passenger Trip Origins to Dublin Airport


 Rest of Ireland


          Wicklow


           Kildare


            Meath


     Dun Laoghaire


      South Dublin


            Fingal


        South City


        North City


                     0       5            10         15               20        25         30       35
                                                         % of all Trips

                                                                                     17
Fig. 6.4 Passenger Trip Origins to Dublin Airport (2001 Passenger Survey)


                             Passenger Trip Destinations from Dublin Airport


 Rest of Ireland


          Wicklow


           Kildare


            Meath


     Dun Laoghaire


      South Dublin


            Fingal


        South City


        North City


                     0   5           10        15             20           25         30    35      40
                                                         % of all Trips

                                                                                     18
Fig 6.5 Passenger Trip Origins to Dublin Airport (2001 Passenger Survey)

The Greater Dublin Area accounts for most of the passengers coming to the Airport.
The North City and the South City together contribute over one-third of airport
travellers. A third of passengers have their origins from the Dublin suburbs with the
final third having origins in the rest of the country. The passenger trip destinations are
virtually identical to passenger trip origins.

17
   Dublin Airport Transport Study Aer Rianta: Task 1 Baseline Conditions Report Final Draft
2002
18
   ibid
                                                    51
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


Other Issues
At Dublin Airport, 30 per cent of passengers are met on arrival and 11 per cent of
passengers are seen off by friend/relatives on departure. This creates additional
demand on airport access roads, car parking, kerbside areas and terminal areas
which needs to be taken into account.

6.3.7     Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies

If the traffic and transportation aspects of the Airport Masterplan are not
implemented, it is likely that both the external and internal access roads will see
increasing congestion in line with the continued growth in aircraft and passenger
movements. Modal split is likely to remain similar to present if there is no
improvements in public transport infrastructure and if there are no incentives in place
to encourage more sustainable forms of travel.

6.4       Noise

6.4.1     Introduction

Due to the application of planning policies dating back to the post-war period,
residential development in the proximity of the airport has been greatly limited.
Consistent Development Plan policies of Red Approach Zones (and also now Public
Safety Zones) have secured large areas free from development.

Noise is an important consideration in relation to airport development. The main
noise related issues at an airport arise from the following:

Airborne Aircraft Noise
    • Noise from aircraft taking off
    • Noise from landing aircraft
    • Reverse thrust used to slow aircraft after landing
    • Frequency of aircraft operations

Track Keeping
   • route of departing aircraft

Aircraft on the Ground
    • Aircraft engine testing following maintenance
    • Operation of auxiliary power units (APU) on aircraft to generate power while
         on stand
    • Aircraft taxiing19

Other sources of noise arising from airport activity include construction activity,
engine testing, operation of equipment and road traffic.

Taxiing noise is a significant source of aircraft noise although engine testing at can
generate high noise levels but it is of comparatively limited duration and infrequent.

6.4.2     Existing Noise Environment

The existing noise environment consists of noise emanating from Air Transport
Movements (ATMs) and from road traffic.


19
     Manchester Airport Environment Plan 2004
                                                52
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                            Strategic Environmental Assessment


Aircraft
The existing noise patterns in and around the airport are shown in Figure 6.6. Given
that there are no set absolute noise levels that are applicable, comparison between
the existing noise environment and the future noise environment is the best form of
assessing impact.20

In terms of the effect of noise on individuals, the Northern Parallel Runway EIS has
identified three ‘levels of annoyance’, expressed in terms of decibels. The number of
people living within these various levels is calculated also (2003 Figures). These are
as follows:
    • Low Annoyance (57 dB) – 9,636 people
    • Moderate Annoyance (63 dB) – 1,168 people
    • High Annoyance (69 dB) – 99 people

Traffic Noise
Dublin Airport is positioned between 2 main primary motorways to the south and east
of its boundaries namely the M1 Dundalk to Dublin motorway to the east and the M50
Dublin Western Bypass to the south. The main entrance and egress access point to
the Airport is via the N1 road, which feeds directly from the M1 motorway.

Traffic count information supplied by the NRA’s 2004-2005 traffic flows report
indicates that an average annual daily count of vehicular traffic is 89,685 vehicles
with 6.2% of HGV’s along the M1 road at the Airport Interchange.

Traffic flow information between M50/R108 and M50/M1 interchanges ranged
between 70,000 and 80,000 vehicles as an annual daily average.

The volume of traffic flows on each route, indicate both roads and interchanges are
among the busiest along the route. The flows along each route would result in
significant high noise levels at properties in close proximity to the road. Traffic flows
for additional surrounding roads in the vicinity of the airport were not available for this
assessment.

The main factors concerned with the impact of road traffic noise on receptors include,
traffic flow, type of vehicles, texture, condition and grade of the road and traffic
speed.

Information contained within the British Standard BS 8233:1999 ‘Sound Insulation
and Noise Reduction For Buildings- Code of Practice’ details typical traffic noise
levels measured typically 1m from the façade of dwellings. Although this information
does not relate to actual traffic flows associated with the suggested noise levels, it is
a good indication of what typical noise levels are experienced from varying road
scenarios.

 Situation                                                                       LAeq, 16 hour dB
 At 20m from the edge of a busy motorway carrying many HGV’s average 78
 traffic speed 100km/hr
 At 20m from the edge of a busy main road through a residential area, 68
 average traffic speed 50km/hr
 On a residential road parallel to a busy main road and screened by the 58
 houses from the main road traffic
Table 6.6: Typical traffic noise levels measured 1m from the façade (source BS 8233:1999)

20
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                              53
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.4.3   Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies

The ‘do nothing’ scenario assumes the Masterplan policies are not implemented. In
this instance, passenger and cargo numbers are predicted to continue to grow and
will make use of the existing transport network in place. The EIS for the Northern
Parallel Runway notes that, with or without the new runway, areas to the north of the
runway will experience an increase in the number of aircraft movements. Even if the
new runway is not built, Runway 11-29 will be utilised for smaller aircraft (BA1146 or
smaller).21

In terms of traffic noise, the potential change in level will be minimal due to the
relatively small proportion of traffic on these routes being attributable to the airport
site when compared to the overall heavy flows on these main roads.




21
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                          54
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                                              22
Fig. 6.6 Noise Contours (2003) showing ‘annoyance contours’




22
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                            55
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.5     Air Quality

6.5.1   Introduction

Dublin Airport is located in a mixed land use area approximately 10km from the east
coast of Ireland. The airport is bordered to the east and south by major roads and
commercial premises. A mixture of rural and residential properties borders the north
and western perimeter. The airport campus consists of the terminal building, aircraft
piers, car parking facilities, commercial properties, hotels and staff accommodation.

There has been an extensive ambient air-monitoring programme carried out at the
airport on behalf of DAA for the last 5 years. This monitoring is designed to establish
spatial and temporal trends of air pollution in the vicinity of the airport and flight paths
as well as to monitor compliance with the relevant EU legislation. The existing air
quality at Dublin Airport is good and the results indicate that the primary source of air
pollution in the area is from road vehicle exhausts with a spatial variation showing
increased pollutant concentrations in proximity to major roads.

The program aims to establish sufficient temporal and spatial information in order to
determine compliance with relevant ambient air quality legislation. Additionally,
comparison with longer period limit values can be used to establish trends and are
important in defining baseline air quality.

Air quality is assessed at eleven monitoring sites, which are listed below. Locations
A1 – A4 are landside locations in the vicinity of the airfield. Locations A5 – A7 are
airside locations on the airfield. Locations A8 – A11 are locations in the vicinity of the
flight path to the east of the airfield. These locations are outlined in Fig 6.7 below.




                                            56
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig 6.7 Map of Dublin Airport showing Monitoring Locations


                                            57
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


Reference      Location                           Passive Tubes       Continuous
                                                                      Analysers
A1             Forrest Little Golf Club           X

A2             Kilreesk Lane                      X

A3             Ridgewood Estate West              X

A4             St. Margaret’s Parish House        X                   X

A5             Airport Fire Station               X                   X

A6             East End Runway 10/28              X

A7             Runway 10/28                       X                   X

A8             St. Nicholas of Myra School        X                   X

A9             Naomh Mearnog GAA Club             X

A10            Oscar Papa                         X

A11            Castlemoate House                  X                   X
Table 6.7 Ambient Air Monitoring Locations

6.5.2   Pollutants Sampled

The following is a list of the parameters, which are sampled at the above sites. These
pollutants and the main criteria pollutants for which the EU has set ambient air quality
limits for the protection of human health and the environment.
     • BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene)
     • NOx (Nitrogen Oxides)
     • Ozone
     • Particulate Matter
     • CO (Carbon Monoxide)
     • SO2 (Sulphur Dioxide)

6.5.3   Assessment Criteria

As part of the measures to improve air quality, the European Commission has
adopted proposals for daughter legislation under Directive 96/62/EC. The first of
these directives to be enacted, 1999/30/EC, as relating to limit values for sulphur
dioxide, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide, is detailed in Table 6.8 EU Council Directive,
2000/69/EC, defines limit values for both carbon monoxide and benzene in ambient
air as set out in Table 6.9.

The National Air Quality Standards Regulations 2002 (S.I. No. 271 of 2002)
transpose those parts of the “Framework” Directive 92/30/EC on ambient air quality
assessment and management not transposed by Environment Protection Agency Act
1992 (Ambient Air Quality Assessment and Management) Regulations 1999 (S.I. No.
33 of 1999). The 2002 Regulations also transpose, in full, the 1st two “Daughter”
Directives 1999/30/EC and 2000/69/EC.



                                             58
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


The third Directive 2002/3/EC replaces 92/72/EC on ozone. The ozone directive was
transposed into Irish law by the Ozone in Ambient Air Regulations 2004 (S.I. No. 54
2004). The ozone daughter directive is different from the previous two in that it sets
target values and long-term objectives for ozone levels rather than limit values. The
directive, as relating to target values is outlined in Tables 6.10a to 6.10c.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is designated as the competent
authority responsible for the implementation of the Directive and for assessing
ambient air quality in the State. The EPA has produced a table of air quality bands,
which are used to indicate the quality of ambient air. The air quality bands are
presented in Table 6.11.

It is evident from the continuing ambient air quality survey at the Airport that the main
source of air pollution in the area is from road-based traffic. The concentrations of
key pollutants are higher closer to major junctions and can be temporally related to
periods of increased road usage. The free flow of traffic is therefore critical to
maintaining the good air quality.

The ambient air quality results compare favourable to the results for Dublin City as
measured by the EPA. The Airport results tend to be comparable to EPA monitoring
locations in the City suburbs and parkland areas such as the Phoenix Park.

6.5.4   Non- Implementation of Masterplan Policies

In the event that the policies outlined in the Masterplan are not implemented there
are a number of potential impacts to air quality and climate that may arise. These
potential impacts are outlined below.

In terms of airport infrastructure objectives, if the access to the apron and
surrounding road network are not improved, there is potential for more traffic
congestion leading to increased emissions of traffic pollutants and greenhouse gas.

Similarly if the internal and external access of traffic to/from and around the airport
campus are not developed there is the potential for increased traffic congestion and
therefore increased levels of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions.

The Public Transport objectives are in line the National Climate Change Strategy and
is a key tool in the reduction of greenhouse gases from the transport sector. If these
objectives are not implemented there is the potential for increased private car trips
and therefore more greenhouse gas emissions. Similarly, more cars on the road can
lead to greater traffic congestion and a loss of air quality.

Car parking objectives would have less impact in terms of air quality and climate if
these were not implemented but are important in terms of supporting the other
objectives.




                                           59
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment



Pollutant     Regulation     Limit Type              Margin           o f Value
                                                     Tolerance
Nitrogen      1999/30/EC     Hourly limit for 50% until 2001                200 µg/m3
Dioxide                      protection of human reducing linearly to       NO2
                             health - not to be 0% by 2010
                             exceeded more than
                             18 times/year
                             Annual limit for        50% until 2001         40  µg/m3
                             protection of human     reducing linearly to   NO2
                             health                  0% by 2010
                             Annual limit      for   None                   30   µg/m3
                             protection         of                          NO + NO2
                             vegetation
Sulphur       1999/30/EC     Hourly limit for 43% until 2001                350 µg/m3
dioxide                      protection of human reducing linearly
                             health - not to be until 0% by 2005
                             exceeded more than
                             24 times/year
                             Daily     limit  f o r None                    125 µg/m3
                             protection of human
                             health - not to be
                             exceeded more than
                             3 times/year
                             Annual & Winter limit   None                   20 µg/m3
                             for the protection of
                             ecosystems
Particulate   1999/30/EC     24-hour limit for 50% until 2001               50 µ g / m3
Matter                       protection of human reducing linearly to       PM10
                             health - not to be 0% by 2005
                             exceeded more than
Stage 1                      35 times/year
                             Annual limit for        20% until 2001         40 µ g / m3
                             protection of human     reducing linearly to   PM10
                             health                  0% by 2005
Particulate   1999/30/EC     24-hour limit for       To be derived from 50 µ g / m3
Matter                       protection of human     data and to be PM10
                             health - not to be      equivalent to Stage
                             exceeded more than      1 limit value
Stage 2                      7 times/year
                             Annual limit for        50% until 2005         20 µ g / m3
                             protection of human     reducing linearly to   PM10
                             health                  0% by 2010
Table 6.8. “Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air”.




                                          60
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                             Strategic Environmental Assessment


Pollutant     Regulation       Limit Type                    Margin           o f Limit
                                                             Tolerance            Value
Benzene       2000/69/EC       Annual     limit f o r 100% until 2003              5 µg/m3
                               protection of human reducing linearly to
                               health                 0% by 2010
Carbon        2000/69/EC       8-hour limit (on a 50% until 2003                   10
Monoxide                       rolling basis) for reducing linearly to             mg/m3
                               protection of human 0% by 2005
                               health
Table 6.9 – EU Ambient Air Standard 2000/69/EC “Directive of the European Parliament and
of the Council on limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in air”



Objective     Parameter                                        Value
Protection Maximum daily 8 hour mean                           120µg/m3 not to be exceeded
of human                                                       more than 25 times per year
health                                                         averaged over 3 years
Protection    Calculated from 1 hour values from May 18000 µg/m3hours calculated
of            to July                                from hourly values between
vegetation                                           08:00 and 20:00 from May to
                                                     July and averaged over 5
                                                     years
Table 6.10a Target Values for Ozone from 2010


Objective          Parameter                                               Value
Protection of Maximum daily 8 hour mean                                    120µg/m3
human health
Protection     of Calculated from 1 hour values from May to July           6000
vegetation                                                                 µg/m3hours
Table 6.10b Long term Objectives for Ozone from 2020



                             Parameter              Value
Information Threshold        1 Hour average         180µg/m3

Alert Threshold              1 hour average         240µg/m3
Table 6.10c Information and Alert Thresholds




                                               61
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


                SO2 (µg/m3)       NO2 (µg/m3)      O3 (µg/m3)         PM10 (µg/m3)
                1 hour average    1       h o u r 1 hour average      24      hour
                                  average                             average
Very Good       0-50              0-36             0-38               0-19
Good            53-130            38-94            40-118             20-49
Fair            133-210           96-141           120-178            50-74
Poor            212-343           143-200          180-238            75-99
Very Poor       >343              >200             >240

Table 6.11 EPA Indicative Air Quality Bands

6.6      BUILT HERITAGE

6.6.1    Introduction

The term built heritage refers to all built features in the environment including
buildings and other structures such as bridges, wells, pumps, archaeological sites
and field boundary walls. The principle national legislation, in relation to the built
environment, is the National Monuments Act 1930 to 2004 and Part IV of the
Planning and Development Act 2000 while the National Monuments Acts 1930 -2004
provide for the protection of the archaeological heritage. Fingal County Council has
approximately 700 Recorded Monuments within its jurisdiction and approximately
800 structures listed for protection on the Record of Protected Structures. 23

Of these total figures for the county, 6 protected structures and 6 Recorded
Monuments are located within the Designated Airport Area.

6.6.2    Protected Structures

There are six protected structures located within the Designated Airport Area under
the Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011. The details of these protected structures
are outlined in Table 6.12 below.




23
     Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011
                                              62
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment



 RPS      Structure Name        Address              Townland            Description
 602      Holy Well             Off Swords Road      Toberbunny          Holy well site
 610      Ringfort Site         Naul Road            Cloghran (Swords)   Earthwork Site
 611      Castlemoate House     Swords Road          Cloghran (Swords    5-bay,        2-
                                                     Road)               storey house,
                                                                         out-offices &
                                                                         gates
 612      1937     Terminal     Dublin Airport       Collinstown         Original
          Building                                                       Terminal
                                                                         Building      in
                                                                         International
                                                                         Modernist
                                                                         Style
 613      Corballis House       Dublin Airport       Corballis           7-bay,        2-
                                                                                        th
                                                                         storey, 19
                                                                         century house,
                                                                         n grounds of
                                                                         Dublin Airport,
                                                                         on roundabout
                                                                         before
                                                                         terminals
 628      Windmill (in ruins)   R122 Road            Millhead            Now a circular
                                                                         tower ruin in
                                                                         field, northeast
                                                                         of          St.
                                                                         Margaret’s
                                                                         earthwork.
Table 6.12 Protected Structures with the Masterplan defined area

Old Central Terminal Building (OCTB)
The Old Central Terminal Building, which is located within the Main Airport campus,
is the largest and most notable of the protected structures at the airport and was
designed and built between 1937 and 1941. The lead architect was Desmond
Fitzgerald. The Terminal is a tiered and classically symmetrical structure and reflects
continental airport terminals of the period. The Terminal is built on an arc-shaped
plan, concave to the landside and convex to the airside.24 As designed the building
did not lend itself to expansion and by 1950 it was clear it was inadequate for
increases in traffic.

Corballis House
Corballis House, which is also located within the Main Airport Campus, is located
southwest of the roundabout on the approach road to the Main Terminal Building and
is a seven-bay, two-storey country house dating from the 19th century. The house is
currently used for office accommodation by Dublin Airport.

Castlemoate House
Castlemoate House is located at the northeastern corner of the Airport lands on the
western side of the N1 towards the junction with Forrest Little Road. The house was
built between 1810 and 1820 and derives its name from a large rath (or moat) on the
demesne, and from a ruined castle, which was located on the grounds of Corballis
House. The house was extended after 1877 when a new front was added in Italian
stucco style.


24
     PM/SOM Dublin Airport Terminal and Piers Development Study
                                             63
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


The existing two-storey house is two bays deep, with a hip-roof and two central
chimney stacks. The south-facing five bay entrance front comprises a large single-
storey square headed porch with corner pilasters and Doric columns, flanked on
either side by large canted bay windows. The façade is embellished with ornamental
stucco work, double string course and elaborately pediamented first floor windows. A
large five bay return is located at right angles on the eastern side of the north wall. It
is also of two storeys but of lower elevation than the main house, with a double pitch
roof and two central chimney stacks. Its east-facing front comprises a narrow central
square headed porch with engaged columns, pediamented first floor window and
stuccoed ornamentation under the eaves and at the corners. There are further
additions to the north and west.

Interior features include a Victorian tiled floor in the entrance hall, and a timber
staircase. The house was restored in the 1960s by the Dublin Airport Authority (DAA)
and is now used as a training and conference centre.25

6.6.3   Recorded Monuments

All known archaeological monuments in the Record of Monuments and Places
(RMP), therefore, are protected under the National Monuments legislation under
Section 12(3). There are six Recorded Monuments located within the Designated
Airport Area. The details of these recorded monuments are summarised in Table
6.13 below.

        Monument No.        Townland or Street Name        Classification
        DU011-046           Cloghran (Coolock Barony)      Ringfort Site
        DU014-008           Harristown                     Ringfort Possible Site
        DU014-011           Corballis (Coolock Barony)     Castle Site
        DU014-023           Toberbunny                     Holy Well Possible
        DU014-040           Harristown                     Dwelling Site
        DU014-090           Pickardstown                   Inn Possible

Table 6.13     Recorded Monuments located within the Designated Airport Area

Two of these sites appear to be under the current runway (DUO14-008 & DUO14-
040), while another is located just east of Pier C in the area containing catering and
car hire companies (DUO14-011). There is the possibility that archaeological remains
no longer exist at these sites.

A comprehensive archaeological survey has been carried out as part of the
Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed Northern Parallel Runway. A
comprehensive review of the archaeological monuments and artifact recovery from
the surrounding area (a 2km radius) was undertaken.

Of a total of fifty monuments recorded for the wider study area, the most common are
ringforts, or possible ringforts, and an equivalent number of dwellings, or possible
dwellings. Ringforts (which date to the Early Christian Period c.500 to 1100 AD)
would comprise one of the most common monument types in Ireland as a whole
(O’Riordain, 1979). The dwellings are generally of a late medieval date and are taken
from The Downe Survey of seventeenth century. A number of the ringfort sites have


25
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                            64
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                             Strategic Environmental Assessment


been identified by aerial photography in fields which have been under tillage, and as
such have no visible surface remains.

The majority of the monuments in the wider study area are from the Early Christian
and Medieval periods, with six prehistoric or potential prehistoric monuments.

From a total of seventeen artifact recovery sites, seven of these locations have
yielded medieval material (six of these locations are contained within the area of one
known archaeological monument i.e. the monastic enclosure at Swords Glebe
(DU011-034). Of the remaining ten locations seven have yielded prehistoric artifacts.
Only one of these artifacts was recovered from a known monument site, with the
remainder being stray finds. Prehistoric finds were more common, especially with
regard to stray finds.26

6.6.4   Non Implementation of Masterplan Policies

If the policies of the Masterplan are not implemented it is likely that development at
the airport will continue on a piecemeal basis with impacts on the built heritage and
archaeology. Any such development will have to have regard to the policies and
provisions of the County Development Plan as relates to architectural and
archaeological heritage. The non implementation of specific Masterplan polices as
relates to the above will result in a lost opportunity to ensure that development of the
airport has a minimal impact on the built and archaeological heritage.

6.7     Natural Heritage and Bio-Diversity

6.7.1   Introduction

The study area comprises those lands zoned as “DA -Designated Airport Area” in the
Fingal Development Plan 2005 – 2011 as shown in Figure 1.1. The SEA boundary is
also shown in Ecology Figure 6.8: Habitats.27 The area is 1,084 hectares which
includes the proposed development site for the Northern Parallel Runway (261 ha.).
See also Figure 6.10 Aerial Photograph of the SEA area.

A significant proportion of the study area comprises the existing airfield, terminal
buildings and associated landside airport facilities: car parks, offices, hotels etc. -
accounting for almost two thirds of the study area. Land use in the remainder,
currently largely undeveloped lands is mainly agricultural, with some amenity use for
sports fields in the east of the study area.

The SEA study area is not subject to any conservation designation, proposed,
candidate or otherwise, under current legislation by the statutory authority (National
Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local
Government – NPW DoEHLG). Neither does the study area impinge on any
designated conservation area. There are a number of designated and proposed
conservation areas at varying distances in the wider locality.


26
   Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
27
   Habitats are mapped according to the Heritage Council habitat classification (Fossitt, 2000);
the equivalent JNCC Phase 1 (1990) codes are given also. Plant nomenclature follows Webb
et al. (1996) or Stace (1997); common names are mostly after Scannell and Synott (1987),
otherwise after Stace (1997).

                                               65
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.7.2   Desk study

A desk study was undertaken in January 2006 which comprised:

   •    Collation of existing information
   •    Additional literature searches:
   •    A review of the Northern Parallel Runway EIS Ecology section;
   •    An examination of recent aerial photography (July 2005); and comparison of
        this with earlier aerial photography;
   •    Consultations with NPWS and the Fingal County Council Heritage Officer.

6.7.3   Habitat verification

The purpose of the habitat verification carried out in January 2006 was to:

   •    Check on habitat status in those areas previously surveyed in order to see
        what, if any, changes had taken place in the intervening period since the
        Northern Parallel Runway EIS habitat surveys of 2001 and 2004.

   •    Check those areas not previously surveyed for the Northern Parallel Runway
        EIS for their current status.

Owing to the seasonal constraint no botanical survey was attempted.

6.7.4   Evaluation and impact assessment methodologies

Habitat and biodiversity evaluation methodology used here is in accordance with
those set out in Hill et al (2005) and Colebourn (2005)

Ecological impact assessment methodology follows Colebourn (2005), Treweek
(1999) and with due regard to the revised EPA Advice Notes on Current Practice
(2003); EPA Guidelines on the information to be contained in Environmental Impact
Statements (2002).

6.7.5   Habitats and Vegetation

The range of habitats present within the SEA study area is quite limited. To the west
of the airfield the agricultural lands are dominated by improved grassland (pasture);
hedgerows and tree lines; arable and tillage fields. Also present are ditches (wet and
dry), mostly associated with field boundaries; pockets of scrub, small ponds,
farmyards, waste places and grass verges.

To the south east of the airport, to the south of the main long-term car park is an area
of small fields and sports facilities. There are some well-developed hedgerows in this
section of the site.

In the extreme north east section of the study area there are a few small fields with
scrubby hedgerows.

A substantial portion of the SEA study area is taken up by the existing airfield, airport
terminal buildings, and associated landside facilities. The airfield itself comprises the
hard surfaces of runways, taxiways, aprons, hard stands and managed grasslands
which are characteristic of airport developments.



                                           66
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                                 Strategic Environmental Assessment


Amenity tree and shrub planting is present in places along roadsides, particularly
beside the R122 near St. Margaret’s, also within the airport land side areas.

Habitats are mapped in Figure 6.8, but it should be noted that the scale does not
permit mapping of small pockets of habitats such as small ponds, verges and
patches of waste ground. No botanical survey was carried out for this report. Please
refer to the key to the habitat codes shown in Table 6.14a. Target note numbers are
shown in Table 6.14b where it is considered that further information would be useful.

     Heritage Council Habitat            Phase 1 code       Habitat type
     Code (Fossitt)                      JNCC (1990)
                                         (in text only)
                GA1                            B4           Improved grassland
                 GA                            B6           Poor improved grassland
               BC / GA                         J1           Cultivated (including airport managed
                                                            grasslands)/ disturbed land
                   BC1                        J1.1          Arable
                   BC3                        J1.1          Tilled land
                   BL3                         J3           Buildings and artificial surfaces
                   GA2                        J1.2          Amenity grassland
                   ED2                         J4           Spoil and bare ground
                   ED3                        J1.3          Recolonising bare ground (JNCC -
                                                            Ephemeral/short perennial)
               WS3                            J1.4          Introduced scrub
             WL1 & WL2                         J2           Boundaries*
       Table 6.14a: Key Codes - Ecology Figure 6.8

     Target Note         Detail
     1                   A small apparently landscaped area, with a mixture of exotic and native shrubs.
     2                   A.L.S.A.A. complex
     3                   Amenity roadside planting at the western extremity of the study area.
     4                   Airport terminal complex, hotels, offices, car parks etc.
     5                   Sports grounds
     6                   Airfield
       Table 6.14b: Target notes - Ecology Figure 6.8

The habitat verification survey carried out in January 2006 showed that there had
been no significant change in landuse and habitat types since the surveys of 2001 to
2004 for the Northern Parallel Runway EIS, though some fields previously cultivated
are now grassland. Owing to the seasonal constraint no botanical survey was
attempted.




                                                     67
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 6.8 Habitats (Refer to Table 6.15a and 6.15b)
                                          68
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 6.9 Aerial View of Masterplan Area




                                          69
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.7.6   Brief description of the principal habitat types present

Hedgerows and Tree lines (Fossitt - WL1 & WL2; JNCC - J2)
These are not mapped in Ecology Figure 6.8, but are clearly visible on the aerial
photography - Figure 6.9

Most of the field boundaries in the western section and the south east corner of the
study area consist of hedgerows. These are of varying quality and biodiversity in
terms of species composition, both woody and non-woody. Generally speaking, the
best examples of well-developed hedgerows are in the northern half of the area
where a botanical survey was carried out on the boundaries of 118 fields for the
Northern Parallel Runway EIS. A total of 56 woody species was recorded. Details of
the hedgerows and their species content are given in Appendices B1 and B2 of the
Northern Parallel Runway EIS. Appendix B2 of the EIS is reproduced in Appendix C
of this report for reference. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Hawthorn (Crataegus
monogyna) are the dominant hedgerow tree species. Many of the hedgerows were
found to be associated with ditches.

The hedgerows described in the EIS are considered to be typical of those throughout
the SEA study area and the wider locality of Fingal. Photographs P2, P3, P7, P8, P9
and P10 (see Appendix D) show the diversity of hedgerows in the area, the southern
half of the western section being characterised in places by particularly well-
managed hedgerows (Photos P2 and P7.)

Other habitats
The EIS surveys recorded a total of 197 herbaceous plants (Appendix B3 of the EIS).
All are species normally associated with ditches (wet and dry), pockets of scrub,
small ponds, farmyards, waste places and grass verges.

Grassland (Fossitt – GA1 & GA; GA2); JNCC – B4, B6, J1.2)
The grasslands in the study area are for the most part improved, though small fields
of rough grassland are present – the latter are coded GA in Ecology Figure 6.8. The
2001 to 2004 surveys carried out for the Northern Parallel Runway EIS showed the
improved grasslands to be characterised by the presence of: “Yorkshire-fog (Holcus
lanatus), False oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius), Crested dog’s-tail (Cynosurus
cristatus) and Rough meadow-grass (Poa trivialis) are common in every field. Some
areas are densely populated with broad-leaved weed plants. Docks (Rumex spp.),
Common ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), Nettles (Urtica spp.) and Thistles (Cirsium
spp.)”.

Amenity grasslands are associated with the sports complexes in the south eastern
section of the study area.

Areas of waste ground (Fossitt –ED2 and ED3; JNCC – J.3 and J1.4); Roadsides,
tillage fields (Fossitt – BC3; Phase 1 - J.1) and derelict farmyards

These habitats were found to support species such as Lords-and-ladies (Arum
maculatum), Primrose (Primula vulgaris), Hart’s-tongue (Phyllitis scolopendrium),
Soft shield-fern (Polystichum setiferum) and Hedge woundwort (Stachys sylvatica).

Arable (Fossitt - BC1; Phase 1 – J1.1):
Present crops include winter cereals. Potatoes were being grown in 2004.
Wet ditches (Fossitt – FW4) and ponds:


                                         70
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                                  Strategic Environmental Assessment


There are no significant water courses on the site, three small ponds were noted in
earlier surveys, and streams were found to be sluggish, with dense growths of
species “such as Fool’s watercress (Apium nodiflorum), Broad-leaved willow-herb
(Epilobium hirsutum), Narrowfruited water-cress (Nasturtium microphyllum), Water-
cress (N. officinale) and Iris (Iris pseudacorus)” (see also Ch 6.9 – Surface Water).

Buildings (Fossitt – BL3; JNCC – J3)

In addition to the buildings associated with the airport there are a number of farms
and outbuildings in the study area. They are included in the list of habitats because of
their faunal potential – see section on bats below.

Cultivated (including airport managed grasslands) (BC/GA)

These are not particularly species rich, but they do provide habitat and refuge for
fauna – see below.

Fauna-non-avian
The range of habitats present on in the survey area provide foraging and refuge
habitat for a variety of common vertebrates.

Mammals - Bats

Bats are the most significant mammal occurring within the area. It is known from the
bat survey carried out in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS study area that four
species of bat are present in the area. Indeed, it was considered that “bat activity on
site during the survey was extremely high”.

Evidence of Brown long-eared bat was found in one disused farm complex.

 Species                                      Bat detector survey
 Common pipistrelle           (Pipistrellus   Observed hunting along linear features throughout the area
 pipistrellus)

 Soprano pipistrelles                         Seen in only three areas and the on site population of this
 (Pipistrellus pygmateus)                     species is far less than the previous species.

 Brown long-eared (Plecotus auritus)          Two observations were made; both along Barbertown Lane.

 Leisler’s bat (Nyctalus leisleri)            Heard in three areas but, as this is a high-flying and very
                                              loud species, it may have been the same individual in each
                                              case.
Table 6.15 Summary of the bat species recorded during the Northern Parallel Runway EIS
bat survey – details from EIS paragraphs 9.3.3.32 to 9.3.3.36

There is also potential for tree roosts in the many mature trees within the SEA study
area; these are often ivy covered; and sometimes stag - headed with likely crevices
and raised bark affording good roosting opportunities.

Other mammals

From faunal surveys conducted in the preparation of the Northern Parallel Runway
EIS it is known that rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are
common in the area to the west of the airfield. While no evidence of badger (Meles
meles) activity was found it is almost certain that this species is present, especially
with so many well-developed hedgerows.

                                                    71
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


With regards to other species of mammal, the Northern Parallel Runway 2004 EIS
states:

“Hedgehog (Erinaceaous europaeus) and Pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) are almost
certainly present on site as is the House-mouse (Mus musculus). Similarly the Irish
Stoat (Mustela erminea hibernica) is likely to be present. The Irish Hare (Lepus
timidus hibernicus) would be expected to occur on the grasslands, including the
managed grasslands within the airport perimeter. Although there are some sluggish
streams and wet ditches, it is unlikely that Otter (Lutra lutra) occurs on site. There is
potential for Grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) or Red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris)
to be present in areas where there are more mature trees, but in the absence of any
substantial woodland in the vicinity this is probably unlikely”.

During the fauna study for the EIS at the northern margins of the study area, Wood
Mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were recorded, as were rabbit (Oryctalugus cuniculus)
and feral cats (Felis cattus); infestations of the common rat (Rattus norvegicus) were
also recorded on the edge of this area.

There is no reason to consider that the position regarding the species potential of the
area has changed since 2004. It is likely too, that the common species will also be
present in the other areas to the east and south east of the airport, though, if present,
then possibly in fewer numbers.

Amphibians and Reptiles

The common frog (Rana temporaria) is almost certainly present on site, there being
plenty of suitable habitat with wet ditches and small ponds. These habitats also afford
the potential for the presence of the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris).

Birds
There is a large body of historical data from 1990 to 2004 for birds in and around
Dublin Airport (provided to the Northern Parallel Runway EIS by Dr. T. Kelly). This,
together with the bird surveys carried out for the EIS itself, provides reliable
information as to the bird diversity and usage in the area.

The findings of the survey and references to the historical data are presented in
considerable detail in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS. A series of tables are
presented in Appendix B4 of the EIS giving the results of the surveys and the
historical data, and in addition there is a lot of detail in the main text.

It is not considered necessary to reiterate that level of detail here, but rather to
summarise the overall significance of the findings. For reference purposes, EIS
Appendix B4, Tables 8, 9 and 10 which include data up to 2004 are reproduced in
Appendix C of this report; these tables are:

   •   Table 8. The recent historical status (1990-2004) of birds encountered during
       the current (EIS) study.
   •   Table 9. Species, which have been recorded in the vicinity of the airfield,
       1990-2004, but not observed during the current study and their recent
       historical status (1990-2004) at the airfield.
   •   Table 10. Summary of the taxa encountered during the follow-up avian survey
       (July September, 2004)

Both winter and breeding bird surveys were done in the western section, also in
those parts of the study area to the north and north east of the existing airfield, over a
                                           72
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


period from 2001 to 2004. The summary tables reproduced in Appendix C serve to
provide the overall findings in terms of species diversity.

Forty six species were recorded in the study area during the winter survey,
“representing a fairly typical assemblage of farmland birds”. Rook (C o r v u s
frugilegus), Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Woodpigeon (Columba palumbus),
Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and Redwing (Turdus iliacus) were the most
abundant species recorded during the winter survey.

Fifty-nine species were recorded in the breeding survey. Interestingly, only four
species recorded during the winter survey were not recorded during the breeding
survey, their being Oystercatcher, Golden Plover, Lapwing and Redwing.

6.7.7   Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies

In the absence of any further major development at Dublin Airport it might be
expected that the agricultural lands would continue to be farmed. The landscape
would continue much as it is now, though it is possible that more hedgerows would
be actively managed or even removed - especially if there was a trend towards more
tillage farming in the area leading to a requirement for increased field size.

It is also likely that some of the existing mature tree lines along roadsides, for
example at Dunbro Lane, might be felled. There is however much hedgerow growth
in this area and it is likely that young trees would grow to fill in gaps in tree lines.

Bird and faunal species would be expected to continue to utilise the habitats present;
their numbers reflecting their individual status in similar habitats in the wider locality.

6.8     Soils and Groundwater

6.8.1   Introduction

As part of the Northern Parallel Runway Environmental Impact Statement, soil and
groundwater sampling was undertaken in the airport area.

6.8.2   Soil

Chemical analysis of the soil, carried out as part of the Northern Parallel Runway
Environmental Impact Statement (see Fig 6.10 for Trial Pit locations) indicated that
the soil is largely as expected for a mostly green field site, with levels of metals and
inorganic contaminants at low levels commensurate with background or natural
conditions. Petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were not
detected in any of the soils sampled and glycol was not detected in the samples from
the active airport area.28

A further site investigation was carried out in September 2004. This generally
confirmed the findings of earlier investigations. The strata encountered were similar
to those encountered in previous investigations. Topsoil overlying clays of varying
composition was proved. Limestone bedrock was encountered in nine of the trial pits.

Results of the chemical analysis were as expected for a largely green field site, with
levels of metals and inorganic contaminants at low levels commensurate with
28
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                            73
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


background or natural conditions. Elevated levels of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
and PAHs were detected in soil samples taken from shallow depths at TP103 and
TP108. Levels were highest in the soil sample from TP103. Both of these samples
are from the sites of buildings demolished in the recent past.29

6.8.3       Groundwater

The Airport Zone is underlain by impure limestone bedrock, Dinantian lower
limestone to the northwest of the Zone and Dinantian upper impure limestone to the
south east. In terms of groundwater potential, the lower impure limestone is
considered moderately productive but only in local zones. The upper impure
limestone is considered to be a poor aquifer, and is generally unproductive. The
limestones are overlain by boulder clay deposits, which have been proved to
between about 1 m and 4 m in thickness in a number of boreholes and trial pits
carried out for the development of the northern runway to the north of the Zone. The
boulder clay thickens in an easterly direction with the result that in the area of the
current airport terminal the thickness is typically greater than 10 m. The boulder clay
becomes increasingly gravelly with depth and may be in hydraulic continuity with the
underlying limestone aquifer. In other areas of the airport, shallow groundwater is
contained in gravel bands both within and at the base of the boulder clay.

The limestone aquifer is confined by the boulder clay, which also acts to isolate the
groundwater system from the surface and affording a level of protection from
potential pollution from surface activities. This will have the effect of limiting recharge
to and discharge from the system and limit groundwater circulation in this area.

Regional groundwater flow in the limestone is likely to be eastwards towards the sea.
Discharges to the surface water system are likely to occur along watercourses
particularly where the drift cover is thin or absent. Locally groundwater flow is likely to
be towards such discharges along the valleys.

Groundwater abstraction in the immediate vicinity of the airport zone is limited to a
small number of wells in the St Margaret’s area and to the north of the site where
groundwater is abstracted to irrigate a fruit farm.

Groundwater and soil samples analysed during the planning phase of the northern
runway indicate little detrimental impact from surface activities and were considered
generally uncontaminated from anthropogenic activities.

6.8.4       Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies

Initial testing carried out during the preparation of the EIS for the Northern Runway
extension indicated that current operations were not having an impact on soil quality
or groundwater quality. The depth of soil cover under the current terminal is
relatively deep and offers some protection to the underlying aquifer. However, the
existing sewage network is relatively old and it is likely that there is leakage of
sewage effluent to ground.




29
     ibid
                                            74
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                             30
Fig. 6.10 Trial Hole Locations




30
     ibid
                                  75
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.9       Surface Water Management

6.9.1     Introduction

Fingal’s many rivers and streams (including the Ward, Mayne, Sluice) are living
systems, which are home to a variety of species and habitat. The streams and rivers
are important in terms of biodiversity because they contain a range of habitats and
species, which are different from the surrounding landscape. They also function as
ecological “corridors” which enable species to move from place to place. In the
current County Development Plan there are a number of polices and objectives that
aim to manage streams and rivers in a sustainable manner.

6.9.2     Legislation

There are a number of EU Directives and National Regulations covering surface
water quality status. Currently the national targets for water quality are identified in
‘Managing Ireland’s Rivers and Lakes’ (published by the Government in 1997) which
identifies a target of improved biological classification to at least Q4 and Phosphorus
concentrations (made in the Phosphorus Regulations SI No. 258 of 1998) of <30 _g
P/litre, although standards from other EU Directives also apply to some
watercourses.

In December 2000, the ‘Water Framework Directive’ (2000/60/EC) was adopted by
the EU, which brings into place implementation of an umbrella directive dealing with
water quality and quantity issues and encompassing all water bodies including
surface and groundwaters. The objectives of the WFD are:

      •   to protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems (and terrestrial
          ecosystems and wetlands directly dependent on aquatic ecosystems)
      •   to promote sustainable water use based on long-term protection of available
          water resources
      •   to provide for sufficient supply of good quality surface water and groundwater
          as needed for sustainable, balanced and equitable water use
      •   to provide for enhanced protection and improvement of the aquatic
          environment by reducing / phasing out of discharges, emissions and losses of
          priority substances
      •   to contribute to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts
      •   to protect territorial and marine waters
      •   to establish a register of 'protected areas' e.g. areas designated for protection
          of habitats or species.
      •   The target of the ‘Water Framework Directive’ is to achieve good status for all
          water bodies by 2015.

The Water Quality (Dangerous Substances) Regulations 2001 (S.I. No. 12 of 2001)
give effect to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which harmonises EU
water policy and gives further effect to the EU Dangerous Substances Directive,
76/464/EEC on the prevention of water pollution by the discharge of certain
dangerous substances to surface waters. These Regulations prescribe new water
quality standards in respect of 14 further List II substances including pesticides,
solvents, metals and other substances, in surface waters e.g. rivers, lakes and tidal
waters. The prescribed dangerous substances include atrazine, dichloromethane,
simazine, toluene, tributyltin, xylenes, arsenic, chromium, copper, cyanide, fluoride,
lead, nickel and zinc.


                                             76
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.9.3   Surface Water

Information on existing environment and receiving watercourses was obtained from
(i) the Environmental Protection Agency National Survey of Rivers and (ii) Aer
Rianta’s watercourse monitoring results and associated Drainage Network reports
and (iii) The EIS for the proposed Northern Runway Development, (iv) The Eastern
River Basin District Characterisation Report 2005 and (v) the National
Characterisation Report for the Water Framework Directive 2005

Dublin Airport is situated at the head of four separate watersheds or river
catchments, including those of the Ward River, the Sluice River, and the Mayne and
Santry Rivers.

Drainage to the Ward River, a tributary of the Broadmeadow River that discharges to
the Broadmeadow Estuary at Swords, is via the St Margaret’s stream, which drains
the north west of the Zone. There is currently little development in this area of the
Airport.

Drainage to the Sluice River is via the Forrest Little stream, which drains the northern
and northeastern section of the airport and eventually enters Dublin Bay via the
Baldoyle Estuary at Portmarnock Bridge.

The Mayne River receives drainage from the Wad Stream, Kealy’s Stream and the
Cuckoo Stream, which drain the central and eastern sections of the airport. The
Mayne River also enters the Baldoyle Estuary, at Mayne Bridge.

The upper reaches of the Santry River drains the southwestern section of the airport
and it enters the sea at Raheny, behind Bull Island (see Fig 6.11).

There is currently no treatment or attenuation of surface drainage water from the
Airport. Thus any chemicals used in de-icing of planes and runways are currently
discharged to the surface water network.




                                          77
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan         Strategic Environmental Assessment




Figure 6.11 Receiving Catchments




                                   78
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.9.4   Quality Objectives

The Ward, Sluice, Mayne and Santry rivers all lie within the Eastern River Basin
District.

The river basin district is the management unit identified by the Water Framework
Directive for the management of water bodies into the future. Management measures
to restore/maintain surface water bodies at “good ecological ” status by 2015 will be
identified in a management plan for the river basin district which will be adopted by
the relevant authorities, including Fingal Co. Co., by 2009.

A reference condition, representing good ecological status for a particular river type
in its natural state, will be identified for each river stretch in the catchment. The
achievement of the objective of good ecological status will be measured against this
reference condition.

While a “typology” for each river stretch in the country has been identified based on
bedrock type and riverbed slope, reference conditions have not yet been identified.
In the interim, a target objective of achieving a biological water quality rating of Q4,
based on the EPA ‘s benthic macrophyte index has been used. Waters with a Q
value of 4 should be capable of sustaining a salmonid population if suitable habitat
and flow conditions are present.

6.9.5   Typology, Pollution and Risk Status (ERBD Characterisation Report)

The following information is based on the Water Framework Directive
Characterisation Report 2005.

The four rivers draining the Airport lands are typed as lowland rivers with low to
medium slope on calcareous bedrock. Water quality monitoring sites (which are
regularly monitored by the EPA) on the Ward (3 No.) and Mayne (2 No.) rivers
indicate that these rivers are moderately polluted, while monitoring sites on the
Santry River (2 No.) indicate that this river is seriously polluted. There is no
monitoring station on the Sluice River. The airport lands are situated towards the
lower catchment of the Ward River but in the upper catchment of the other three.

The Mayne River is considered to be at significant risk of not achieving the objective
of good water status by 2015 given its present condition and the existing pressures
on the river from human activity it its catchment. These include diffuse and point
source discharges including sewer overflows and pressures on the morphology of the
river from intensive landuse.

The Santry and Sluice Rivers are also considered to be at risk of not meeting the
objective in 2015 and for similar reasons, i.e. it has a highly urbanised catchment.

While the upper catchment of the Ward River is still largely rural, the lower catchment
is under significant development pressure. However, all stretches of the
Broadmeadow River are considered to be at risk of not achieving good water status
by 2015.

6.9.6 Water Quality Status – Biological (River stretches adjacent to Airport
lands)

A study of the water quality of streams draining from the existing operational parts of
the airport was carried out in 2001 during the preparation of the EIS for the proposed
                                          79
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


Northern Runway.31 The Cuckoo Stream/Mayne River in the East and Santry in the
South exhibited a degree of water quality impairment, most being slightly or
moderately polluted. The small watercourses draining to the Ward Catchment were
either unpolluted or slightly polluted (see Table 6.16).

Catchment                     Quality Status                   Fisheries (Salmonid)
                              Probably slightly polluted or
Ward (small stream/ditch)                                      Low (poor Habitat)
                              unpolluted (Q3-4 or Q4)
                                                               Probably suitable for
Ward (St       Margaret’s                                      trout spawning and
                              Slightly polluted (Q3-4)
Stream)                                                        nursery given suitable
                                                               substrate and habitat
                                                               Probably low. Poor
                              Slightly to moderately
Forrest Little/Sluice                                          habitat and impaired
                              polluted (Q3-4 to Q3)
                                                               quality
                                                               Probably low very silty
Mayne River (Cuckoo           Moderately polluted (Q2-3
                                                               and impaired water
Stream)                       or Q3)
                                                               quality
                                                               Some limited trout
                                                               spawning habitat present
                              Moderate to Slightly polluted    despite       moderate
Santry
                              (Q3 to Q3-4)                     pollution recorded in
                                                               some parts. Ideal nature
                                                               of substrate.
Table 6.16      Water Quality Status – Chemical. Summary of surface water quality and
                                                                           32
potential salmonid fisheries status at stream sites draining Dublin Airport

Table 6.17 is a summary of water chemistry results from Dublin Airport Surface
Water Drainage Network. The streams draining most of the operational parts of the
airport are of relatively hard water chemistry with high conductivities and alkalinity.
The only exception to this general trend is areas of the Forrest Little Stream (Forrest
Little/Sluice Catchments) both of which drain at least in part from hard stand areas.
These trends are in line with the geology of the area, which contains much limestone.




31
   Surface Water Management Plan for Proposed New Parallel Runway 10L28R at Dublin
Airport, August 2005, RPSMCOS).
32
   Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                           80
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment



Parameters          Sampling Site (Catchment)
                                                                              Forest
                            Forrest
                                            Mayne                             Little/Sluice
                            Little/Sluice
                    Ward                    River     Mayne River             (d/s      Aer
                            (Forest                                  Santry
                                            (Cuckoo   (Dardistown)            Rianta F6
                            Little
                                            Stream)                           Sampling
                            Stream)
                                                                              Centre)
Temperature
(°C)                5.4     6.2             6.4       4.9            5.8      14.5

pH                  8.16    8.20            8.21      8.18           8.22     7.45
Conductivity
(_S/cm)             804     790             857       797            806      436

Chloride (mg/l)     40.8    40.0            43.5      40.5           32.5     7.9
Suspended
solids (mg/l)       10.1    4.4             1.5       0.5            4.7      1.1

Dissolved O2 (%
sat.)               89      90              78        87             92       84

BOD                 0.8     1.2             1.2       3.5            0.9      1.1
Ammonium            0.050   0.334           1.078     0.201          0.046    0.032
(total) (mg/l, N)
Ammonia             0.001   0.007           0.024     0.004          0.001    0.000
(unionised)
(mg/l, N)
TON (mg/l, N)       5.6     5.5             4.8       5.4            5.9      3.3
Ortho-Phosphate     0.104   0.086           0.052     0.057          0.029    0.080
(mg/l, P)
Table 6.17 Summary of water chemistry results from Dublin Airport Surface Water Drainage
Network

6.9.7   Fisheries Status

Most of the streams draining the existing operational area of Dublin Airport are either
too small or too impaired in terms of quality to be of significant importance for
salmonid fisheries, even though several of them hold small number of trout and eels.
The St. Margaret Stream has suitable spawning and nursery habitats for trout and
drains to the River Ward catchment, which is one of the few watercourses in the area
with a viable sea trout run (see Table 6.17). The Eastern Region Fisheries Board,
during consultation in relation to the Northern Runway, has specified that no runoff
from any paved surfaces which are likely to receive de-icing chemicals is to be
discharged to this waterway.

6.9.8   Relevant Designated Conservation Areas

The Ward and Sluice Rivers drain to or through a number of designated nature
conservation areas in North County Dublin. These are shown in Table 6.18.


                                            81
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


                     Site Code       Name
                     *000205         Malahide Estuary
                     *000199         Baldoyle Bay
                     1763            Sluice River Marsh
                       *Sites, which are whole or part Nature Reserves.
Table 6.18 Designated Nature Conservation Areas in North Co. Dublin

The Ward and Broadmeadow Rivers drain to the Malahide Estuary, which is divided
by a railway viaduct into an inner lagoon type area and an outer mudflat area. The
site is famous for its wintering waterfowl and the inner bay is used heavily for water
sports. The inner area is also noted for saltmarsh and related vegetation. In terms of
water quality, the inner impounded area, which has a very slow flushing time, is
considered eutrophic, exhibiting very large diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen
and elevated BODs, especially close to the outfall of the Broadmeadow and Ward
Rivers. The outer estuary is not considered to be eutrophic.

The Baldoyle Estuary is a tidal estuarine bay, which is served by two small rivers, the
Sluice and the Mayne. Large areas of intertidal mudflat are exposed at low tide and
the bay is an important site for wintering waterfowl; the inner part of the estuary is a
Special Protection Area under the EU Birds Directive as well as being a statutory
Nature Reserve. The site also includes several habitats listed in Annex I of the EU
Habitats Directive.

The Sluice River Marsh is situated in the lower reaches of the Sluice River, about 1
km upstream from Baldoyle Estuary. The site is of importance because it is a
relatively intact freshwater marsh, a habitat that is now rare in Co. Dublin.

6.9.9   Water Quantity – Existing Flooding issues

Based on river modelling undertaken by RPS-KMM in 2000 (RPS-KMM established
an ISIS model for the upper reaches of the Sluice River),33 the capacity of the Forest
Little stream may be insufficient to cope with major storms and a 100-year event may
cause flooding, particularly in the Portmarnock area. It is likely that runoff from paved
surfaces in the north-eastern portion of the airport grounds that lie within the Sluice
River Catchment are contributing to this flooding problem.

RPS has also undertaken a detailed assessment of the Mayne Catchment as part of
the Greater Dublin Strategic Drainage Study (GDSDS).34 That study demonstrated
that under existing development, flooding will occur during a 100-year return period
storm event at a number of locations in the downstream portion of the Mayne River in
the vicinity of Baldoyle.

In addition, the Cuckoo Stream, which is a tributary of the Mayne, and was included
in the GDSDS, floods throughout most of its length and was shown to inundate the
M1 to a depth of 150mm during the 100 year event. Flooding also occurs in the
portion of the stream near the eastern boundary of the airport. This flooding will affect
airport lands.


33
   Surface Water Management Plan for Proposed Northern Runway 10L28R at Dublin
Airport, August 2005, RPSMCOS
34
   Greater Dublin Strategic Drainage Study, Phase 1, 2 and 3 Reports, Mayne River Drainage
Area, December 2001 – March 2004, RPSMCOS
                                            82
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


The GDSDS also included assessment of flood conditions in the Santry River.35 This
assessment demonstrated that out of bank flooding is likely to occur during the 100-
year event at a number of locations throughout the length of the River. This flooding
is generally in open/undeveloped land, however existing development is at risk of
flooding in a number of locations, including Raheny, near the downstream end of the
river and Santry lodge, downstream of the M50/R108 junction. Historically flooding
has also occurred at the Swords Road crossing, however, the GDSDS modelling
indicated that recently constructed flow control structure and attenuation/storage
pond have significantly reduced the flood risk, and the model did not show any out of
bank flows at this location.

Flooding also occurs in the Ward River, primarily in the Coolquay area, to the north of
the airport along the Ward River. This flooding is caused when the Mabestown
Stream overflows its banks as it makes its way towards the Ward River at Corrstown.
In conjunction with the N2 improvement project, a flood alleviation scheme is being
implemented to address these issues. The associated works will include upgrading
the culvert under N2 at Coolquay Patio Centre, culvert/crossings of the river and
works such as removal of accumulated sediment to return the river channel to its
1960 condition. Hydraulic modelling undertaken as part of the N2 Improvement
Project and successful implementation of these works will enable the Ward River to
cater for the 100-year return period storm event. 36

It is noted that there is currently no flow attenuation undertaken at the airport.

6.9.10 Summary

With the exception of the St Margaret’s Stream, which drains the undeveloped
northwestern portion of the Airport Zone to the Ward River, the current water quality
in streams draining the airport is poor and there is little fisheries potential. Flooding
occurs on some downstream stretches of these rivers. While the current operations
at the Airport appear to be influencing the water status of the rivers draining the
Airport Zone, the downstream catchments of these rivers are largely urbanised and
already at significant risk from intensive land use.

6.9.11 Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies

If the Master Plan is not implemented it is likely that passenger numbers using Dublin
Airport will still continue to grow above current levels to the maximum capacity of the
current facility (approx. 18 million per annum) with associated increases in water use
and wastewater discharges. The number of plane movements are also likely to
increase with associated increased use of fuels, de-icing agents etc. although the
number of de-icing events per annum are likely to remain the same.

The operation of Dublin Airport in its current form is already significantly impacting on
surface water bodies draining the developed lands in terms of both quality and
quantity of run-off. Misconnections of foul sewers to surface water drains and
discharges from foul sewer overflows from the sewer network within the Airport
complex may also be impacting on the quality of surface waters draining the site. If
current practices continue unabated then the achievement of the objective of “good


35
   Greater Dublin Strategic Drainage Study, Phase 1, 2 and 3 Reports, Santry River Drainage
Area, December 2001 – March 2004, HR Wallingford
36
   N2 Finglas - Ashbourne Road Scheme Environmental Impact Statement, 2000, Roughan &
O'Donovan - Maunsell Alliance
                                            83
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


water status” identified in the Water Framework Directive is likely to be compromised
by the operation of the airport.

6.10   Utilities

6.10.1 Introduction

The following outlines the existing sewage network and existing water supply serving
the airport.

6.10.2 Sewage Network

The subject lands lie within the catchment of the North Fringe Sewer as delineated in
the North Dublin Connection Study (September 2004) carried out by RPS-MCOS on
behalf of Fingal County and Dublin City Councils.37 The area included in the Airport
Master Plan is comprised of sub-catchment areas AZ_1- AZ_5 (Airport Zone) of the
study. (While the area in the north west of the current Master Plan proposed for the
Northern Runway extension was not included in the Airport Zone in the study this has
no influence on the study results as the North Fringe Sewer caters for foul flows only
and no contribution for the existing (AZ _2) or proposed runway was included in the
study.)

Existing Network
The current sewage network serving the airport comprises a new 900 mm diameter
branch sewer to the south of the airport, along the Old Swords Rd. from the North
Fringe Sewer constructed under the M50 Motorway, intercepting an existing 300 mm
diameter sewer coming from the airport. There is currently no other existing network
in the vicinity of the airport.

The sewage network within the airport is the responsibility of the airport authority.
Existing peak foul flows from the airport are in the region of 31 l/s excluding any
storm flows. These flows are generated from the airport complex to the west of the
Old Swords Road (AZ_4). Storm infiltration into the existing system is thought to be
significant though no storm flows are currently available.

Based on the findings of the North Dublin Connection Study (September 2004), the
existing network is adequate to cater for current flows.

6.10.3 Water Supply

Current Airport demand
The subject lands straddle the Blanchardstown High Level Water Supply Area
(Ballycoolin Reservoir Source – via proposed elevated storage currently under
construction) and the Airport Water Supply Area (Ballycoolin Source via 24” Forest
Little Main). The 36” trunk main supplying the area delivers in the region of 660 l/s.
Current demand for water by the Airport is 2040 m3/day equating to an average
demand of 26 l/s from the 24” main via a 250 mm connection to the airport.




37
  RPSMCOS (2004)       North Dublin Connections Study; Design Review Report, September
2004
                                          84
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


6.10.4 Non-implementation of Masterplan Policies

Foul Sewage
The new 900 diameter connector sewer to the North Fringe sewer into which the
Airport complex discharges is sufficiently large to cater for a significant increase in
load from the Airport to the maximum capacity of the current facility. However, it
would appear from current monitoring of the load discharged by the complex that
there is significant infiltration of storm water into the foul system which is likely to be
adding unnecessary load to sewerage infrastructure of the city.

Water Supply
Current available water supply is likely to be sufficient to cater for increases in
passenger numbers to the maximum capacity of the current facility.

6.11   Landscape

6.11.1 Introduction

This section makes reference to the landscape assessment as carried out as part of
the Environmental Impact Assessment of the Northern Parallel Runway.

6.11.2 Existing Landscape

In general the airport is set within a gently rolling pastoral landscape of fields
enclosed by a network of hedgerows and hedgerow trees, with either scattered
individual farm buildings or residential properties, sometimes grouped together into
small settlements. The larger residential areas are at Swords to the north and to the
south of the M50 at Poppintree and Santry.

The airport comprises a major component of the broader environment, contrasting of
large-scale infrastructure impacting upon and contrasting starkly with the smaller
scale of the surrounding network of fields.

The landscape as a whole can be considered a result of a number of distinct
Landscape Character Zones (LCZs), based on their structure i.e. the topography and
drainage pattern, overlaid by the various landscape components, for example, the
land use, vegetation and structures.

Those Landscape Character Zones with the defined Masterplan include:

Agricultural Plains: Ap
This LCZ makes up the greater part of the study area and it is typically made up of
gently undulating pastoral agricultural land, with occasional arable field. Field sizes
vary and typically contain a variety of hedgerow trees, mainly ash.

The road pattern is made of both minor and major roads, with the minor roads
enclosed by the existing field boundaries while the major roads impose themselves
more on the landscape and are set in wider corridors and open up views over the
surrounding countryside.

To the west of the airport terminal, there is a section of agricultural landscape known
as Dunbro, bordered by Forrest Little Road to the north, St. Margaret’s Bypass to the
west and the existing runway to the south. The proposed runway would contain this
landscape between the arms of the two runways.

                                            85
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


Airport Landscape: DA
The different elements of this landscape include the open expanse of the runways
and taxi-areas, the large and small scale structures associated with the operation of
the airport and finally the mix of ancillary landside buildings and road network
associated with the commercial aspects of the airport.

The large group of hangers to the north of the control towers visually dominates the
surroundings. Car parking, infrastructure, large and small scale commercial
enterprise set within a semi-formal landscape dominate the landside of the airport.
The FLS Hanger and the Great Southern Hotel are visual landmarks within the
area.38

6.11.3 Non-Implementation of Masterplan Policies

In the absence of any further major development at Dublin Airport it might be
expected that the agricultural lands would continue to be farmed. The landscape
would continue much as it is now, though it is possible that more hedgerows would
be actively managed or even removed - especially if there was a trend towards more
tillage farming in the area leading to a requirement for increased field size.

It is also likely that some of the existing mature tree lines along roadsides, for
example at Dunbro Lane, might be felled. There is however much hedgerow growth
in this area and it is likely that young trees would grow to fill in gaps in tree lines.




38
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                            86
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                    39
Fig. 6.12 Landscape Character Zones




39
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                            87
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan        Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                  88
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                    Strategic Environmental Assessment



7 ASSESSMENT      OF                                             DUBLIN
AIRPORT MASTERPLAN
7.1    Introduction

The policies contained in the Dublin Airport Masterplan were tested against the
Environmental Objectives defined below by means of matrices. The completed
matrices are shown in Tables 7.2a-e below.

7.2    SEA Objectives and Indicators

The SEA Directive requires the identification of environmental protection objectives
and these have been set out below. These objectives have been derived from
Government Policy, SEA Guidelines and best SEA practice in Ireland and the UK. It
is noted that only those objectives considered relevant to the plan should be
considered and such objectives should be adapted to local circumstances

Employment and Economic Development
EO1 Support employment and economy
EO2 Improve people’s quality of life based on high-quality working environments
and on sustainable travel patterns
EO3 Promote high environmental standards which will act as an incentive, rather
than a deterrent, to the location of industry in Fingal.

Traffic and Transportation
EO4 Maintain and Improve access to Masterplan Lands
EO5 Promote sustainable forms of transport
EO6 Minimise emissions of pollutants, reducing and managing transport waste and
by careful land use planning to address the impact of transport infrastructure
EO7 Continue to support and improve public transport systems and infrastructure
with a view to increasing their market share.
EO8 Reduce the need for travel and journey length
EO9 Reduce energy consumption
EO10 Manage existing road networks more efficiently

Noise
EO11 The impact of noise from development of the airport will be minimised
EO12 Noise controls will be developed to limit noise from road transport.

Air Quality
EO13 Maintain/promote improvement of air quality
EO14 Promote minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.
EO15 Support international action on climate change, ozone depletion and
transboundary air pollution.

Built Heritage
EO16 Safeguard protected structures and sites of archaeological value.
EO17 Promote a high quality built form.

Natural Heritage and Bio-diversity
EO18 Conserve and enhance bio-diversity
EO19 Protect the environment by minimizing waste and pollution

                                        89
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


Surface Water Management
EO20 Promote an integrated catchment management initiative to ensure that there
is no deteriorating quality trends in the catchment area.
EO21 Reduce risk of flooding

Utilities
EO22 Ensure sufficient capacity for development

SEA objectives state what is intended. The plan’s performance against objectives is
measured by using some or all of the indicators outlined in Tables 7.1a-7.1c.

Links between SEA objectives and collected data/indicators
SEA Objective(s)                      Data Indicators
Employment       and    Economic
Development

E O 1 Support        employment        and         •   Number of people employed
economy                                            •   Unemployment level
                                                   •   Average weekly earnings
EO2 Improve people’s quality of life               •   CSO, ESRI data etc
based on high-quality working
environments and on sustainable travel
patterns

EO3 Promote high environmental
standards which will act as an incentive,
rather than a deterrent, to the location of
industry in Fingal.
Table 7.1a Links between SEA objectives and collected data/indicators




                                              90
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


SEA Objective(s)                                  Indicators
Traffic and Transportation                        • Modal Split
EO4 Maintain and Improve access to                • Commuting mode
Masterplan Lands                                  • Mean journey to work time
EO5 Promote sustainable forms of                  • Road traffic growth
transport                                         • Road congestion
EO6 M i n i m i s e     emissions     of          • Bus availability
pollutants, reducing and managing                 • Bus use (kms/yr/capita)
transport waste and by careful land use           • Rail use
planning to address the impact of                 • Private car ownership
transport infrastructure                          • Origin-destination
EO7 continue to support and improve               • Vehicles carried/day
public transport systems and                      • Peak traffic speed
infrastructure with a view to increasing          • Off-peak traffic speed
their market
EO8 Reduce the need for travel and
journey length
EO9 Reduce energy consumption
EO10 Manage existing road networks
more efficiently

Noise
EO11 The impact of noise from                     •   Amount of people living within the
development of the airport will be                    low, moderate and high
minimised                                             annoyance contours
EO12 Noise controls will be developed             •   Number of noise complaints
to limit noise from road transport.                   received
                                                  •   Number of older aircraft (i.e. 737-
                                                      200)
                                                  •   Noise contours

Air Quality
EO13 Maintain/promote improvement                 •   Background levels of main air
of air quality                                        quality pollutants and forecasts
EO14 Promote minimisation of                      •   NOX/NO2 levels
greenhouse gas emissions to the                   •   PM10 levels
atmosphere.                                       •   No. moderate/poor air quality
EO15 Support international action on                  days
climate change, ozone depletion and               •   Existence       of    air   quality
transboundary air pollution.                          management programme
                                                  •   % of population living in air quality
                                                      management areas
                                                  •   Greenhouse gas emissions


Built Heritage
EO16 Safeguard protected structures               •   Number of protected structures at
and sites of archaeological value.                    risk
EO17 Promote a high quality built
form.

Table 7.1b Links between SEA objectives and collected data/indicators




                                             91
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


SEA Objective(s)                               Indicators
Natural Heritage and Biodiversity              • Area of semi-natural woodland
EO18 Conserve and enhance bio-                     lost
diversity                                      • Area of woodland cover
EO19 Protect the environment by                • Decline in farmland bird
minimizing waste and pollution                     species/population
                                               • Decline in woodland bird
                                                   species/population
                                               • Local biodiversity objectives and
                                                   plans
                                               • Landscape character
                                               • Habitat severance
                                               • Development pressure
                                               • Waste production by type
                                               • Waste production per capita/year

Surface Water Management
EO18 Conserve and enhance bio-                 •   Chemical river water quality
diversity                                      •   Biological river water quality
EO19 Protect the environment by                •   River flood hazard (area affected)
minimising waste and pollution                 •   Attenuation       methods      and
                                                   standards (GDSDS)



Utilities
EO22 Ensure sufficient capacity for            •   Attenuation      methods       and
development                                        standards (GDSDS)
                                               •   Level/type of development
Table 7.1c Links between SEA objectives and collected data/indicators

7.3     Impact Matrices

Tables 7.2a-e give an overall indication of the impact of the various objectives of the
Airport Masterplan on the Environmental Objectives.




                                          92
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment




Table 7.2a-c Impact Matrices: = positive = negative
                                            93
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment




Table 7.2d-e Impact Matrices: = positive = negative

                                            94
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


7.4       Assessment of Impacts

7.4.1     Employment and Economy

The implementation of the various policies and objectives as outlined in the
Masterplan will have a positive impact on economy and employment. Most notable is
the development of the Northern Parallel Runway and the development of the second
terminal which will serve to facilitate employment, be it direct, indirect or induced.

The Environmental Impact Assessment carried out as part of the planning application
for the Northern Parallel Runway gives the predicted impact on employment as a
result of the development of the Northern Parallel Runway.

A number of assumptions were made in order to estimate employment growth at
Dublin Airport. These included:

      •   Employment in airlines/handling agent and concessions will grow in line with
          the projected increase in passenger traffic.
      •   Employment in cargo will grow in line with the projected increase in freight
          traffic.
      •   Employment in aviation support activities, such as aircraft maintenance and
          aviation fuel supply, will grow in line with the projected increase in aircraft
          movements.
      •   Employment in control agencies and other activities will grow in line with the
          projected increase in workload units (where one workload is the annual
          movement of one passenger or 0.1 tonnes of freight)
      •   Employment in the airport operator will remain at its 2001 level in both the
          unconstrained and constrained scenarios.

The assumptions regarding future productivity growth are based on the medium term
economic forecasts prepared by the Economic and Social Research Institute. These
forecasts suggest that productivity will rise by 3.4% per annum between 2001 and
2008, 2.5% per annum between 2008 and 2015, and 2.4% per annum between 2015
and 2025.

The projected employment impact of Dublin Airport in 2010, 2017 and 2025 is shown
in Table 7.3 below.




                                            95
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment



Projected Employment Impact of Dublin Airport in 2010, 2017 and 2025 (Full-
time equivalents)*
Unconstrained
Employment         Fingal            Dublin             Greater           Irish Republic
Category           County            Region             Dublin
                                                        Area
2010
Direct             14,000            14,000             14,000            14,000
Indirect           200               2,200              3,200             9,300
Induced            600               5,100              9,300             20,700
Total              14,800            21,300             26,400            44,000
2017
Direct             15,000            15,000             15,000            15,000
Indirect           200               2,400              3,400             10,000
Induced            700               5,400              10,000            22,200
Total              15,900            22,900             28,500            47,200
2025
Direct             16,200            16,200             16,200            16,200
Indirect           300               2,600              3,700             10,800
Induced            700               5,900              10,800            24,200
Total              17,200            24,700             30,800            51,200

Table 7.3 Projected Employment Impact of Dublin Airport - *all estimates have been rounded
                           40
to the nearest 100 fte jobs

Other Impacts
International airports can exert a significant impact on the location decisions of
companies and hence on the level of economic activities in the areas that they serve.

Companies that are intensive users of passenger and air freight services include
those involved in high technology, research and development and financial services.
These are activities where Ireland has been successful in attracting inward
investment.

Dublin Airport has had, and will continue to have, impacts on the economy in terms of
inbound tourism markets. Dublin Airport will remain for the foreseeable future, the
principal gateway to Ireland for overseas visitors. While regional airports will continue
to develop in the future, including in terms of direct access to international
destinations, this will not be a substitute for the expansion of the main gateway. 41

It is noted in the York Consulting report ‘The Economic Impact of Dublin Airport
2002’ that the further development of the airport will assist in:
     • providing a ‘comfort factor’ for companies investing outside their home
        country for the first time.
     • Securing re-investment by companies in their existing facilities in Ireland
     • Promoting competitiveness and the penetration of export markets worldwide


40
   York Aviation: Employment and Income Impact of Dublin Airport – Update Report August
2004
41
   York Consulting: The Economic Impact of Dublin Airport 2002
                                            96
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                           Strategic Environmental Assessment


      •   Maintaining and enhancing the position of Dublin as a major European
          business and visitor location
      •   Attracting overseas visitors to Ireland through its role as the main gateway42

7.4.2     Traffic and Transportation

Road Traffic
There are a number of proposed road upgrades outlined in the Masterplan. These
include:

      •   Airport Box: The upgrading of the R132, Collinstown Lane, the R108,
          Northern Parallel Road, Forrest Little Road and St. Margaret’s road to dual
          carriage way standard which will form the Airport Box.
      •   Blanchardstown/Baldoyle Airport Road: This road will also be dual
          carriageway standard. This will allow traffic that does not need to use the M1
          or M50 to access areas to the east of Dublin such as Malahide, Donaghmede,
          Howth and Eastern areas of Dublin City.
      •   Link to N2: This link road will not only link traffic from the N2 to the airport box
          but in particular to the future additional terminal facilities of Dublin Airport and
          associated parking areas. This will allow for access to the airport from the
          west.
      •   Upgrade of the R108 South: Upgrade of the R108, from Collinstown Lane to
          the interchange with the M50 at Ballymun, to dual carriageway standard. This
          will cater for the growth in traffic that will be generated by expansion at the
          airport.
      •   Improved/Additional access: Currently the majority of airport bound traffic
          accesses the airport via the airport roundabout, with minor levels of traffic
          using Corballis Road South. It is proposed to construct new and improved
          accesses off the proposed upgraded Collinstown Lane and Forrest Little
          Road to the eastern section of the site and to also make provision for direct
          access to Terminal facilities on the Western Campus.
      •   Upgrading of the M50: Phase 1 of the M50 upgrade is due to commence
          shortly and will see the construction of an extra lane both North and South
          bound on the M50 together with the upgrade of interchanges. When
          completed, the M50 will be a three-lane carriageway in both directions.
          According to the infrastructure timetable in Transport 21, phase 1 is due to be
          completed by end of 2007, with the entire project completed by the end of
          2010.
      •   Western Bypass: To allow for future connection of the possible western
          bypass of Swords, to link with the Airport Box.




42
     York Consulting: The Economic Impact of Dublin Airport 2002
                                              97
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                Strategic Environmental Assessment




   •
Fig. 7.1 Proposed External Road Improvements




                                          98
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


The 2015 DTO model was considered when assessing the level of infrastructure
required for the continued growth of Dublin Airport. The 2015 Model incorporates all
of the proposed and road and public transport upgrades as proposed in the
Government Strategy – Transport 21, including the M50 upgrade, the Metro lines
North and South and the Dublin Port Tunnel.

The DTO model shows that by 2015, which represents approximately 30 MAP (which
includes Terminal 2), 3336 pcu/hr have a destination at Dublin Airport and 1600
pcu/hr depart from Dublin Airport in the AM peak. The trips distribution for the 2015
model is broadly similar to the base 2002 Model. 43




Figure 7.2 2015 Peak Hour Saturn Two-Way Link Flows with Proposed Infrastructure and
                         44
Airport Upgrades in Place

The road improvements as proposed in the Masterplan will have an impact in terms
of the land take required. The provision of improved access to the airport will result in
improved road capacity with resulting impacts on emissions. However, most of the
impacts are indirect and are discussed in the air and noise section of this
environmental report.

Road Runoff
Stormwater runoff from road surfaces often contains significant loads of particulates
and dissolved solids, metal elements and organic compounds. These waste products
emanate from traffic activities, component wear, fluid leakage, pavement
degradation, atmospheric deposition and road maintenance procedures. Common
examples of pollutants occurring in road runoff include particulates from brake pads,
tyres and worn bearings and in other forms from fuel leaks, herbicides and de-icing
salts.45

Public Transport
The main public transport measures proposed as part of the airport Masterplan
include Metro, improved bus infrastructure, rail link, orbital Metro West, a rail line
linking Clonsilla Donboyne and an inter modal interchange.

43
   ILTP Consulting Dublin Airport Masterplan - Transport Masterplan
44
   ILTP Consulting Dublin Airport Masterplan - Transport Masterplan
45
   Environmental RTDI Programme 2000-2006 Scope of Transport Impacts on the
Environment 2002
                                           99
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


The introduction of Metro North will have a greater influence on employee travel
patterns than passenger patterns, due to the trip origin/destinations discussed in
Section 6.2.

With the construction and upgrade of the road network it will be possible to increase
and improve the public transport network. It will be possible to connect areas to the
East and West rather than just to the west as is the case at present.

The provision of enhanced public transport facilities will serve to reduce current and
projected proportional demand for road space and parking, reduce traffic congestion,
car exhaust emissions, and prolong the life span of existing road facilities.

Car Parking
As the airport continues to expand, an increase in the number of spaces will be
required. However parking policies which seek to limit the number of car parking
spaces aim to act as a disincentive to private car use and to make the improved
public transport facilities more attractive.

Mobility Management
The impact of the mobility management objectives as set out in the Masterplan will
be to increase the proportion of staff and passengers using non-motorised and public
transport with subsequent decreased emissions and congestion levels.

7.4.3   Noise

7.4.3.1 Aircraft Noise

Take off and landing policies have positive impacts on both environmental standards
and noise control measures. Restrictions on engine testing also have a positive
impact on noise control objectives.

The gradual phasing out of noisier aircraft46 has resulted, and will result in a
reduction of noise levels at Dublin Airport. This will be counter-balanced to a degree
by the projected growth in Traffic at Dublin airport.

The development of the second runway will be likely to have an negative impact in
terms of aircraft noise. Aircraft noise impacts can be assessed in terms of the
different operational scenarios of the Northern Parallel runway.

Daytime Noise
In the EIS for the Northern Parallel Runway five different scenarios have been
considered:
Option 0: No development
Option 1b: Mixed Mode
Option 2b: Segregated Mode (28R main take-off runway)
Option 3b: Segregated Mode (28L main take-off runway)
Option 4b: Peak Traffic only on new runway

The most operationally advantageous is the Mixed Mode case (Option 1b). This
would allow the airport to operate at its most flexible and to the maximum capacity.
However, the most environmentally friendly mode of operation will be Segregated
Mode, with runway 28R as the main take-off runway i.e. Option 2b.


46
 Chapter 1 and 2, Annex 16 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation
                                            100
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


The other segregated mode and peak only traffic mode are other operational modes
in which the runway could be operated. Option 3b is less advantageous as more
aircraft would fly over populated areas that the other segregated mode. Using the
new runway for only peak time traffic would not be putting the new runway to a good
use, which considering the cost of such a development is not economically
advantageous.

In the EIS for the Northern Parallel Runway an internationally recognised computer
package was utilised to predict noise levels by the generation of noise contours and
the calculation of noise levels at specific locations. Daytime noise levels were
assessed by the production of contours relating to annoyance levels and the then
Draft Development Plan. Night time noise was assessed by quantifying the change in
noise level by quantifying the change in noise level between the existing and future
situations.

In terms of the impacts of noise on the surrounding populations, Table 7.4 shows the
potential numbers of people living with the low, moderated and high ‘annoyance
contours’ for a 2010 and 2025 scenario.

Option         2010                                   2025
               Low          Moderate     High         Low         Moderate     High
0       No     14,385       1,609        229          21,277      2,231        292
development
1b    Mixed    23,805       2,822        348          28,606      3,858        418
mode
2b             18,359       1,752        376          22,278      3.239        452
Segregated
–28R
3b             28,269       3.652        462          33,971      4,389        555
Segregated
–28L
4b    Mixed    18,863       2,339        414          22,670      2,811        498
–Peak
Table 7.4 Populations within ‘annoyance contours’ 2010 and 2025

In terms of people affected by 2025, a segregated operational mode has been
assessed to be the most favourable. This option the least population within the ‘low’
and ‘moderate’ annoyance contours. If the runway is not built, noise levels will still
increase although the difference between 2010 and 2025 will be small as the growth
capacity of the airport in terms of number of movements will be substantially limited.

It is noted in the EIS that whichever option is considered, be it with or without the new
runway, the north of the runway will experience an increase in the number of aircraft
movements. Even if the new runway is not built, Runway 11-29 will be utilised for
smaller aircraft (BA3146 or smaller).

Night Time Noise
The development of a new runway would result in no perceptible increase in night
time noise levels and indeed would result in a reduction in noise levels due to the
elimination of the use of the cross runway 16-34 on a regular basis overnight except
when wind conditions dictate otherwise.




                                          101
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


Flights over Dublin City will be reduced also so that the largest decrease in noise
levels is witnessed at this location. 47

7.4.3.2 Traffic Noise

An EIS published for the development of the Northern Parallel Runway includes a
road traffic modelling report which has assessed the predicted distribution of traffic
flows along the main feeder routes to Dublin Airport for the year 2025.

Four scenarios were modelled:

2025 Do Minimum (No Northern Runway Developed) No Metro
2025 Do Minimum With Metro
2025 Do Something (Develop Northern Runway) No Metro
2025 Do Something With Metro

The development of the northern runway is predicted to contribute to increased traffic
flows along the surrounding roads by 0 to 33% without the Metro in operation. The
majority of routes however will experience a traffic flow increase in the region of 10%.
The highest predicted flow increase is along the R132 to the north of the East West
Distributor Road. Such changes in volume flows will increase noise levels by 1 to 2
dB, which is not considered to be a perceptible or significant impact.

The operation of the Metro is predicted to reduce traffic flows by on average between
20 to 30% on the surrounding roads regardless of the development of the northern
runway.

The following set discusses the impacts of specific Masterplan objectives on traffic
noise levels.

Airport Infrastructure
The Airport Infrastructure objective deals with the development of air cargo business
which has increased significantly over the past few years and is forecasted to reach
200,000 tonnes by 2015. A second component of air cargo throughput at Dublin
Airport is trucked freight. Objective CG3 outlines the following:

‘To reserve appropriate lands on the Western Campus of the airfield with good
access to the apron and to the road network, to cater for cargo and other apron
related facilities’

In the shorter term, it is proposed to develop the cargo freight area to the western
side of the airport campus and to develop the eastern area for passenger facilities.
The aim is to make use of the proposed link to the N2 and western routes and to
develop a greenfield site to facilitate segregation or road freight traffic from
passenger traffic. This will result in a reduction of cargo facilities and road freight
traffic in the east.

The impact to road traffic noise within the airport will be insignificant due to the
already high noise levels from aircraft and airport activities. The western link routes
and access points will however be exposed to large volumes of freight traffic and will
potentially have a negative impact.


47
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                           102
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


Surface Access
The Surface Access section is the main objective within the Masterplan where road
traffic noise is considered applicable. This section is primarily concerned with:

Internal access: Internal circulation of traffic around the airport campus

External access: Maintenance and development of accessibility of the airport from
external routes, including the development of new links for access and egress to the
campus.

Public Transport: Development of integrated public transport modes including
reservation of lands for Metro station, bus lanes, shelters and taxi facilities.

Car Parking: Provide multi modal transport interchange, review of car parking spaces
within the campus, link in with transport modes, develop short term and long term
passenger car parking facilities in conjunction with public transport plans and the
airports growth.

Internal Access
The internal road network development will be designed so as to compliment the
existing and proposed external road network. This will involve the development of a
new internal road and access point to the west to link with the N2 Road, the
development of measures to improve public transport modes and accessibility and
maintenance of link to the M1. Due to the already busy internal road network and
high noise climate within the airport campus, the impact to noise from the internal
access objectives is not considered to create any significant noticeable change in the
noise climate around the airport.

The development of public transport links between terminal buildings may prove to
provide an alternative to public transport usage, thus having a positive impact on
noise levels in the surrounding environment

The Masterplan aims to ensure that passengers experience of using the airport is
prioritised with facilities and services designed to enhance the experience of people
arriving, departing and moving through the airport. This objective should improve the
service links within the airport between access to car parking to transfers etc. The
impact to noise will be neutral during any implementation of such objectives in terms
of noise.

The provision for a northern distributor road and improved capacity on R132 corridor
within the airport lands is unlikely to create any significant impact on noise levels
within the campus due to existing high levels of noise from existing road and aircraft
movements.

External Access
The principle access point to the airport is from the M1 Motorway. The continued use
of this link will not create any significant change of noise climate in the surrounding
environment. Traffic predictions along this route with the development of the northern
runway in 2025 has not resulted in any significant flow changes and thus changes to
noise levels along this route will be neutral.

The new linkage from the N2 to the airport will involve a route link between the
‘airport box’ and terminal facilities and associated car parking areas on the western
campus. This will allow for similar access to the airport from the west as is currently
experienced from the east. The development of road access from the west to the
                                           103
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


airport will involve routing traffic along new purpose built routes. This has the
potential to have a negative impact on the surrounding noise climate. This however
will be dependant on the distribution of noise sensitive properties along such routes,
the existing noise climate and the potential volume flows of traffic along such routes.

The improvements made to the Northern Perimeter network (Northern Parallel Road)
will involve an upgrading of the route to dual carriageway standard. This will
potentially involve an increased use of airport traffic along this existing route, which
may not currently be used as an access route to the airport. This has the potential to
have a negative impact on the surrounding noise climate. This however will be
dependant on the distribution of noise sensitive properties along the route, the
existing noise climate and the potential volume flows of traffic along the route.

The southern perimeter links will involve an upgrade of the R108 from Collinstown
Lane to the interchange with the M50 at Ballymun to dual carriageway standard in
order to cater for the growth in traffic generated by the forecasted airport passenger
growth. This will inevitably result in increased car usage of this route as an access to
the airport traffic. This has the potential to have a negative impact on the surrounding
noise climate. This however will be dependant on the distribution of noise sensitive
properties along the route, the existing noise climate and the potential volume flows
of traffic along the route.

The improvements made to the old Belfast Road south of Cloghran roundabout
(R132) road network may involve an increased use of airport traffic along this existing
route. This route previously was the main northern access point to the airport prior to
the opening of the M1. Traffic flows are unlikely to return to previous flows due to the
M1 remaining as the primary route. However using this road as an improved access
route has the potential to increase noise levels in the surrounding noise environment.
This however will be dependant on the distribution of noise sensitive properties along
the route, the existing noise climate and the potential volume flows of traffic along the
route. Traffic predictions suggest a minor change in flows will occur along this route.

Overall, the external access objectives seek to distribute external airport traffic on a
more even basis on the road network around the campus, through road upgrades
and alternative access points. The overall impact of these objectives on noise will
largely depend on the successful development of all plans collectively. The plans are
likely to have a neutral impact along most routes, however negative impacts may be
experienced along routes not currently exposed to large volumes of airport related
traffic. The implementation of public transport initiatives will be an imperative part of
the overall surface access plan.

Public Transport
The development and improvement of public transport links between Dublin Airport,
the city centre and orbital routes will have a neutral to positive impact to noise by
discouraging further private car usage on feeder routes if sufficiently implemented.

As passenger numbers are expected to grow considerably over the next 10 to 20
years, the requirement of public transport modes will be of critical importance.
Encouraging a shift from private to public transport through the availability of public
services may aid in balancing private car usage and related traffic noise.

The development of alternative transport modes including Metro and bus links
however should consider the impact of their operation on noise levels in the receiving
environment. The route chosen for such links will minimise noise impacts.

                                          104
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


Overall, the public transport objectives are likely to benefit noise levels in the
surrounding environment.

Car Parking
The overall objective in relation to car parking is to develop short-term and long-term
passenger car parking facilities phased in accordance with the airport’s growth, and
with improved public transport access. It is intended that long-term car parks will
have good access from the external road network with frequent shuttle connections
to the terminal buildings. Short-term car parks will be located close to the terminal
buildings so as to minimise passenger walking distances.

The overall impact to noise levels are considered to be neutral should car parking
objectives be implemented sufficiently. Noise levels within the campus are not
considered to be affected by changes of layout and car parking spaces. There may
be a positive impact associated with successful public transport modes replacing
high volumes of public car usage travelling along surrounding routes. The expected
high volume increase in passengers over future years would suggest this will
continue to increase traffic flows along roads, the impact therefore is more likely to be
neutral.

Mobility management
The development and implementation of a mobility management plan will have a
neutral to positive impact on the surrounding noise environment. The development of
such plans in conjunction with public transport objectives will ensure that alternative
means of accessing the airport will be developed and improved on in order to
discourage the use of private car usage.

7.4.3.3 Construction Noise

Construction noise is a further source of potential noise resulting from activities at the
airport. Such noise emanates from construction site plants such as drills, excavators,
lifting equipment, dumper trucks, compressors and generators. There is potential for
vibration at sensitive locations during construction as a result of excavation works
and vehicle movements on uneven road surfaces. These impacts will be temporary
however and are not considered significant.48

7.4.4   Air Quality

7.4.4.1 Aircraft

Potential air quality impacts result from aircraft emissions during landing and take-off.
With the operation of the new runway, there will be a change in the pattern of aircraft
handling within the airport for the existing runways. As such the landing and take-off
(LTO) cycle will vary, with a consequent change in the rate of aircraft emissions.

The LTO cycle is used to describe the different stages of travel an aircraft makes at
an airport. The LTO can be disaggregated into the taxi-out, take-off, initial climb out
(up to 1,500 feet or 450 m), approach, landing and taxi-in stages. Emissions from
aircraft engines are greatest when they are operating at maximum thrust during take-
off and climb-out. Hydrocarbon, CO and PM10 emissions result from the incomplete
combustion of the fuel in the jet engines and so are likely to be greatest during taxiing
or landing when the aircraft engines are operating at low thrust. The rate of

48
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                           105
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


emissions from each aircraft will depend on the degree of engine thrust, time in each
mode with the LTO cycle and the weight, type and number of engines on the aircraft.

The effect of aircraft exhaust emissions on ambient concentrations at ground level
below the take-off flight path rapidly decreases with increasing attitude and will
generally become insignificant above 450m altitude.49




49
  Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
                                           106
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                                 Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                                  50
Fig 7.3 Air Quality – Aircraft Emission Sources        (see Table 7.5)




50
     ibid
                                              107
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment



Source                 LTO Sector           Width       Length       Base         Top
                                            (m)         (m)          Height       Height
                                                                     (m)          (m)
G1                     Runway 10/28L        50          2,640        0            50
                       (Existing)
G2                     Runway 16/34         60          2,000        0            50
G3                     Runway 11/29         60          1,340        0            25
G4                     Runway 10L/28R       60          3,100        0            50
                       (New)
M1 28L Climb-          400                  400         3,200        50           450
out/Approach
M2                     10R        Climb-    400         3,200        50           450
                       out/Approach
M3                     16         Climb-    400         3,200        50           450
                       out/Approach
M4                     34         Climb-    400         3,200        50           450
                       out/Approach
M5                     11         Climb-    200         3,200        50           450
                       out/Approach
M6                     29         Climb-    200         3,200        50           450
                       out/Approach
M7                     10 L Climb-out       400         3,200        50           450
                       Approach
M8                     28      R   Climb-   400         3,200        50           450
                       out/Approach
A1                     Taxiing Area         1,230       1,590        0            5
A2                     Airside/Landside     650         530          0            5
                       traffic
                                    51
Table 7.5 Aircraft Emission Sources

A detailed impact on air quality as a result of aircraft emissions is discussed in the
Environmental Impact Statement for the Northern Parallel Runway. This EIS
concludes that that the impact of aircraft emissions, with the Northern Parallel runway
will be substantially below the National Air Quality Standards specified in the AQS
Regulations 2002 downwind of the Airport Boundary.52

7.4.4.2 Road Traffic

It is evident from the continuing ambient air quality survey at the Airport that the main
source of air pollution in the area is from road-based traffic. The concentrations of
key pollutants are higher closer to major junctions and can be temporally related to
periods of increased road usage. The free flow of traffic is therefore critical to
maintaining the good air quality.

The main pollutants associated with road transport are NO2, hydrocarbons (benzene,
carbon monoxide, suspended particulate matter, sulphur dioxide and airborne lead.

The actual emissions associated with motor vehicles are dependant on many factors
such as engine type, vehicle age, degree of maintenance and driving pattern. The
impact on ambient air quality and potential effect in the environment is related to the

51
   Dublin Airport Authority Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
December 2004
52
   ibid
                                            108
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


volume of traffic, proportion of heavy goods vehicles, age profile of the traffic,
average speed and the dispersion rate of the exhaust emissions.

The most relevant sections of the Masterplan in relation to road traffic and related air
quality and climate impacts are discussed below:

Airport Infrastructure
The Airport Infrastructure objective deals with the development of air cargo business,
which has increased significantly over the past few years and is forecasted to reach
200,000 tonnes by 2015. A second component of air cargo throughput at Dublin
Airport is trucked freight. Objective CG3 outlines the following:

“To reserve appropriate lands on the Western Campus of the airfield with good
access to the apron and to the road network, to cater for cargo and other apron
related facilities."

In the short term it is proposed to develop the cargo freight area to the west of the
airport campus and to develop the eastern area for passenger facilities. The aim is to
make use of the proposed link to the N2 and western routes and to develop a
greenfield site to facilitate segregation or road freight traffic from passenger traffic.
This will result in a reduction of cargo facilities and road freight traffic to the east.

The impact to air quality along the eastern distributor routes will have a neutral to
positive impact through potentially reducing the volumes of freight cargo vehicles and
relieving grid lock conditions along already congested routes. This is particularly
significant for levels of particulate matter which are derived mainly from HGV diesel
engine exhausts.

Traffic derived air pollutants along the western access route are unlikely to breach
the EU limits due to greater free flow conditions along this access route to the airport.
This will be encouraged through the integration of public transport objectives in the
overall Masterplan.

Surface Access
The Surface Access section is the main objective within the Masterplan where road
traffic pollution is considered applicable. This section is primarily concerned with:

Internal access: Internal circulation of traffic around the airport campus

External access: Maintenance and development of accessibility of the airport from
external routes, including the development of new links for access and egress to the
campus.

Public Transport: Development of integrated public transport modes including
reservation of lands for Metro station, bus lanes, shelters and taxi facilities.

Car Parking: Provide multi modal transport interchange, review of car parking spaces
within the campus, link in with transport modes, develop short term and long term
passenger car parking facilities in conjunction with public transport plans and the
airports growth.

Internal Access
The internal road network development will be designed so as to compliment the
existing and proposed external road network. This will involve the development of a
new internal road and access point to the east to link with the N2 Road, the
                                           109
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


development of measures to improve public transport modes and accessibility and
maintenance of link to the M1. Due to the already busy internal road network and
aircraft air emissions concentrated within this area, the impact to air quality and
climate from any alterations to the internal road access is not considered to create
any significant noticeable change in the pollutant levels measured in and around the
campus.

The development of public transport links between terminal buildings and long terms
car parks will allow for an alternative to private car usage along small congested
routes into the airport. This has the potential to allow for greater free flow conditions,
at existing congested junctions. The impact to air quality therefore will be neutral to
positive.

External Access
An aim of the ‘External Access’ objectives is to improve external links to the airport
through developing new access links to the west of the campus and improving routes
to the north, south and east of the campus. The upgrade of all routes is required as a
result of the recent and projected passenger growth at Dublin Airport.

Access to the airport at present is concentrated along a small number of key routes.
At present, concentrations of key pollutants are higher closer to major junctions.
Road traffic volumes are predicted to increase along all major feeder routes in future
years with an associated increase in air pollutants in the absence of a mobility
management plan around the airport. The proposed improvements to road
infrastructure as part of the external access plans aim to make use of underutilised
routes in close proximity to the campus to aid in distributing traffic along a greater
number of roads. These objectives have the potential to improve air quality along
existing busy routes. The following external routes are proposed to be developed
and or upgraded as part of the overall Masterplan.

The principle access point to the airport is the M1 Motorway. The continued use of
this link will not create any significant change of air quality in the surrounding
environment. Traffic predictions along this route with the development of the northern
runway in 2025 has not resulted in any significant flow changes and thus changes to
air quality along this route will be neutral.

The new linkage from the N2 to the airport will involve a route link between the
‘airport box’ and terminal facilities and associated car parking areas on the western
campus. This will allow for similar access to the airport from the west as is currently
experienced from the east. An aim of all new access points is to allow for an
integrated public transport system to make use of such routes including QBCs, Metro
links and car park transport links in addition to private car usage. Feeding traffic
along any new route will create traffic derived air pollutants, the level of which will be
dependant on the success of public transport and free flow conditions.

The improvements made to the northern perimeter road network will involve an
upgrading of the route to dual carriageway standard. This will potentially involve an
increased use of airport traffic along this existing route, which may not currently be
used as access route to the airport. This is likely to have a neutral impact on air
quality as although traffic volumes are likely to increase along this route, the
upgrading of the existing single carriage way to dual carriage way will help manage
this increased volume. Air pollutant concentrations however have the potential to
increase at main junctions along this route.


                                           110
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


The southern perimeter links will involve an upgrade of the R108 from Collinstown
Lane to the interchange with the M50 at Ballymun to dual carriageway standard. Air
pollutant concentrations are already high at the main junctions along this route due to
high traffic volumes and long congestion periods at peak hours. The upgrade of this
route has the potential to add to existing high air pollutants. However its development
to dual carriageway standard and the diversion of traffic onto upgraded surrounding
routes has the potential to have a neutral to positive impact to air quality.

The improvements made to the old Belfast Road south of Cloghran roundabout
(R132) road network may involve an increased use of airport traffic along this existing
route. This route previously was the main northern access point to the airport prior to
the opening of the M1. Traffic flows are unlikely to return to previous flows due to the
M1 remaining as the primary route. However using this road as an improved access
route has the potential to increase air pollutants in the surrounding environment

Overall, the external access objectives seek to distribute external airport traffic on a
more even basis on the road network around the campus, through road upgrades
and alternative access points. The overall impact of these objectives on air quality
will largely depend on the successful development of all plans collectively. The plans
are likely to have a neutral impact along most routes, however negative impacts may
be experienced at existing congested junctions etc. The implementation of public
transport initiatives will be an imperative part of the overall surface access plan.
Furthermore, any traffic management plan that improves vehicle efficiency (i.e.
increased average speed) will have a positive impact to both air quality and climate
as emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases are lower with increased speeds
(up to 80km/hr).

Public Transport
The development of public transport networks serving the airport will have a neutral
to positive impact on air quality levels in the surrounding environment if sufficiently
implemented. The use of integrated bus, Metro and dart links will aid in controlling
the demand for private car usage and the resulting flows along feeder routes.

The development of a Metro station and a Metro link between Dublin Airport, the city
centre and orbital routes will have a neutral to positive impact to air quality and
climate by discouraging further private car usage on feeder routes. These public
transport measures are in keeping with the National Climate Change Strategy and
are likely to have a long term positive impact in relation to climate change.

Car Parking
The overall objective in relation to car parking is to develop short-term and long-term
passenger car parking facilities phased in accordance with the airport’s growth, and
with improved public transport access. It is intended that long-term car parks will
have good access from the external road network with frequent shuttle connections
to the terminal buildings. Short-term car parks will be located close to the terminal
buildings so as to minimise passenger walking distances.

The overall impact on air quality is considered to be neutral should the car parking
objectives be implemented sufficiently. Air quality within the campus is not
considered to be affected by changes of layout and car parking spaces. There may
be a positive impact associated with successful public transport modes replacing
high volumes of public car usage travelling along surrounding routes. The expected
high volume increase in passengers over future years would suggest this will
continue to increase traffic flows along roads, the impact on air quality therefore is
likely to be neutral.
                                          111
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


Mobility management
The development and implementation of a mobility management plan will have a
significant positive impact on the surrounding air quality and climate. The
development of such plans in conjunction with public transport objectives will ensure
that alternative means of accessing the airport will be developed and improved on in
order to discourage the use of private car usage.

7.4.5   Built Heritage

Archaeology
The potential impact of the Northern Parallel runway was assessed as part of the
Environmental Impact Statement which accompanied the planning application.

Within the development zone associated with the Northern Parallel Runway there is
one upstanding farm complex (CHS 3), one partially upstanding structure (CHS 14),
upstanding walls associated with another farm complex (CHS 12). A demolished
farm complex (CHS 11) and one section of wall associated with the Forrest Tavern
(CHS 4). In addition, there are two further areas of archaeological potential within the
development zone.

According to the Northern Parallel Runway EIS, the development of the runway will
have a profound impact on seven sites (see Fig. 7.4):

CHS 2: A possible archaeological feature in the townland of Barberstown.
CHS 3: An upstanding farm complex in the townland of Forrest Great
CHS 4: A section of the Forrest Tavern Wall in the townland of Forrest Great.
CHS 6: A possible archaeological feature in the townland of Barberstown.
CHS 11: A demolished farm complex in the townland of Kingstown.
CHS 12: Upstanding walls associated with Barberstown House in the townland of
Barberstown.
CHS 14: A partially upstanding structure (part of a demolished farm complex) in the
townland of Pickardstown,




                                          112
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                             Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                                                             53
Fig 7.4 Cultural Heritage Sites (within the Northern Parallel Runway site)

There is the strong potential for unknown archaeological sites to be unearthed
elsewhere in the study area if these lands are developed as part of the expansion of
the airport. Historical sources indicate that a substantial 13th century dwelling on par


53
     Dublin Airport Northern Parallel Runway Environmental Impact Statement December 2004
                                              113
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                               Strategic Environmental Assessment


with Dublin Castle was located in the Dunbro area.54 The implementation of the
Masterplan objectives in relation to archaeology will serve to minimise the impact of
development on any existing or potential archaeological sites.

Architectural Heritage
With regard to the architectural heritage the development of Terminal 2 will have a
negative impact on Corballis house and will necessitate a review of its protected
structure status.

Others buildings of note which require relocation or removal, where their locations
impede necessary development, include;

      •    Collinstown House (short-term)
      •    Church, or at least the surrounding facilities such as the car park (medium to
           long-term)

There are a number of Masterplan objectives in relation to the Architectural Heritage
of the airport area. The implementation of these objectives will ensure that any
negative impacts on architectural heritage as a result of the further development of
the airport are minimised.

7.4.6      Natural Heritage and Bio-diversity

Section 8.3 of the Masterplan states:

“The Masterplan envisages a large expansion of the Airport over the coming years.
This will lead to the development of lands both within and outside the current airfield.
This poses challenges in terms of landscape and biodiversity.”

Development of the site is expected to be a phased process over the time span of
the Masterplan. In addition to the proposed northern parallel runway which is
currently in the planning process, most of the agricultural lands which lie to the west
of the airfield between the existing road (R108) and runway to the south and the
proposed northern parallel runway to the north will be affected by development in the
medium to long term. Other proposed developments in and around the existing
terminal include additional apron and pier facilities. Any development here to the
south-west of the site will result in the loss of habitat; in particular hedgerows, trees
and fields mostly improved grassland.

The habitats present, with the exception of some of the more diverse hedgerows, are
considered to be Low Local or Negligible in value. The more diverse hedgerows are
considered to be of Moderate Local55 value – taking into consideration their potential
to support a greater number of species, including plants and animals. The
hedgerows also fulfil a valuable function as wildlife corridors for movement, refuge
and feeding.

Western Campus
The Masterplan states that;
“It is proposed that the development of any additional terminal capacity should be
located on the western side of the designated airport area. The land use plan
developed for the western lands seeks to mirror the eastern developments by
providing development zones to cater for the various facilities required to allow the

54
     Ball, Francis E., (1902-1920), A History of the County Dublin; Vol. 6
55
     See Appendix E – Habitat Evaluation
                                                 114
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


airport to reach the maximum development potential for a twin parallel runway
system. The lands would be developed in response to demand generated by airport
capacity requirements and other commercial considerations.”

It is likely therefore that most of the agricultural lands which lie to the west of the
existing airfield (between the existing runway to the south and the proposed northern
parallel runway to the north) will be developed, or to some degree affected by
development in the medium to long term. Any development here will result in the loss
of habitat and associated species; in particular hedgerows, trees and fields mostly
improved grassland.

Taking the phased development of the proposed Masterplan, most of the SEA study
area will be impacted upon - either directly or indirectly. It is probably fair to assume
that most of the lands within the study area not developed at present are targeted for
future development in the long term. In those areas for development, and given the
nature of the developments, there will either be a total loss of habitat and the species
therein, or significant impact on those remaining; the latter at least in the short term.

Developments might be expected to result in impacts as follows:

   •   Loss of hedgerows which would impact on local wildlife in the short to
       medium term: loss of refuge, corridors for safe movement, significant foraging
       and breeding sites areas would be eliminated. This is likely to result in a
       reduction in numbers of many species of bird and non-avian fauna in the
       short to medium term in the locality. Bats and breeding passerine birds would
       be most at risk. Badgers, likely to be present in the wider hedgerows and
       areas of scrub, would also be affected.

   •   The removal of trees will result in the loss of roost sites for birds and bats,
       and a reduction in invertebrate numbers

   •   The removal of agricultural grasslands would result in a reduction of available
       habitats to wildlife, particularly birds which use them for feeding in the winter
       months.

   •   Larger species of bird and mammal with territorial habits are likely to be
       impacted upon more severely than those more communal species.

   •   The loss of wet ditches, small streams and ponds will result in a loss of
       breeding habitat for the common frog and possibly the Smooth Newt if it
       occurs on any given part of the site.

   •   Habitat severance, particularly in relation to any development in the south
       eastern corner of the study area which would result in the loss of what is
       effectively an island of green fields and hedgerows. It is currently quite
       isolated in wildlife terms, being bounded to the east by the M1, to the north
       and west by airport facilities (car parks and airfield), and to the south by a car
       park and some small remaining open space. Without careful mitigation
       measures in this area, species of wildlife (badgers in particular, if present)
       would be displaced without any obvious refuge.

   •   Noise impacts – this is dealt with in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS which
       concludes: “In conclusion, species of wildlife present in the vicinity of Dublin
       Airport are already subject to noise levels associated with a busy airport and it
       is anticipated that they will become accustomed very rapidly to any changes
                                          115
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


        in the noise levels during the construction and operation of the proposed new
        runway. Thus additional impacts in this regard – if any – would be expected to
        be Negligible.”

   •    Positive impacts were highlighted in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS:
        “species, e.g. Skylark, have much higher densities on an airfield type habitat
        than in the surrounding landscape and that it is entirely predictable that such
        species will increase in number locally post construction”. Similarly, the Irish
        hare favours the managed grasslands and open spaces afforded by the
        airfield.

Indirect impacts
As above, in the absence of specific proposals for development within the currently
undeveloped sections of the study area (other than the current runway proposal), and
with only an outline phased development for the Masterplan, potential indirect
impacts cannot be predicted. It is considered useful to quote from the Northern
parallel Runway EIS here as any future development proposal would not necessarily
be very different in terms of indirect impacts. The EIS states:

“Impacts on the surrounding areas may be considered in terms of effects on the
terrestrial habitats and fauna, the adjoining streams and rivers, and downstream
impacts to the coast”(see also Section 11.0).

Overall, the development will not affect the functioning of ecosystems, the habitats,
flora and faunal diversity of adjoining agricultural landscape. Effects on the fauna of
surrounding terrestrial areas are expected to be Negligible.

A number of designated conservation areas ranging in importance from Local to
International are present in the wider locality. Prevention of impact on the flora and
fauna of aquatic systems, including small streams and drains on site, watercourses
and the downstream estuaries and broader marine habitats, is dependent on the
successful implementation of pollution control measures, including run-off control
(see Section 11.0) at all stages of construction and operational phases. If appropriate
pollution and drainage mitigation measures are correctly implemented then it is not
anticipated that the proposed construction and operation of the new runway will
impact on any of the designated conservation areas in the wider locality.”

7.4.7   Soils and Groundwater

Potential significant impacts on groundwater from airport activities would be through
the release to ground of de-icing agents, hydrocarbons and other dangerous
substance either through positive drainage systems or uncontrolled run-off. Sources
of such substances are likely to be the airport apron, runways and carparks. Old or
leaking sewer pipes may also be a source of contamination.

The major part of the undeveloped lands in the Airport Zone overlie an aquifer that is
moderately productive (but only in local zones) and has a shallow cover of over
burden. Therefore the development of this area presents some risks in terms of
protecting the “status” of the groundwater body underlying it. As the bedrock in the
area is at a relatively shallow depth, any changes in ground level to accommodate
new development have the potential to increase the vulnerability of the aquifer in this
area. The laying of sewer pipes at depth or placement of attenuation tanks etc.
within this area would also possibly increase groundwater vulnerability.



                                          116
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


The aquifer underlying the eastern part of the Airport zone is less productive, is
overlain by a greater depth of boulder clay than the western area and thus is less
susceptible to pollution from surface activities.

Any new development that increases the area of hard standing in the Airport Zone
has the potential to decrease the recharge of the underlying groundwater bodies.
However, relative to the overall catchments for these ground water bodies, and given
the low permeability of the overlying soils, the reduction in recharge may not be
significant.

7.4.8   Surface Water

Masterplan Objectives in relation to Airport Infrastructure and Surface Access have
the greatest potential to impact negatively on the water environment. The potential
impacts are briefly identified below and are expanded upon in the following sections.

Masterplan Objectives in relation to Utilities are included to minimise the impact of
Infrastructure and Access objectives on the water environment.

Airport Infrastructure
It is understood that it is intended to develop the Airport Zone on a phased bases,
initially concentrating on the eastern side of the site, to cater for an annual passenger
throughput of 30 million passengers. This expansion would include the development
of the northern runway, a second terminal to the south of the current Pier C (AZ_4)
and ancillary development to the east of the Old Swords Road (AZ_5). Subsequent
expansion of the Airport capacity to cater for 40 million passengers annually would
require the development of a new terminal and apron on the western side of the site
(AZ_1).

A “worst case scenario” with regard to the potential for development to impact on the
water environment is considered. It is assumed that the Airport will expand to cater
for 40 million passengers per annum, that the full site will be developed and will
include ancillary development on the west side of the site.

Such development would have the potential of;

   •    Increasing run-off from areas of hard standing to surface watercourses with
        the potential to cause flooding downstream;
   •    Reduce the volume of infiltration to groundwater;
   •    Reducing the quality of water draining to surface and groundwater;
   •    Increase the volume of wastewater discharged;
   •    Increase the demand for drinking water supply.

Surface Access
Objectives for surface access include increasing road access to the site, providing
sufficient car-parking for passengers and staff and effecting a modal shift from private
vehicles to public transport for both passengers and staff. The objectives include the
construction of a Metro link to the airport by 2012 and prioritisation for buses and
taxis on the internal and external road network.
Such objectives would have the potential;
    • To increase the run-off rate to surface waters from road and car park
        surfaces,
    • Reduce the quality of water draining to surface and groundwater
    • Create potential impacts on both the quality and quantity of groundwater due
        to the construction of the underground Metro link to the airport.
                                          117
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


Surface Water/Drainage
The proposed Master Plan Zones indicated in Figure 3.1 identifies future
development zoning for currently undeveloped areas. A major part of this area is
zoned for runway/taxiway, terminal and apron. This represents a significant area in
terms of converting what is currently agricultural land to hard standing areas with
subsequent changes in the hydrological characteristics of the zoned lands.

Currently all surface water from the Airport Zone is discharged to watercourses
without any attenuation of quality or quantity. Monitoring of streams draining the
developed areas of the Airport Zone indicate that this practice is resulting in reduced
water quality in these streams. It is also likely that significant run-off from hard
standing areas during rainfall events is contributing to downstream flooding in these
catchments.

If these discharge practices continue in newly developed areas of the Airport then the
status of the water bodies draining the developed lands is likely to deteriorate
significantly and flooding of downstream catchments is likely to occur more
frequently.

During the planning consultation for the Northern Runway, the Eastern Regional
Fisheries Board (ERFB) indicated that drainage water from any hard standing area
that had the potential of being polluted by de-icing agents should not be discharged
to the Ward catchment in order to preserve existing fisheries in this catchment.
Subsequently drainage design for the runway included for the transfer of drainage
water from the Ward catchment to the Forest Little catchment. A significant area of
the western side of the Airport Zone lies within the Ward catchment and again the
ERFB have indicated that any water that has the potentially to be polluted with de-
icing agents should not be discharged to this catchment. However, the ERFB have
indicated that surface water drainage from paved and roofed areas, which do not
have the potential to be polluted by de-icing agents could be discharged to the Ward
catchment once “best practice” principles of attenuation are followed (e.g. bunding of
specific areas, silt management, petrol interceptors etc.).

Therefore, any new proposed runway/taxiway/apron areas that may receiving de-
icing agents, should as far as is practicable be located outside the Ward catchment
or drainage from this area be discharged to an alternative catchment following
appropriate attenuation. However, diversion of surface water drainage away from the
upstream catchment of the St Margaret’s Stream/Ward catchment has the potential
to impact on the existing hydrology of the stream/river.

Misconnections of foul sewers to surface water drains and discharges from foul
sewer overflows from the sewer network within the Airport complex may also be
impacting on the quality of surface waters draining the site.




                                         118
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


7.4.9    Utilities

7.4.9.1 Sewage Network

A study of the capacity of the existing and future network in the north Dublin area to
cater for potential development to a 2031 horizon and beyond was completed in 2004
on behalf of Fingal and Dublin City Councils.56 The study examined the future
capacity of the North Fringe and Northern Interceptor sewers and identified
requirements for new spine sewers to cater for anticipated development.
Mathematical models were built to examine the capacity of the planned network
under a 2-year and 30 year storm scenario. Under the 2-year storm scenario it was
required that no surcharge occurred in the network. However, for the 30 year storm
scenario the network was allowed to surcharge. The criteria used in the model with
respect to determining the flows from new development areas, misconnections, dry
weather flows etc can be found in the Design Review Report, North Dublin
Connections Study, issued in September 2004.

However, future flows from the Airport Zone were calculated based on flows from the
Airport measured in 2000 multiplied by a factor of 2.5 to take into account future
development. An overall dry weather flow (DWF) of 61litres/second was estimated
as the total foul discharge from the Airport Zone to 2031.

The models assumed that all of the lands within the Zone, with the exception of the
runway areas, would be developed by 2031. The models also assume that 2% of the
developed areas contribute 100% of the rain falling on this area to the drainage
system through misconnection etc. Therefore during storm events the vast majority
of the flows in the foul sewer are in fact surface water run-off.

Future development in the Airport Zone was considered in the following zones;
AZ_1 the Western Sector – an area of 286 hectares; a foul sewage (DWF)
contribution of 28 l/s was allowed for from development in this sector with a total of in
the region of 280 l/s flow to allowed for misconnections and infiltration. An indicative
sewer route from this area, which follows the perimeter of the existing northern
runway, first northwards and then eastward before turning south into AZ_3 was used
in the modelling of the network. If the proposed northern runway extension were
developed, the routing of any sewer from this area would need to be examined and
possibly remodelled to ensure that the modelled surcharge and storage effectives in
the system replicate the modelled scenarios for the 30-year storm even.

AZ_3 the area between the northern runway and the N1; AZ_4, the existing
airport development to the west of the Old Swords Road; AZ_5 the area
between the Old Swords Road and the M1; a cumulative total contribution of 486
l/s, 61 l/s of which would be foul sewage is anticipated for this area including the
contributions from AZ_1.

It was estimated that the total flow from the Airport Zone during a 2-year storm even
would be in the region of 488 l/s and 870 l/s during a 30-year storm event. It should
be noted that a significant volume of storm water would be stored in the sewage
network within the Airport Zone A during a 30-year storm event and that there would
be a potential for the downstream end of the system near the Old Swords Road to
flood if the manholes were not sealed. The model indicated that the existing 300 mm
diameter pipe from the airport would be insufficient to cater for projected flows and
would need to be upgraded.

56
     North Dublin Connections Study; Design Review Report, September 2004, RPSMCOS
                                           119
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


The study recommends vigorous implementation of building control and construction
standards on new development discharging to the sewer network in order to
minimise the volume of storm water reaching the system to maintain sufficient
capacity for foul flows.

Thus, it is recommended that an objective of the Master Plan that development will
have regard to the recommendations of the GDSDS particularly in respect of
ensuring adequate standards of design and workmanship in order to limit water
inflow and infiltration to the foul sewer. Measures to limit oils, fats and grease (OFG)
in the effluent must also be implemented.

Proposed Future Development within the Airport Zone
Anticipated foul peak flows from the Airport complex as provided by the Airport
Authority for a 30 million passenger per annum are 63 l/s from the core development
areas in AZ_4 (consistent with current discharges for 15 million passengers) and a
further 31 l/s from industrial/service development in AZ_5 giving a total of 94 l/s
excluding any development in the Western Zone. A further 32 l/s is estimated from
development in the Western Zone should overall passenger numbers be increased to
40 million per annum. A maximum discharge scenario would include a further 53 l/s
peak flow from industrial/service development on the western site. This would give a
total potential peak foul discharge of 179 l/s. This is significantly greater than what
was estimated in the model scenarios detailed above.

However, the 179 l/s estimated is conservative as the peak flows from the
industrial/service areas is assumed at 4 DWF. In addition, the storm flow estimate in
the model is based on contributions from the total area of land in AZ_1. In all
likelihood at least a third of this area would be devoted to a new apron/taxiway, which
should not contribute to the foul network. Indeed, the Master Plan Zones indicated in
Figure 3.1 indicates that up to 2/3 of the Western Zone (AZ-1) could be covered by
apron/taxiway.

Conclusion
The modelled “Ultimate Design Scenario” included in the North Dublin Connections
Study allowed for a total foul/storm infiltration contribution from the Airport Zone of
870l/s, approximately 50% of which is attenuated within the Airport Zone system.
Relative to the development currently proposed in the Masterplan, the criterion
assumed in the model were conservative and thus existing/planned sewage
infrastructure should be sufficient to cater for the development identified in the
Masterplan.

Should the future development within the Airport Zone increase the likely contribution
from the Airport Zone during high rainfall events then additional attenuation capacity
must be included in the network design within the Airport Zone.

7.4.9.2 Water Supply

Based on the current water usage at the airport for 18.3 million passengers a year
the Airport Authority has estimated a demand of 3400 m3/day for growth of the
airport to 30 million passengers per year (equivalent to approximately 40 l/s). This
demand coupled with demand from further development on the eastern side of the
airport (zones AZ-4 and 5) is estimated to result in a future demand of 5800m3/day
(67 l/s) from the eastern side of the airport by 2020. Initial analysis of the impact of
this demand on the existing system using an existing model of the trunk main system
indicates that there is sufficient capacity in the trunk main to meet the demand

                                          120
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


although it is likely that the existing 250 mm airport connection will require up
grading.

The increase of passenger capacity to 40 million passengers a year would result in a
further water demand of 1700 m3/day and if the demand from additional industrial
development on the west side mirrors that in the east, the total projected demand
would be in the region of 9900m3/day or 115l/s from the Airport Zone. Initial analysis
of the system indicates that the total projected demand could be met by
existing/planned infrastructure. A 600 mm connection from the trunk main directly to
the western side of the airport was used in the analysis. However, given the height
of the lands on the west side of the site relative to the source reservoir, on site
storage and pumping may be required. This would be considered at detailed design
stage.

7.4.10 Landscape

The landscape of the Masterplan area will see change as a result of the
implementation of the policies and objectives as set out in the Plan. In the short to
medium term one of the most significant impacts on the landscape will be from the
development of the proposed Northern Parallel Runway.

The area which will be impacted by this proposal is to the west of the existing
terminal and consists of pastoral farmland serving scattered farmsteads. These fields
are bounded by hedgerows with a high proportion of hedgerow trees. The EIS for the
proposed runway estimates that approximately 29 km of hedgerows and 92.25 Ha of
farmland will be lost to the runway.

Significant impacts are the loss of landscape resources including hedges and
hedgerow trees, the demolition of farm buildings and the change in views from a
number of roads.57

Much of the landscape that is between the existing runway and the proposed will be
altered over the medium to long-term by the development of further airport related
development.

While definite proposals have not been drawn up, the landscape will change
considerably over the longer term.

While the eastern portion of the airport is considerably more developed than the
west, this landscape, too, will be subject to change. The south-eastern portion of the
airport area, for the most part undeveloped at present, will see the development of
ancillary aviation development.




57
  Dublin Airport Northern Parallel Runway Environmental Impact Statement December 2004.
See Appendix F for a full discussion of significance of impacts resulting from the Northern
Parallel Runway
                                            121
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan         Strategic Environmental Assessment




                                  122
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment



8 INCORPORATION OF MITIGATION
MEASURES AND ASSESSMENT
RESULTS INTO THE PLAN
8.1       Traffic and Transportation

There are a number of measures built into traffic and transportation policies which
serve to mitigate against any potential negative environmental impacts.

The introduction of an improved public transport network serving the airport, including
the Metro will facilitate a reduction in dependence on private car and hence will help
to mitigate against any increase in emissions. Car parking policies also seek to
minimise the number of people using private vehicles.

There are also a number of mitigation measures set out in the Mobility Management
Plan for Dublin Airport (2003). These aim to maximise sustainable transport use.
These include inter alia:
           - Introduction of a Car Sharing Scheme for Employees
           - Efficient Car Park Management
           - Provide Travel Information and Journey Planning
           - Introduction of an ‘Easi-Travel’ Plan
           - Provide Facilities for Cyclists and Improve Cycle Access.

8.2       Noise

Mitigation measures with regard to noise have been in place for a number of years.
These include:

8.2.1     Residential Sound Insulation Programme

This is a programme run by the DAA (previously Aer Rianta) since the opening of the
new runway at Dublin Airport in 1989. The programme originally identified those
dwellings that lie within a certain contour boundary and carried out insulation
measures on these dwellings which included:

      •   Double or secondary glazing for all windows and external doors.
      •   Attic insulation comprising layers of quilting and gypsum slab.
      •   Acoustic treatment for vents and active chimneys and capping of redundant
          chimneys.

As a result of further proposed development at the Airport, most notably the
development of the Northern Parallel Runway, the DAA propose to extend this
scheme as is necessary. The boundary of the scheme (i.e. the 66 Leq -16 Hour noise
contour) is to be reviewed every two years from 2010.

8.2.2     Construction Noise

With regard to construction noise, there are a number of measures that can be put in
place including:



                                         123
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


      • Limiting the hours during which site activities are likely to create high levels of
        noise or vibration or permitted:
    • Establishing channels of communication between the contractor/developer,
        Local Authority and residents
    • Appointing a site representative responsible for matters relating to noise and
        vibration
    • Monitoring typical levels of noise and vibration during critical periods and at
        sensitive locations
All site access roads will be kept even so as to mitigate the potential for vibration
from lorries

8.2.3        Traffic Noise

A review of the Masterplan objectives relating to traffic would indicate that the
majority of actions if implemented, would result in a neutral impact. This is mainly as
a result of the benefits of public transportation and mobility management being
balanced against large volumes of expected passenger growth.

Positive aspects have been highlighted in particular where public transport is to be
developed as part of the plan or where existing routes will be relieved of freight traffic
etc.

Where potential negative aspects have been identified, they relate predominately to
upgrading existing routes to cater for alternative access routes to the airport.
However the increase in traffic would need to be in excess of 100% above current
levels to lead to any significant impact which is unlikely along any route.

As a means to ensure noise levels from road traffic does not lead to a significant
negative impact, consideration should be given to the development of new routes to
be sited as far away from noise sensitive locations as possible. Where road widening
and access routes are being upgraded, these should be developed so as support
public transport modes such as developing bus and cycle lanes, park and ride
facilities, Metro links etc to allow for an alternative option to private cars as a means
of accessing the airport.

8.3          Air Quality

A review of the Masterplan objectives relating to traffic would indicate that the
majority of actions if implemented, would result in a neutral or positive impact to air
quality and climate.

Positive aspects have been highlighted in particular where public transport is to be
developed as part of the plan or where existing routes will be relieved of freight traffic
etc.

Where potential negative aspects have been identified, they relate predominately to
upgrading existing routes to cater for alternative access routes to the airport and the
potential increase in pollutants as a result of increased traffic flows along these
routes.

As a means to ensure air quality and climate impacts from road traffic do not lead to
a significant negative impact, consideration should be given to

      •   well managed junctions along key routes leading to the airport

                                            124
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


      •   Where road widening and access routes are being upgraded, these should be
          developed so as support public transport modes such as developing bus and
          cycle lanes, park and ride facilities, Metro links etc to allow for an alternative
          option to private cars as a means of accessing the airport.

      •   simultaneous development of public transport modes and road upgrades

8.4       Built Heritage

      •   A number of mitigation measures have been ‘built into’ the Masterplan
          objectives. With regard to archaeology these include; AR1: To secure an
          archaeological assessment of the Recorded Monument sites within the
          Masterplan Area in consultation with the National Monuments Section of the
          Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government

      •   AR 2: To secure the assessment of the potential impact of any new
          development on archaeological sites bordering and within the Masterplan
          Area.

      •   AR 3: To draw up a programme for the investigation of potential archaeology
          within the Masterplan Area, in consultation with the National Monuments
          Section of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local
          Government, with a timeframe for these investigations to start well in advance
          of any planning applications or development works.

There are also a number of archaeological sites and features just outside the
boundaries of the Masterplan Area, in areas such as St. Margarets, Dunsoghly,
Dubber, Cloghran etc., and it is an objective of the Plan that an assessment of the
potential impact of the airport’s expansion on these sites should be carried out and if
necessary a mitigation strategy should be devised.

The Masterplan also seeks to conserve, as far as is consistent with the development
of necessary airport facilities, the built heritage of the area and specific mitigation
measures have been built into the Plan. These include:

      •   AH 4: To devise a strategy for the reuse and retention of the Protected
          Structures within the Masterplan Area as far as is consistent with the
          development of necessary airport facilities.
      •   AH 5: To draw up a suitable scheme for the preservation and retention within
          the airport area of the historic milestones and pump in the event of any
          proposal to redevelop the site currently occupied by these features.

8.5          Natural Heritage and Bio-Diversity

Section 8.3 of the Masterplan states:

“From a biodiversity perspective the challenge is to ensure that biodiversity is
conserved and enhanced in so far as consistent with the safe and efficient operation
of the Airport, by ensuring that land-take is minimised, that impacts on habitats and
species are mitigated to ensure that there is no net loss of biodiversity. Development
of the area covered by the Masterplan must also ensure that there is no resulting
deterioration of downstream watercourses or associated wetland habitats, including
designated sites, from increased and/or polluted runoff”.


                                             125
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


Without specific proposals for development within the SEA study area it is not
possible to make specific recommendations for mitigation in general. However, it is
possible to generalise and to draw on the information presented in the Northern
Parallel Runway EIS which sets out a number of commitments in terms of mitigation
measures.

8.5.1   Compensation Habitat

In line with the mitigation measures set out in the EIS for the Northern Parallel
Runway, compensation habitat will be provided and this will be located as close as
possible to the site whence removal has taken place and will be at least 3 ha in area.

The replacement vegetation will meet the following three criteria:
   • The botanical composition of the new vegetation will reflect that of the original
       site as far as possible, depending upon soil conditions.
   • The newly created habitats will mirror those of the original site and will include
       the range of habitats which will be lost to the development in order to provide
       for the diversity of faunal species currently on site.
   • In terms of hedgerow replacement, the total amount of woody species planted
       will be at least equal to the total amount of woody species in the hedgerow
       removed and some of the compensation habitats will be of a linear nature
       habitat which would benefit wildlife - bats in particular.

The area of compensation habitat will be large enough to allow for variation in
structure which is essential to provide a variety of habitats and available niches for as
many species as possible. This will enable increased biodiversity and will afford the
greatest opportunity for long-term success and sustainability. In addition, provision
will be made to actively encourage faunal species to use the new habitat, measures
such as artificial badger setts, bat and bird nesting boxes will be utilised. Advance
planting will be used.

8.5.2   Mitigation Measures for Birds

   •    Disturbance of breeding birds during the construction will be avoided where
        possible by minimising the work conducted between March-June.
   •    High visibility of all above ground structures will be effected during
        construction.
   •    Bird control measures currently used in the airport will be reviewed and
        updated in the context of a greatly enlarged airfield site.
   •    A programme of continued monitoring of avian usage of the site, during and
        after the construction process will be implemented.
   •    Local establishments that sell food will be requested to implement a no-litter
        policy.
   •    Waste and refuse at the site will be disposed of in a regulated way.

8.5.3   Mitigation Measures for Bats

   •    Trees, which are to be removed, will be felled during the spring months of
        March, April, May – if no breeding birds are present - or autumn months of
        September, October or November. Any trees showing crevices, hollows etc
        will be removed while a bat specialist is present to deal with any bats found.
   •    Care will be taken when removing branches as removal of loads may cause
        cracks or crevices to close, crushing any animals within. These cracks will be
        wedged open prior to load removal. The dead branches will be lowered to the
        ground using ropes to avoid impacts which may injure or kill bats within.
                                          126
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


   •    Any ivy covered trees which require felling will be left lie for 24 hours after
        cutting to allow any bats beneath the cover to escape.
   •    Bat boxes will be used to offset any loss of existing or potential roost sites.
   •    Night-scented plants will be planted to encourage night-flying insects onto the
        site to act as prey items for bats.
   •    Lighting will be of Mercury-vapour type lamps. This type of lamp has been
        shown to attract eight times the numbers of insects attracted to sodium
        alternatives (Blake et al., 1994). If sodium lamps have to be used then the
        high-pressure type will be installed rather than the low-pressure lamps. High
        pressure sodium lamps have been shown to attract far greater insect
        numbers than-low pressure alternatives (Rydell, 1992). This will help to
        counter the loss of bat prey due to the removal of trees, shrubs, etc.
   •    Demolition of old farm buildings will be done with the expectation that bats
        may be found. Caution will be exercised during the removal of roofing
        material as bats may be underneath even in winter. An experienced bat
        specialist will be on-hand during these operations to deal with any bats found.

8.5.4   Mitigation Measures for Other Vertebrates

Badgers
   • A pre-construction Badger survey will be undertaken.
   • If any setts are found these will be evacuated by an expert under licence from
      NPWS.
   • Any transfer of badgers from one sett to another will be carried out under
      licence and in consultation with NPWS.

Amphibians
  • Prior to construction: any adults or tadpoles will be removed from wet ditches
      and ponds prior to construction and transferred to ponds or other suitable
      habitat. This will be carried out by ecologists.
  • The compensation habitat will include wetland areas, including wet ditches,
      ponds and marshy areas to accommodate, not only the amphibian species,
      but also invertebrates.

Any further proposals for development within the study area should be subject to full
ecological assessment. Indeed any future development, particularly in the lands to
the west of the existing airfield, should also be subject to an EIS of which an
ecological assessment would be part; or if not a full EIS then a requirement should
be that appropriate measures be put in place in order to counteract any loss of
habitats and species diversity.

Any compensation habitat should be planned with expert ecological advice; planted
and established as far in advance as possible of commencement of construction
works in order to gain the greatest benefit for any displaced species.

In relation to any development in the south eastern corner of the study area which is
currently quite isolated in wildlife terms, as referred to above under impacts, detailed
faunal survey to establish if any protected (e.g. badger) vulnerable species are
present, followed by careful mitigation measures are required to deal with any
animals likely to be displaced. Such measures must be drawn up by faunal
specialists and carried out according to best practice.




                                          127
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


8.6        Soils and Groundwater

Comprehensive ground investigation should be undertaken to establish the depth to
bedrock, the nature of the overburden and the groundwater environment throughout
the Airport Zone prior to detailed planning of any new development.

Strict planning and building control is required to ensure that polluting substance
emanating from either construction activities or the operation of the airport are not
released to the groundwater bodies underlying the Airport Zone. Where polluting
substance are used in airport activities, drainage water that has the potential to be
contaminated by their use should be collected, attenuated and only released to
ground or surface waters once an appropriate quality attenuation has been achieved.

Objective GW1 aims to quantify potentially significant impacts relating to the aquifers
and to identify and implement mitigation measures for existing and proposed
development. Such measures should include strict planning and building control to
ensure that best practice in terms of drainage management is implemented and any
potentially polluted drainage is appropriately attenuated prior to release to the
ground.

Masterplan Objective GW2 requires the implementation of long-term groundwater
quality monitoring as part of an environmental management system for both
construction and operational phases of development.

8.7        Surface Water

A number of drainage attenuation measures to be implemented during the
construction and operation of the new Northern Runway have already been agreed
with Fingal Co. Co. These measures include attenuation of clean run-off from the
grassed areas to defined green-field run-off rates as per the GDSDS and the
collection, storage and attenuation of potentially polluted run-off from the runway
prior to discharge to surface waters or the foul sewer network, based on specific
water quality parameters. Polluted run-off will be stored on site until such time it can
be released to the foul network without over-loading the network. Attenuation will be
provided for up to a 1in 100 year storm event.

Similar measures should be considered at the planning/design stage of any future
development with minimum quantity attenuation to greenfield run-off rates and
minimum quality attenuation to achieve the quality objectives defined for receiving
waters in the Eastern Region River Basin Management Plan (ERFB). Master Plan
Objectives SW1, SW2, and SW4, incorporate the requirement to implement such
measures for all new development resulting from the implementation of the Master
Plan. Master Plan Objective SW11 requires a sediment and water pollution control
plan to be submitted to the Council prior to any new development on the site in order
to control construction impacts.

Any new proposed runways/taxiways/apron areas that may receiving de-icing agents,
should as far as is practicable, be located outside the Ward catchment or drainage
from these areas be discharged to an alternative catchment following appropriate
attenuation, having regard to maintaining the hydrological integrity of the St
Margaret’s Stream/Ward River.

With respect to the impact of the existing Airport development on surface drainage, it
is understood that Dublin Airport Authority are currently formulating a programme of

                                          128
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment


measures to retrofit drainage attenuation in terms of both the quality and quantity of
drainage discharged to surface waters to ensure that the impact of current operations
at the airport are minimised as soon as possible. Master Plan Objective SW3, SW4
and SW5 incorporate the requirement to implement such measures for the existing
Airport complex within the lifetime of the Masterplan.

In relation to mitigating the effects of misconnections and overflows from the foul
sewer network, Masterplan Objectives SW6 and SW7 require the Airport Authority to
carryout a study of the misconnections and overflows and to and to develop and
implement a programme of rehabilitation works within the lifetime of the Masterplan.

With regard to minimising the potential impact of pollutant materials used on the
Airport site, Masterplan objectives SW8 and SW10 require the implementation of
pollution control measures in respect to oil and fuel storage and handling and the
implementation of a pollution contingency plan as part of the Environmental
Management System (EMS) for the Airport. The EMS would cover both new and
existing development.

Masterplan objectives SW9 requires the Airport Authority to implement a long-term
surface water monitoring programme as part of the EMS.

If the above objectives are implemented and achieved, detrimental impact on surface
water status by existing and planned development of the Airport Zone could be
avoided.

8.8     Utilities

8.8.1   Water Supply

Masterplan Objectives for water supply require a plan to be developed to expand, in
a sustainable manner, the water supply network to cater for the proposed
development within and where appropriate adjacent to the subject lands.

They also require the Airport Authority to develop and submit for approval a water
management and conservation plan as for the Airport Zone.

8.8.2   Foul Drainage

Objectives included in the Masterplan relate to expanding the foul drainage network
within the airport in a sustainable manner to cater for proposed development within
the Airport Zone and adjacent development lands, rehabilitation of the existing foul
network within the Airport Zone (FW1-FW3).

Objective FW4 requires that where practicable, the “strength” of effluent discharged
from the Airport complex should be similar to that of domestic sewage in order to
minimise the loading on the wastewater treatment plant.

8.9        Landscape

There are a number of mitigation measures ‘built in’ to the objectives of the
Masterplan.

Objective NH3 aims to secure the completion of a Landscape and Habitat
Management Framework (LHMF) in order to address the landscape and biodiversity

                                         129
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                          Strategic Environmental Assessment


issues involved in the Masterplan’s implementation. The LHMF shall include
provision for regular public reporting of progress in relation to the implementation of
the specific landscape and habitat mitigation measures.

There are also a number of mitigation measures set out in the EIS for the Northern
Parallel runway. These measures are twofold. Firstly there are those measures that
reduce the visual impact of the proposals on the local views and secondly measures
to compensate for the loss of landscape and amenity resources.

Landform, planting and sympathetic detail design of any proposed developments
would both reduce negative visual impacts and assist in compensating for the loss of
the landscape resource. Further mitigation proposals would seek to compensate for
the loss of hedgerows, trees and public amenity, through the sponsoring of a study
into the coverage and condition of hedgerows within Fingal, the acquisition of 3 Ha of
land within the Swords area for public amenity and recreation and 3 Ha for
ecological woodland creation. Contributions would also be made to the restoration of
the historic formal gardens in the Ward River valley regional park.

While substantial new lengths of hedgerow are proposed to the boundary of the
northern parallel runway development (subject to security requirements), safety
requirements restrict the height of proposed planting within the take off/landing
surfaces and approaches, this limiting the use of trees as a visual barrier in these
areas. The proposed woodland belts to the north of the northern parallel runway
would further reduce longer distance views from lower lying, more open areas to the
outskirts of Swords. 58




58
     Northern Parallel Runway - Environmental Impact Statement
                                            130
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment



9       MONITORING PROPOSALS
9.1     Introduction

Article 10 of the SEA Directive requires Member States to monitor the significant
environmental effects of the implementation of plans ‘in order, inter alia, to identify at
an early stage unforeseen adverse effects to be able to undertake appropriate
remedial action’.

Monitoring proposals include:

9.2     Traffic and Transportation

There is scope to improve the traffic model that was used to provide a strategic
assessment of the roads around the airport for input to the Masterplan. As the airport
grows there will be a large emphasis on review and monitoring It is proposed that a
more detailed Model (developed from the DTO Full Area Model) be developed to
monitor the growth of the airport and help passenger growth targets to be achieved in
a sustainable manner.

The Dublin Airport Mobility Management Plan identifies measures which aim to
maximise sustainable transport use and to minimise, but recognise the need for
private car use.

Evaluation of the plan will include bottom-up monitoring of individual measures and
top-down monitoring though surveys, focus groups etc. Surveys will take place within
six months of the plan being adopted and annually thereafter. The results will be
shared with all principal stakeholders to enhance the benefits of the plan.

The introduction in time of significant public transport services to the area, such as
QBC, Metro and Luas, could cause significant changes in employee travel patterns.

An Airport Transport Forum involving a range of key stakeholders as appropriate
from the airport, its users, the local authorities and transport operators will monitor
implementation of the proposed measures as set out in the Mobility Management
Plan.

The Dublin Airport Authority will nominate an appropriate authorised person will meet
the Local Authority at regular intervals, not exceeding six months, to review progress.
Representatives from relevant bodies such as transport operators, the DTO etc may
be invited to attend as appropriate.

An annual statement will record progress of the Mobility Management Plan, which will
evolve and adapt to changing circumstances.

9.3     Noise

9.3.1   Noise and Flight Track Monitoring System

The Noise and Flight Track Monitoring System measures noise levels generated by
aircraft and identifies the flight path taken to and from the airport, for each individual
aircraft movement. This required to determine the impact of noise on local
communities.

                                           131
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                     Strategic Environmental Assessment




Fig. 9.1 Noise and Flight Track Monitoring System

The system uses a geographical information system to map noise contours. Noise
contours are a measure of noise represented on a map as a line. Each line
represents a noise banding level with the highest contour values (loudest noise)
nearest the airport. The contours allow for the quantification of the number of
dwellings affected by noise and also gives an indication of the significance of any
impact.

The system monitors the noise levels every 0.5 seconds, 24 hours a days, 365 days
a year and therefore presents a highly accurate background noise measurement.
This allows for the airport to formulate measures and policies to minimise noise
levels.

It is an objective of the Masterplan (TL5) to make available information from the
Noise and Traffic Monitoring System.

9.3.2   Traffic Noise

Monitoring of noise levels should be undertaken prior to any major development
relating to external access to obtain accurate baseline conditions.




                                            132
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


9.4    Air Quality

Dublin Airport can only monitor ambient air conditions at ground level. The
combination of aircraft ground level emissions and other anthropogenic activities in
and around airports demands the monitoring of these parameters. This is carried out
at Dublin Airport by an independent environmental consultant appointed through a
tendering process.

Since the early 1990’s Aer Rianta has engaged various specialist consultants in
ambient air monitoring at Dublin Airport. The number of sites monitored and
parameter analysed over the years has varied. In 1994, for example, three sites were
monitored (Pavilion, Pier B and Runway 10/28). The parameters monitored were
benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and NOx. It was found that only benzene and NOx
were present at detectable levels above background. toluene and xylene monitoring
was thus ceased and a new programme of monitoring was designed. This
programme would take into account new regulations that were coming in relation to
ambient air quality. For the next number of years four sites around the airport were
monitored.

The parameters measured were: Carbon Monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx),
Particulate Matter (PM10), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Benzene, and Lead.

The reason for selecting these sites was to reflect background concentrations and
the levels associated with car and aircraft emissions. The monitoring was carried out
to establish concentrations of pollutants at the above locations and to demonstrate
compliance with EU legislation.

In 2003, it was decided to expand the range of monitoring being carried out. Ten
sites were identified in and around the airport with the intention of building up a better
profile of ambient air quality in and around the airport site. It was decided to alter the
parameters being measured. Due to the increased use of unleaded petrol, lead was
removed from the parameters list. The remaining parameters (CO, NOx, SO2, PM10
and benzene) continue to be measured.

In 2005, some of the monitoring locations were adjusted to better reflect airport
activities and the range of parameters extended to include some PM2.5 and ozone
monitoring.

Results from ambient air quality analysis are tabled at the Environment Committee
meeting, which is held by senior management of the Dublin Airport Authority (DAA)
on a regular basis.

The results will be shared with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the
Local Authority (Fingal County Council).

The location of monitoring points is shown in Section 6.5. The following is a list of the
parameters, which are sampled at the monitoring sites.
   • BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene)
   • NOx (Nitrogen Oxides)
   • Ozone
   • Particulate Matter
   • CO (Carbon Monoxide)
   • SO2 (Sulphur Dioxide)


                                           133
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                         Strategic Environmental Assessment


9.5       Built Heritage

As stated above there is a number of mitigation measures ‘built into’ the Masterplan.
Archaeological and architectural heritage will be protected by the continued
implementation of Development Plan and Masterplan objectives.

9.6       Natural Heritage

Species and habitat monitoring is an essential part of mitigation and should be
considered as an integral part of the mitigation process over time. It is an essential
tool in identifying the success, or otherwise, of mitigation and - if properly targeted -
enables remedial action to be taken. Monitoring programmes should be devised
according to the needs and timescales associated with any particular development.
Examples include:

      •   pre-construction surveys (e.g. badger and bat surveys);
      •   during - construction species monitoring (e.g. tree felling and building
          demolition where such structures have been identified as bat roosts; breeding
          bird surveys; badger sett closures under licence; indirect impacts etc.);
      •   post - construction monitoring in relation to: habitat rehabilitation; impacts on
          individual species. Indirect and long - term impacts

A commitment to and recommendations for monitoring should be set out in all
environmental impact statements and environmental assessments prepared for any
future development within the Masterplan SEA area as recommended under 8.5
above.

Monitoring should be appropriate to the scale of the development in the context of
habitat and constituent species; their potential loss; or the magnitude of impact upon
them.

In the case of compensation habitat, a monitoring programme should be devised to
cover all stages from the initial planning and establishment of the habitats to
maturation. It should include flora and fauna elements.

All ecological monitoring should be carried out by experienced specialist ecologists.

9.7       Surface Water Drainage

Masterplan Objective SW9 requires the implementation of long-term surface water
quality monitoring as part of the Airports EMS. Objective SW1 requires collaboration
with the Eastern River Basin District Integrated Catchment Initiative, which will be
identifying a monitoring programme for all surface and ground waters in the Eastern
River Basin District. Monitoring of the effects of development identified in the
Masterplan should be included in these monitoring programmes.

The Dublin Airport Authority has carried out monitoring on the quality of the streams
and rivers in and around Dublin Airport. By monitoring at multiple sites, it is hoped to
build up a good knowledge of surface water quality in and around the airport. It is
through monitoring the surrounding environment that the airport seeks to understand
its relationship with, and effect on, the local area and ecosystems (freshwater and
marine). By characterising the water quality it is possible to demonstrate compliance
with existing standards and work towards the ongoing improvement of environmental
performance whilst delivering the airport service to the community. Prompt reporting

                                            134
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                        Strategic Environmental Assessment


of analysis results allows for immediate investigation if necessary and appropriate
response and follow-up where required.

The run-off at Dublin Airport is diversified into many catchment areas that are
received directly by six watercourses. The airfield and apron areas are predominantly
drained by the Cuckoo Stream, and the Forrest Little Stream has the second largest
catchment point to the north. The Cuckoo Stream originates outside the airport
boundary and it is monitored at the point of entry, along the stream and at the point
where it exits the airport site. The other streams originate within the airport boundary
and are ultimately tributaries into the Mayne River, Sluice River and Santry River to
the east which discharge directly into the sea at Portmarnock, Baldoyle and Clontarf.

In relation to the frequency of sampling, a grab sample is taken for routine analysis
from at least one point of each of the streams every month by the DAA. A sample is
also taken from all the significant designated locations biannually. It is anticipated
that the Dublin Airport Authority will conduct the biannual rounds of all sites (‘full
round’) - as this activity takes a significant amount of time and resources it is factored
around airport operations. The Dublin Airport Authority will then forward these
samples to the laboratory for chemical analysis.

The Dublin Airport Authority also takes ad hoc samples at any of the designated
locations at any time in response to specific events or special needs (de-icing,
spillages etc.) which often occur outside of normal office hours.

The long-term surface water quality monitoring will cover each of the six receiving
waterways (refer to section 6.9). A sample will be routinely taken for analysis from at
least one point of each of the six streams every month. A full round of samples will
also be routinely taken biannually. Samples will also be taken at any time in response
to specific events or special needs e.g. de/anti-icing activities or spillage events.

These samples are sent directly to a specialist consultant for laboratory analysis.
Water quality parameters that are measured include:

   •   BOD5
   •   COD
   •   TOC
   •   SS
   •   Ammonia (as N)
   •   Total Phosphorous (as P)
   •   Ortho-phosphate (as P)
   •   pH
   •   Glycol

These parameters were extended in 2005 to include Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
and Glycol when required, and macro-invertebrate measures during the summer
period.

Sampling is carried out as per defined procedures in the Environmental Management
System for Dublin Airport. Samples are taken from the streams at designated named
locations by the Dublin Airport Authority, or by the specialist consultant escorted by
the Dublin Airport Authority (as per security requirements).

Results from analysis of surface water samples and sewage flume samples (see
Section 9.9 Foul Drainage) are tabled at the Dublin Airport Pollution Control
Committee meeting. The Dublin Airport Pollution Control Committee (DAPCC) has
                                           135
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                      Strategic Environmental Assessment


been in operation on a continuing basis since 1987. The Committee meets
approximately four times a year. The Committee is made up of representatives from
the Dublin Airport Authority (and it’s consultant on water issues), the Local Authority
and representatives from the main airside operators.

The results will also be shared with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and
the Local Authority (Fingal County Council).

9.8    Groundwater

Masterplan Objective GW2 requires the implementation of long-term groundwater
quality monitoring as part of the EMS. This monitoring should be co-ordinated with
the Eastern River Basin District to monitor the effects of implementing development
identified in the Masterplan.

9.9    Foul Drainage

The two main streams, the Cuckoo Stream and the Forrest Little Stream, both have
open impounding areas located before the streams leave the airport site (at C7 and
F4). These impounding areas are made up of a series of concrete baffled walls and
prevent floating substances (e.g. hydrocarbons, rubbish) and scouring material from
leaving the site – these impounding areas are routinely inspected weekly and
routinely maintained biannually (deep-cleaned) by the DAA.

Oil interceptors are used on various drainage pipes throughout the site to prevent
hydrocarbons from entering the drainage ditches.

The Dublin Airport Authority works with the numerous operators on the site with
regards to improving practices to prevent and reduce any instances of pollution
arising in the first place.

All sewers on the Dublin Airport site join together to discharge into the sewage flume
adjacent to the Outdoor Cleaning Building south of the Cargo Apron. The sewage
effluent then flows directly (uninterrupted) into a spur of the North Fringe Sewer to
the treatment plant in Ringsend for treatment.

This sewer is a private sewer to the Dublin Airport Authority – all maintenance on this
system within the boundary of the site is carried out by the Dublin Airport Authority
Plumbers.

Fingal County Council intends to monitor effluent directly at the point of discharge
from the individual establishments which have trade effluents.

The flow through the network is variable depending primarily on passenger
throughput, which varies hour-to-hour, day-to-day and season-to-season. The flow
though the sewage flume is monitored on a continuous bases and logged every week
by the Dublin Airport Authority Plumbing Section. The quality of the effluent is
analysed on a monthly basis.

Remote buildings are serviced by local bio-cycle systems which also require testing.
Sampling and analysis is carried out as per defined procedures in the Dublin Airport
Authority’s Environmental Management System for Dublin Airport.



                                         136
Draft Dublin Airport Masterplan                       Strategic Environmental Assessment


It is an objective of the Masterplan that current monitoring of the quality/strength and
volume (flow and load) of sewage discharged for the Airport Zone to the public sewer
should be continued and any new discharges should be monitored in a similar
fashion.

Objective FW2 of the Masterplan aims to secure a joint study by 2008, into the true
level of inflow, infiltration and exfiltration in the drainage network within the airport
and in accordance with Objective WD013 of the Fingal Development Plan.

9.10   Water Supply

Current monitoring of water usage should be continued and any new supply
monitored in a similar fashion.

Objective WS2 of the Masterplan requires the development and submission for
approval of a water management and conservation plan as defined under the Water
Bye Laws 2004 in accordance with Policy UTP4 of the County Development Plan.

9.11   Landscape

Objective NH3 aims to secure the completion of a Landscape and Habitat
Management Framework (LHMF) in order to address the landscape and biodiversity
issues involved in the Masterplan’s implementation.




                                          137
APPENDIX A
SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A                                      SCOPING REPORT



                     Fingal County Council




                   Dublin Airport Masterplan
             Strategic Environmental Assessment




                       Scoping Report




                      Strategic Planning Unit

                         December 2005
APPENDIX A                                                                      SCOPING REPORT


Purpose of Report
Objective DAO1 of the Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011 is ‘To prepare an agreed Airport
Action Plan (Masterplan) for the land within the Designated Airport Area, in consultation with
the airport authority and all other relevant stakeholders, to serve as the formal basis for Fingal
County Council’s planning control of change within that zone.’

Fingal County Council has now commenced work on the preparation of the proposed Airport
Action Plan (Masterplan) for the lands zoned ‘DA - Designated Airport Area’ and proposes to
carry out a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of this Plan.

The procedures set out under section 20(2) of the Planning and Development Act 2000 in
respect of Local Area Plans will be followed in the plan preparation in the interest of
transparency and the proper planning and sustainable development of the area.

As part of the process of preparing this Masterplan, and having regard to the Planning and
Development (Strategic Environmental Assessment) Regulations 2004 (S. I. No 436 of 2004)
Fingal County Council must consider whether to carry out a Strategic Environmental
Assessment (SEA) on the proposed plan. The key requirements of the SEA directive may be
summarised as follows:
• The screening of plans, at draft stage, to determine if SEA is required,
• The scoping and preparation of an Environmental Report,
• Public consultation on the Draft Plan and the Environmental Report,
• The modification of the Plan, where appropriate, on the basis of the inputs from the
    consultation stage,
• The incorporation of conditions for monitoring of the significant environmental effects.

Under article 14A of the Planning and Development (Strategic Environmental Assessment)
Regulations 2004, it is necessary to determine whether or not the proposed plan would be
likely to have significant effects on the environment, in order to ascertain whether a SEA
should be carried out, taking account of relevant criteria set out in schedule 2A.

The key determinant in deciding if an SEA is appropriate is whether the plan would be likely to
have significant effects on the environment. This decision should not be determined by the
size of an area alone but should also be influenced by the nature and extent of the
development likely to be proposed in the plan, its location and its broad environmental effects.

Dublin Airport is of international and national importance and represents the most significant
single economic entity in Fingal and the region. Given the character, activity and proposed
scale of development within the Designated Airport Area and the potential environmental
effects, the Planning Authority considers that there is a prima facie case for SEA. Article 14A
of the Planning and Development (Strategic Environmental Assessment) Regulations 2004
provides that where the Planning Authority determines that the implementation of a plan,
would be likely to have significant effects on the environment, it should bypass screening and
proceed to scoping for the environmental report.

Article 5(4) of the SEA Directive requires that the prescribed Environmental Authorities be
consulted when deciding on the scope and level of detail to be included in the Environmental
Report. In this instance this report will be circulated to the Environmental Protection Agency,
the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, and the Department of
Communications, Marine and Natural Resources.

The purpose of this scoping report is to ensure that the relevant environmental issues are
identified so they can subsequently be addressed in the Environmental Report. This report is
based on the criteria set down in the SEA Guidelines in particular:
• The current knowledge and methods of assessment
• The contents and level of detail in the plan
• The stage of the plan in the decision making process
APPENDIX A                                                                      SCOPING REPORT


•   The extent to which certain matters are more appropriately assessed at different levels in
    the decision making process in order to avoid duplication of the environmental
    assessment.



Background Context
The Masterplan is being prepared in the context of the Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011
and having regard to the policies and objectives therein.

The lands which are subject to the proposed Masterplan comprise a total of 1084 hectares
and are zoned ‘DA – Designated Airport Area’ with the objective ‘To ensure the efficient and
effective operation of the airport in accordance with an approved Airport Action Plan.’

Furthermore, Objective DAO1 of the Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011 is ‘To prepare an
agreed Airport Action Plan (Masterplan) for the land within the Designated Airport Area, in
consultation with the airport authority and all other relevant stakeholders, to serve as the
formal basis for Fingal County Council’s planning control of change within that zone.’

The purpose of the Masterplan is to provide the optimal future development strategy for the
designated airport area whilst ensuring its proper planning and sustainable development. The
Masterplan will be used as the principal development control tool for the area, and will specify
the long-term disposition and mix of uses and the primary circulation systems, and work
towards a high and consistent standard of design for Dublin Airport as an important national
gateway location.

The Masterplan will take a long-term view of the development of the area in terms of land use
and the general location of infrastructure. The key issues to be addressed in the Masterplan
include:

1. The safe, efficient, effective and sustainable development and operation of the airport;
2. The nature and disposition of essential airport infrastructure e.g. runway, aprons, terminal
   areas etc
3. The form and routing of movement systems within the airport complex and the integration
   of these with external movement systems including inter alia the recently approved Metro;
4. The quantum, location and usage of vehicle parking and set down facilities within the
   airport complex
5. The type, quantum and location of any commercial facilities within the airport complex.

The strategic nature of Dublin Airport in terms of Ireland’s transportation infrastructure is best
demonstrated by the growth in passenger traffic. The number of passengers using Dublin
Airport has increased from 2 million passengers per annum (MPPA) in 1982 to over 17 MPPA
by the end of 2004.

Average traffic growth projections in passenger numbers indicate that by 2025 Dublin Airport
will handle some 38 million passengers (from 2003 figure of 15.8m). In order to support this
growth the number of aircraft movements will increase from 2003 levels of some 178,000
movements to some 348,000 movements per annum.

In order to facilitate the projected expansion of the airport, there are a number of key projects
that are scheduled to proceed in the plan area, within the short to medium term. These
include, the development of a new northern parallel runway, expansion of aircraft aprons, new
pier facilities, expansion to the existing terminal building and the development of a second
terminal building.

The planning application for a new runway has been lodged with Fingal County Council (reg.
ref. F04A/1755) and is currently awaiting clarification of additional information before a final
decision can be reached. The proposed runway would be located to the north and parallel to
the existing main runway and would have a paved length of 3,110 metres. A comprehensive
Environmental Impact Statement has been lodged with this application.
APPENDIX A                                                                        SCOPING REPORT




Scoping
The purpose of scoping is to develop an understanding of the impact on the environment that
may be affected and the key measures proposed in the plan to set a framework for identifying
and evaluating the impact of the measures on the environment. Scoping will ensure that the
authority remains focussed upon the important issues.



Current knowledge and methods of assessment
The Fingal Development Plan 2005-2011 to which this Plan relates does not include a SEA.
However there is a large body of research and baseline data available from sources such as
the Dublin Airport Authority, the South Fingal Planning Study and the EIA which was
submitted to Fingal County Council as part of the planning application for a second parallel
runway at Dublin Airport (Reg. Ref. F04A/1755).


Contents and level of detail
The subject lands are zoned ‘DA - Designated Airport Area’ in the 2005-2011 Development
Plan. The Masterplan will seek to refine the proposed land uses within the airport area in
order to ensure the efficient and effective operation of Dublin Airport both in the short-term
and into the future. The Masterplan will be assessed in order to evaluate the strategic
environmental implications of Dublin Airport. The SEA will outline the rationale/alternatives for
the location of the Airport at its current location, and the maintenance of the operational
activities in this location. The Plan will also outline alternatives for the location of activities,
facilities and projects within the plan area.

In strategic terms there are a number of environmental issues, that will require detailed
consideration and analysis within the proposed environmental report, which will accompany
the Masterplan. These issues are identified below and are ranked in order of importance:

Employment and Economic Development
Dublin Airport is an enormous economic asset to the County. Its value is best measured by
the fact that it incorporates the highest concentration of employment and business activity in
the entire country. As the economic hub of the County, the Airport must, therefore, be
sustained and capitalised upon. There are currently approximately 13,000 jobs on-site at
Dublin Airport, in over 100 companies. The number of jobs is forecast to rise in line with
airport throughput at the rate of 1,000 jobs per million passengers. On this basis, total
employment is expected to exceed 30,000 persons by 2020. The dynamics of these elements
and their change over time should be addressed in the SEA.

Traffic and Transportation
The Masterplan area sits within a rapidly developing transportation network. Improvements to
both the M50 and N2 are scheduled to be undertaken while the Dublin Port Tunnel is nearing
completion. The Governments ‘Transport 21’ plan has confirmed a scheme for a Metro line
from Swords via Dublin Airport to Dublin City Centre. Significant improvements are also
scheduled for the local road network. Given the importance of maintaining and improving
access to the Masterplan lands, public and private transportation will be an important
consideration, both in terms of the impact of activity on transportation infrastructure and vice
versa. Consideration will also be given to internal transportation/road implications of the
Masterplan.

Noise
It is considered that there will be noise and noise vibration associated with construction and
operational activities involved in the implementation of the Masterplan. Due to the application
APPENDIX A                                                                      SCOPING REPORT


of visionary planning policies dating back to the post-war period, residential development in
the proximity of the airport and its flight paths has been greatly limited. However operational
activities (aircraft taking-off, landing, taxiing and testing) as well as impacts from the current
and predicted road networks will require consideration beyond the boundaries of the Plan
area as defined. Construction activity is likely to have a mainly local impact within the airport
campus.

Air Quality
It is considered that the air quality deterioration requires investigation in the environmental
report. The main sources of potential air quality deterioration are aircraft engine emissions,
fuel vapour escape during re-fuelling, emissions from vehicles using the airport and the
surrounding road network. It is contended in the EIS for the proposed new runway that the
additional aircraft activity will have an imperceptible impact upon the total atmospheric
emissions in the Dublin area, and on greenhouse gases from all sources including road traffic.
It is also contended that the impact upon human health of the development will be minimal
and that climate will not be affected. It is recommended that air quality be examined within the
Environmental Report accompanying the Masterplan, given the extent of the development
which could occur within the Masterplan lands.

Built Heritage
There are six protected structures within the Designated Airport Area including the Old
Central Terminal Building (OCTB), a holy well, a ringfort site, Castlemoate house, a windmill
(in ruins), and Corballis House.

The Old Central Terminal Building is centrally located within the airport campus and has been
identified as a building of national importance. This building was designed in 1937 under the
direction of Desmond Fitzgerald, and won the Triennial Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of
the Architects of Ireland in 1943. Corballis House is located on the immediate approach to the
airport at the centre of the campus complex, and will potentially be affected by the
implementation of the Masterplan.

There are a few recorded monuments within in the study area. In addition, there may be
undiscovered sub-surface archaeological sites/monuments in the subject lands.

It is recommended that these issues be investigated within the environmental report.

Natural Heritage and Bio-diversity
The site is not subject to any ecology conservation designation under current legislation. The
subject area is likely to undergo constant change over the life of the plan. The existing aircraft
apron and runway facilities are scheduled to be extended, increasing the area of hard surface
and potential surface water run-off in the plan area. The bio-diversity of the subject area is
likely to be affected. Potential impacts include a loss of or damage to flora and fauna, habitats
and biodiversity in the area. Given the nature of the development, a significant number of
trees and hedgerows will have to be felled. This is expected to have an impact on local
wildlife habitat in the short to medium term.

Surface Water Management
Any future development is likely to increase the amount of impermeable ground with hard
standing/structures resulting in a significant increase in the volume of surface water runoff.
Dublin Airport is situated at the summit of four separate watersheds or river catchments
including those of the Ward River, the Sluice River, the Mayne River and the Santry River.
Impacts from the implementation of the Masterplan, particularly in regard to the generation of
surface water run-off, on the aforementioned watercourses, which could occur during the
construction and the operation phase, may require mitigation and should be investigated. Any
proposed development will have regard to the Greater Dublin Strategic Water Study (GDSDS)
and will require attenuation to greenfield standards and implementation of SUDS (Sustainable
Urban Drainage System). Water conservation and water quality are also anticipated impacts
in this regard. The Environmental Report will also have regard to infiltration, grease and oil
interceptors, de-icing management and the impact of surface water runoff on the capacity of
the foul sewer.
APPENDIX A                                                                      SCOPING REPORT




Utilities
Given the extent of possible future development in the designated airport area it is necessary
to investigate the effects of servicing the subject site particularly with regard to foul drainage
and water supply.

Water supply demand predictions and design standards have been detailed in the North
Fringe Water Supply (NFWS) ‘Design standards for Hydraulic Analysis’, February 2001. The
demand figures in the NFWS analysis are based on an anticipated 100% development at the
year 2021 for all development zoned lands. As part of the Environmental Report, the demand
requirements of the proposed Masterplan will require a more rigorous analysis and review to
provide a quantitative illustration. Possible mitigating measures such as water conservation
and additional reservoir capacity and/ or water towers will be investigated.

The North Fringe/Northern Interceptor Sewer project (NF/NIS) has investigated foul water
drainage in the area. It is likely that the foul water drainage capacity provided by the NF/NIS
should be sufficient at least in the medium term; however the Environmental Report may
necessitate a more rigorous analysis of demand requirements resulting from the Masterplan.

Human Health
Another concern is that the local population, communities and individuals should not
experience unreasonable diminution in their quality of life from direct or indirect consequence
from the implementation of the plan. Considerations here include risks of a serious accident,
air pollution, water pollution and noise.

Other Environmental Issues
The landscape of the Masterplan area will potentially undergo various changes. The existing
airport campus dominates the landscape on the subject lands. Due to limits imposed by
operational requirements of the runways and aprons, it is envisaged that the implementation
of the plan will entail more intensive use and redevelopment of existing brownfield lands.

The undeveloped lands in the Masterplan are primarily agricultural. The implementation of the
Masterplan may involve the permanent removal of the agricultural landscape to facilitate a
runway, aprons, roads and landside facilities (terminals and piers) etc. The operation of the
airport also has effectively limited development within the aircraft approach areas (‘Red
Zones’ and Public Safety Zones). There is therefore potential for alteration of the existing
landscape, brownfield development, and protection of agricultural landscape arising from the
implementation of this plan.

The scale of development likely to occur may impact on soil both during the lifetime of the
scheme and during construction.



The stage of the plan in the decision making process
The Masterplan is in the preparation stage. Consultation with the relevant stakeholders has
commenced and a notice stating the Council’s intention to prepare a Masterplan for the
Designated Airport Area lands, has been published. The Council has invited any interested
parties to make submissions before the Draft Masterplan is prepared. The closing date for
                                          th
submissions or observations is Thursday 12 January 2006.
APPENDIX A                                                              SCOPING REPORT


The extent to which certain matters are more appropriately assessed at
different levels in the decision making process in order to avoid
duplication of the environmental assessment
In the event that planning permission is sought on these lands for major infrastructural
projects an Environmental Impact Assessment will be required as part of any application.
APPENDIX A                                                                      SCOPING REPORT


Appendix 1 – Information to be provided in a Strategic Environmental
Assessment
Annex I of the SEA Directive outlines the information to be provided in the SEA under Article
5(1), subject to Article 5(2) and (3): -

    •   an outline of the contents, main objectives of the plan or programme and
        relationship with other relevant plans and programmes;
    •   the relevant aspects of the current state of the environment and the likely
        evolution thereof without implementation of the plan or programme;
    •   the environmental characteristics of areas likely to be significantly
        affected;
    •   any existing environmental problems which are relevant to the plan or
        programme including, in particular, those relating to any areas of a
        particular environmental importance, such as areas designated pursuant
        to Directives 79/409/EEC and
    •   92/43/EEC; the environmental protection objectives, established at
        international, Community or Member State level, which are relevant to
        the plan or programme and the way those objectives and any
        environmental considerations have been taken into account during its
        preparation;
    •   the likely significant effects on the environment, including on issues such
        as biodiversity, population, human health, fauna, flora, soil, water, air,
        climatic factors, material assets, cultural heritage including architectural
        and archaeological heritage, landscape and the interrelationship
        between the above factors;
    •   the measures envisaged to prevent, reduce and as fully as possible
        offset any significant adverse effects on the environment of
        implementing the plan or programme;
    •   an outline of the reasons for selecting the alternatives dealt with, and a
        description of how the assessment was undertaken including any
        difficulties (such as technical deficiencies or lack of know-how)
        encountered in compiling the required information;
    •   a description of the measures envisaged concerning monitoring in
        accordance with Article 10; a non-technical summary of the information
        provided under the above headings.
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX A   SCOPING REPORT
APPENDIX B
REFERENCES
APPENDIX B                                                                 REFERENCES



Aalen, F.H.A., Whelan, K. and Stout, M. (1997). Atlas of the Irish Rural Landscape.
Cork University Press.

Aer Rianta Technical (2003) Car Parking Strategy Document 2003-2020 for Dublin
Airport November 2003

Birdwatch Ireland, RSPB and the Heritage Council. Birds of Conservation Concern in
Ireland Undated

Clements, D.K.and Tofts, R.J. (1992)      Hedgerow Evaluation and Grading System
(HEGS). A methodology for the ecological survey, evaluation and grading of hedgerows.
Countryside Planning and Management.

Colebourn, K. et al (2005) Guidelines for Ecological Impact Assessment -Consultation
draft. Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM)

Commerford, H. 2001 Wildlife Legislation 1976-2000 Round Hall, Dublin.

Curtis, T.G.F. & McGough, H.N. (1988). The Irish Red Data Book. 1: Vascular Plants.
The Stationery Office, Dublin.

Department of the Environment and Local Government (2002). National spatial strategy
for Ireland 2002-2020: people, places and potential (2002 - 2020)

Department of the Environment and Local Government (1997) S u s t a i n a b l e
Development: A Strategy for Ireland

Dublin Airport EIS Northern Parallel Runway – Further Information – 2005

                         /
Dublin Airport Authority Mouchel Parkman (2004) Dublin Airport Environmental Impact
Statement Northern Parallel Runway December 2004

Dublin Airport Authority/Scott Wilson (2004) Dublin Airport Runway 10L/28R Alternatives
Report Final December 2004

Dublin Airport Authority Forecast 2004 Commercial Aircraft Movement

Dublin Regional Authority/Mid-East Regional Authority (2004)Regional Planning
Guidelines Greater Dublin Area (2004 – 2016)

Dublin Transportation Office (2001) ‘A Platform for Change: Outline of an Integrated
Transportation Strategy for the Greater Dublin Area 2000 to 2016’

Doogue, D., Nash, D., et al. 1988   Flora of County Dublin. DNFC. Dublin.

EPA (2002). Guidelines on the Information to be contained in Environmental Impact
Statements. Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland

EPA (2003). Advice Notes On Current Practice (in the preparation of Environmental
Impact Statements). Environmental Protection Agency, Wexford.
APPENDIX B                                                                REFERENCES



EPA 2004 Implementation of SEA Directive (2001/42/EC): Assessment of the Effects of
Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment Guidelines for Regional Authorities
and Planning Authorities. The Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental RTDI Programme (2002) Scope of Transport Impacts on the Environment

Fingal County Council (2005) ‘Fingal County Development Plan 2005-2011’ Strategic
Planning Unit

Fingal County Council (December 2005) Dublin Airport Masterplan Strategic
Environmental Assessment Scoping Report

Fingal County Council (January 2006) Dublin Airport Strategic Environmental
Assessment Revised Revised Scoping Report

Fossitt, J.A. 2000 A Guide to Habitats in Ireland. Heritage Council.

Hayden, T. & Harrington, R. 2000      Exploring Irish mammals. Dúchas. Town House
Dublin.

Hill, D., Fasham, M., Tucker, G., Shewry, M. & Shaw, P. 2005 Handbook of Biodiversity
Methods Survey Evaluation and Monitoring Cambridge University press.

HR Wallingford (2004)        Greater Dublin Strategic Drainage Study, Phase 1, 2 and 3
Reports, Santry River Drainage Area, December 2001 – March

ILTP Consulting (2006) Dublin Airport Local Area Plan: Transport Local Area Plan Draft

JNCC 1990 Revised reprint 2003 Handbook for Phase 1 habitat survey- a technique for
environmental audit. Joint Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough

Manchester Airport    Environment Plan 2004

Murray, Anja 2003 Methodology for a National Hedgerow Survey. Networks for Nature

Neff, J.A. 1996 – 2000 Irish Scarce Plants. Unpublished Internal Reports. NPW -
Dúchas.

Newton, S., Donaghy, A., Allen, D. & Gibbons, D. 1999 Birds of conservation concern
in Ireland. Irish Birds 6: 333-342.

Pascal Watson Architects (2005) Capacity Enhancement Recommendation Report
for Dublin Airport – September 2005 Final Draft

PB Ireland Ltd. et al (2002) Dublin Airport Transport Study Aer Rianta: Task 1 Baseline
Conditions Report Final Draft

PM/SOM/TPS Consult (2003)            Dublin Airport Terminal and Piers Development
Study
APPENDIX B                                                                 REFERENCES



Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A., & Dines, T.D. 2002 New Atlas of the British & Irish Flora
Oxford University Press

Ratcliffe D.A. 1977 A Nature Conservation Review Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge

Regini, K. 2000 Guidelines for ecological evaluation and impact assessment. In
Practice, Bulletin of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management no. 29: 1-7.

Regini, K. 2002 Draft Guidelines for ecological evaluation and impact assessment.
Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM)

Roughan & O'Donovan - Maunsell Alliance (2000) N2 Finglas - Ashbourne Road
Scheme Environmental Impact Statement

RPSMCOS (2005)       Surface Water Management Plan for Proposed Northern Runway
10L28R at Dublin Airport, August 2005

RPSMCOS (2005) Surface Water Management Plan for Proposed New Parallel
Runway 10L28R at Dublin Airport, August 2005

RPSMCOS (2004)        North Dublin Connections Study; Design Review Report,
September 2004

RPSMCOS (2004) Greater Dublin Strategic Drainage Study, Phase 1, 2 and 3
Reports, Mayne River Drainage Area, December 2001 – March 2004

Scannell, Y. 2006 Environmental and land Use Law Thomson Roundhall, Dublin

Scott, P. & Marsden, P. 2003 Development of Strategic Environmental Assessment
(SEA) Methodologies for Plans and Programmes in Ireland (2001-DS-EEP-2/5)
Synthesis Report by ERM for the Environmental protection Agency

Stace,C. (1997) New Flora of the British Isles (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge

Treweek, J. 1999 Ecological Impact Assessment Blackwell Science

Webb,D.A., Parnell, J. and Doogue D. (1996). An Irish Flora (7th edition) Dundalgan
Press (W. Tempest) Ltd., Dundalk.

Whilde, T. 1993 Threatened mammals, birds, amphibians and fish in Ireland. Irish Red
Data Book 2: Vertebrates. HMSO, Belfast.
APPENDIX C
ECOLOGY APPENDICES
APPENDIX C                                                                ECOLOGY APPENDICES


                APPENDIX C – FROM THE NORTHERN PARALLEL RUNWAY EIS -

             APPENDIX B2 -WOODY SPECIES OCCURRING WITHIN THE HEDGEROWS
                 1
Common Name                             Scientific Name
Alder                                   Alnus glutinosa
Ash                                     Fraxinus excelsior
Aspen                                   Populus tremula
Beech                                   Fagus sylvatica
Bird cherry                             Prunus padus
Blackthorn                              Prunus spinosa
Bramble                                 Rubus fruticosus agg.
Bullace (wild plum)                     Prunus domestica
Butterfly-bush                          Buddleja davidii
Cherry-laurel                           Prunus laurocerasus
Common barberry                         Berberis vulgaris
Cotoneaster                             Cotoneaster horziontalis
Crab apple                              Malus sylvestris
Dog-rose                                Rosa canina
English elm                             Ulmus procera
Elder                                   Sambucus nigra
Escallonia                              Escallonia macrantha
Field maple                             Acer campestre
Garden privet                           Ligustrum ovalifolium
Grey poplar                             Populus x canescens
Grey willow                             Salix cinerea
Gorse                                   Ulex europaeus
Guelder-rose                            Viburnum opulus
Hawthorn                                Crataegus monogyna
Hazel                                   Corylus avellana
Holly                                   Ilex aquifolium
Honeysuckle                             Lonicera periclymenum
Horse-chestnut                          Aesculus hippocastanum
Ivy                                     Hedera helix
Japanese larch                          Larix leptolepis
Lime                                    Tilia x vulgaris
Laburnum                                Laburnum anagryoides
Lawson cypress                          Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
Leyland cypress                         x Cupressocyparis leylandii
Lilac                                   Syringa vulgaris
Lombardy poplar                         Populus nigra var. italica
Monterey cypress                        Cupressus macrocarpa
New Zealand broadleaf                   Griselinia litoralis
Norway maple                            Acer platanoides
Pedunculate oak                         Quercus robur
Red osier dogwood (Dwarf cornel)        Cornus sericea
Rowan (mountain ash)                    Sorbus acuparia
Silver birch                            Betula pendula
Snowberry                               Symphoricarpos rivularis
Scots pine                              Pinus sylvestris
Sumach                                  Rhus typhina
Sycamore                                Acer pseudoplatanus
Weeping willow                          Salix vitellina var. pendula
Whitebeam                               Sorbus aria
White dogwood                           Cornus alba
White poplar                            Populus alba
White willow                            Salix alba
Wild cherry                             Prunus avium
Wild privet                             Ligustrum vulgare
Wilson's honeysuckle                    Lonicera nitida
Wych elm                                Ulmus glabra




1
  Common names: mostly after Scannell and Synott (1987), otherwise after Stace (1997); latin names
after Webb et al. (1996) or Stace (1997).
APPENDIX C                                                       ECOLOGY APPENDICES



EXRACT FROM THE NORTHERN PARALLEL RUNWAY EIS

Results of Bird Surveys

            The recent historical status (1990-2004*) of birds encountered during the
            current study. *Data supplied by Dr. Tom Kelly.
 Common Name                      Latin Name                   Status
 Grey Heron                       Ardea cinerea                Fairly common
 Mallard                          Anas platyrhynchos           Breed on airfield
 Sparrowhawk                      Accipiter nisus              Scarce
 Kestrel                          Falco tinnunculus            Regular spring/autumn
 Buzzard                          Buteo buteo                  Increasing locally
 Peregrine                        Falco peregrinus             Regular on airfield
 Pheasant                         Phasianus colchicus          Common - breeds
 Moorhen                          Gallinula chloropus          Fairly common
 Oystercatcher                    Haematopus ostralegus        Scarce
 Golden Plover                    Pluvialis apricaria          Common in winter
 Lapwing                          Vanellus vanellus            Numerous in winter
 Curlew                           Numenius arquata             Common August-early spring
 Snipe                            Gallinago gallinago          Common doesn't breed on airfield
 Black-headed Gull                Larus canus                  Very common on airfield
 Common Gull                      Larus ridibundus             Common
 Lesser Black-backed Gull         Larus fuscus                 Fairly common
 Great Black-backed Gull          Larus marinus                Scarce
 Herring Gull                     Larus argentatus             Common - coastal
 Woodpigeon                       Columba palumbus             Very common - breeds
 Stock Dove                       Columba oenas                Fairly common
 Collared Dove                    Streptopelia decaocto        Scarce - thought to breed
 Swift                            Apus apus                    Common in summer
 Skylark                          Alauda arvensis              Common on airfield
 Swallow                          Hirundo rustica              Very common - breeds
 House Martin                     Delichon urbica              Fairly common - breeds
 Meadow Pipit                     Anthus pratensis             Very common on airfield
 Pied Wagtail                     Motacilla alba               Common - breeds
 Grey Wagtail                     Motacilla cinerea            Scarce
 Wren                             Troglodytes troglodytes      Common - breeds
 Dunnock                          Prunella modularis           Common - breeds
 Stonechat                        Saxicola torquata            Common on airfield
 Northern Wheatear                Oenanthe oenanthe            Very common - breeds
 Robin                            Erithacus rubecula           Common - breeds
 Blackbird                        Turdus merula                Common - breeds
 Fieldfare                        Turdus pilaris               Variable numbers in winter
 Redwing                          Turdus iliacus               Common in winter
 Song Thrush                      Turdus philomelos            Common - breeds
 Mistle Thrush                    Turdus viscivorus            Breeds - small flocks
 Whitethroat                      Sylvia communis              Fairly common in summer
 Blackcap                         Sylvia atriacapilla          Scarce
 Willow Warbler                   Phylloscopus trochilus       Fairly common - poss. breeds
 Chiffchaff                       Phylloscopus collybita       Fairly common - poss. breeds
 Goldcrest                        Regulus regulus              Common - breeds
 Spotted Flycatcher               Muscicapa striata            Very scarce
 Blue Tit                         Paus caeruleus               Common - breeds
 Great Tit                        Parus major                  Common - breeds
 Coal Tit                         Parus ater                   Common - breeds
 Treecreeper                      Certhia familiaris           Very scarce
 Starling                         Sturnus vulgaris             Common - breeds
 Magpie                           Pica pica                    Common - breeds
 Jackdaw                          Corvus monedula              Common - breeds
 Raven                            Corvus corax                 Very scarce
 Hooded Crow                      Corvus corone                Common - breeds
 Rook                             Corvus frugilegus            Very common - breeds
 House Sparrow                    Passer domesticus            Fairly common - breeds
 Chaffinch                        Fringilla coelebs            Common - breeds
 Siskin                           Carduelis spinus             Scarce
 Greenfinch                       Carduelis chloris            Very common - breeds
 Goldfinch                        Carduelis carduelis          Very common - breeds
 Bullfinch                        Pyrrhula pyrrhula            Common - breeds
 Linnet                           Carduelis cannabina          Fairly common - breeds
 Yellowhammer                     Emberiza citrinella          Scarce - breeds
 Reed Bunting                     Emberiza schoeniclus         Scarce
APPENDIX C                                                          ECOLOGY APPENDICES



            Species, which have been recorded in the vicinity of the airfield, 1990-2004,
            but not observed during the current study and their recent historical status
            (1990-2004*) at the airfield

Common Name                                       Recent Status
Fulmar                                            Very scarce
Cormorant                                         Very scarce
Mute Swan                                         Very scarce
Rough Legged Buzzard                              Rarity
Merlin                                            Common in early Autumn
Ringed Plover                                     Very scarce
Dunlin                                            Very scarce
Whimbrel                                          Very scarce
Black-tailed Godwit                               Very scarce
Redshank                                          Very scarce
Mediterranean Gull                                Very scarce
Ring-billed Gull                                  Very scarce
Barn Owl                                          Very scarce
Short-eared Owl                                   Very scarce
Long-eared Owl                                    Very scarce
Sand Martin                                       Scarce
Whinchat                                          Very scarce
Sedge Warbler                                     Scarce

*Data supplied by Dr. Tom Kelly.
APPENDIX C                                                       ECOLOGY APPENDICES


            Summary of the taxa encountered during the follow-up avian survey (July-
            September, 2004) at the site of the proposed runway development.
Common Name               Latin Name                Jul    Aug     Sept     Months 'Seen'
Grey Heron                Ardea cinerea              x              x            2
Mallard                   Anas platyrhynchos         x      x       x            3
Shelduck                  Tadorna tadorna                   x                    1
Hobby                     Falco subbuteo                    x                    1
Kestrel                   Falco tinnunculus         x       x        x           3
Buzzard                   Buteo buteo                       x        x           2
Pheasant                  Phasianus colchicus       x       x        x           3
Moorhen                   Gallinula chloropus               x                    1
Curlew                    Numenius arquata          x       x        x           3
Oystercatcher             Haematopus ostralegus                      x           1
Snipe                     Gallinago gallinago               x                    1
Black-headed Gull         Larus canus               x       x        x           3
Lesser Black-backed Gull  Larus fuscus                               x           1
Woodpigeon                Columba palumbus          x       x        x           3
Racing Pigeon             Columba livia             x       x        x           3
Stock Dove                Columba oenas             x       x        x           3
Collared Dove             Streptopelia decaocto     x       x        x           3
Swift                     Apus apus                 x       x                    2
Skylark                   Alauda arvensis           x       x        x           3
Swallow                   Hirundo rustica           x       x        x           3
House Martin              Delichon urbica           x                            1
Meadow Pipit              Anthus pratensis          x       x        x           3
Pied Wagtail              Motacilla alba            x       x        x           3
Wren                      Troglodytes troglodytes   x       x        x           3
Dunnock                   Prunella modularis        x       x        x           3
Stonechat                 Saxicola torquata         x       x        x           3
Northern Wheatear         Oenanthe oenanthe                 x        x           2
Robin                     Erithacus rubecula        x       x        x           3
Blackbird                 Turdus merula             x       x        x           3
Song Thrush               Turdus philomelos                 x        x           2
Willow Warbler            Phylloscopus trochilus    x                            1
Chiffchaff                Phylloscopus collybita    x       x                    2
Goldcrest                 Regulus regulus           x       x        x           3
Blue Tit                  Parus caeruleus           x       x        x           3
Great Tit                 Parus major               x       x        x           3
Coal Tit                  Parus ater                x       x        x           3
Long-tailed Tit           Aegithalos caudatus               x                    1
Starling                  Sturnus vulgaris          x       x        x           3
Magpie                    Pica pica                 x       x        x           3
Jackdaw                   Corvus monedula           x       x        x           3
Hooded Crow               Corvus corone             x       x        x           3
Rook                      Corvus frugilegus         x       x        x           3
House Sparrow             Passer domesticus         x       x        x           3
Chaffinch                 Fringilla coelebs         x       x        x           3
Greenfinch                Carduelis chloris         x       x        x           3
Goldfinch                 Carduelis carduelis       x       x        x           3
Bullfinch                 Pyrrhula pyrrhula                          x           1
Linnet                    Carduelis cannabina       x                x           2
Yellowhammer              Emberiza citrinella       x       x                    2
Number of Species Encountered                                                    49
APPENDIX C                                                               ECOLOGY APPENDICES


DESIGNATED CONSERVATION AREAS


SITE SYNOPSES

Note: the contents of the following site synopses are as received from National Parks and
Wildlife Service.

Special Areas of Conservation

(1) Malahide Estuary (000205) (synopsis date - 3.10.2001)

Malahide Estuary is situated immediately north of Malahide and east of Swords. It is the
estuary of the River Broadmeadow. The site is divided by a railway viaduct built in the 1800s.

The outer part of the estuary is mostly cut off from the sea by a large sand spit, known as "the
island". The outer estuary drains almost completely at low tide, exposing sand and mud flats.
There is a large bed of Eelgrass (Zostera noltii and Z. angustifolium) in the north section of
the outer estuary, along with Tassel Weed (Ruppia maritima) and extensive mats of green
algae (Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca). Cordgrass (Spartina anglica) is also widespread in
this sheltered part of the estuary.

The dune spit has a well developed outer dune ridge dominated by Marram Grass
(Ammophila arenaria). The dry areas of the stabilised dunes have a dense covering of Burnet
Rose (Rosa pimpinellifolia), Red Fescue (Festuca rubra) and species such as Yellow Wort
(Blackstonia perfoliata), Field Gentian (Gentianella amarella), Hound's Tongue (Cynoglossum
officinale), Carline Thistle (Carlina vulgaris) and Pyramidal Orchid (Anacamptis pyramidalis).
Much of the interior of the spit is taken up by a golf course. The inner stony shore has
frequent Sea-holly (Eryngium maritimum). Well-developed saltmarshes occur at the tip of the
spit. Atlantic salt meadow is the principle type and is characterised by species such as Sea
Purslane (Halimoine portulacoides), Sea Aster (Aster tripolium), Thrift (Armeria maritima),
Sea Arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima) and Common Saltmarsh-grass (Puccinellia maritima).
Elsewhere in the outer estuary, a small area of Mediterranean salt meadow occurs which is
characterised by the presence of Sea Rush (Juncus maritimus). Below the salt marshes there
are good examples of pioneering Glasswort swards and other annual species, typified by
Salicornia dolichostachya and Annual Sea-blite (Suaeda maritima).

The inner estuary does not drain at low tide apart from the extreme inner part. Here, patches
of saltmarsh and salt meadows occur, with Sea Aster, Sea Plantain (Plantago maritima) and
Sea Clubrush (Scirpus maritimus). Tassel Weed (Ruppia maritima) occurs in one of the
channels.

The site includes a fine area of rocky shore southeast of Malahide and extending towards
Portmarnock. This represents the only continuous section through the fossiliferous Lower
Carboniferous rocks in the Dublin Basin, and is the type locality for several species of fossil
coral.

The estuary is an important wintering bird site and holds an internationally important
population of Brent Geese and nationally important populations of a further 15 species.
Average maximum counts during the 1995/96-1997/98 period were Brent Geese 1217; Great
Crested Grebe 52; Mute Swan 106; Shelduck 471; Pochard 200; Goldeneye 333; Red-
breasted Merganser 116; Oystercatcher 1228; Golden Plover 2123; Grey Plover 190;
Redshank 454; Wigeon 50; Teal 78; Ringed Plover 106; Knot 858; Dunlin 1474; Greenshank
38; Pintail 53; Black-tailed Godwit 345; Bar-tailed Godwit 99. The high numbers of diving birds
reflects the lagoon-type nature of the inner estuary.

The estuary also attracts migrant species such as Ruff, Curlew Sandpiper, Spotted Redshank
and Little Stint. Breeding birds of the site include Ringed Plover, Shelduck and Mallard. Up to
the 1950s there was a major tern colony at the southern end of the island and the habitat
remains suitable for these birds.
APPENDIX C                                                                 ECOLOGY APPENDICES


The inner part of the estuary is heavily used for water sports. A section of the outer estuary
has recently been infilled for a marina and housing development.

This site is a fine example of an estuarine system with all the main habitats represented. The
site is important ornithologically, with a population of Brent Geese of international significance.

(2) Baldoyle Bay (000199) (synopsis date - 15.2.2000)

Baldoyle Bay extends from just below Portmarnock village to the west pier at Howth, Co.
Dublin. It is a tidal estuarine bay protected from the open sea by a large sand-dune system.
Two small rivers, the Mayne and the Sluice, flow into the bay. The site contains four habitats
listed on Annex I of the EU Habitats directive: Salicornia mud, Mediterranean salt meadows,
Atlantic salt meadows and Tidal mudflats.

Large areas of intertidal flats are exposed at low tide. These are mostly sands but grade to
muds in the inner sheltered parts of the estuary. Extensive areas of Common Cord-grass
(Spartina anglica) occur in the inner estuary. Both the Narrow-leaved Eelgrass (Zostera
angustifolia) and the Dwarf Eelgrass (Z. noltii) are also found here. During summer, the
sandflats of the sheltered areas are covered by mats of green algae (Enteromorpha spp. and
Ulva lactuca).

The sediments have a typical macrofauna, with Lugworm (Arenicola marina) dominating the
sandy flats. The tubeworm Lanice conchilega is present in high densities at the low tide mark
and the small gastropod Hydrobia ulvae occurs in the muddy areas, along with the crustacean
Corophium volutator.

Areas of saltmarsh occur near Portmarnock Bridge and at Portmarnock Point, with narrow
strips along other parts of the estuary. Species such as Glasswort (Salicornia spp.), Sea-
purslane (Halimione portulacoides), Sea Plantain (Plantago maritima) and Sea Rush (Juncus
maritimus) are found here. Portmarnock Spit formerly had a well-developed sand dune
system but this has been largely replaced by golf courses and is mostly excluded from the
site. A few dune hills are still intact at Portmarnock Point, and there are small dune hills east
of Cush Point and below the Claremont Hotel. These are mostly dominated by Marram
(Ammophila arenaria), though Lyme-grass (Leymus arenarius) is also found.

The site includes a brackish marsh along the Mayne River. Soils here have a high organic
content and are poorly drained, and some pools occur. Rushes (Juncus spp.) and salt tolerant
species such as Common Scurvygrass (Cochleria officinalis) and Greater Sea-spurrey
(Spergularia media) are typical of this area. Knotted Hedge-parsley (Torilis nodosa), a scarce
plant in eastern Ireland, has been recorded here, along with Brackish Water-crowfoot
(Ranunculus baudotti), a species of brackish pools and ditches which has declined in most
places due to habitat loss.

Two plant species, legally protected under the Flora (Protection) Order, 1999, occur in the
Mayne marsh: Borrer's Saltmarsh-grass (Puccinellia fasciculata) and Meadow Barley
(Hordeum secalinum).

Baldoyle Bay is an important bird site for wintering waterfowl and the inner part of the estuary
is a Special Protection Area under the EU Birds Directive as well as being a Statutory Nature
Reserve. Internationally important numbers of Pale-bellied Brent Geese (418) and nationally
important numbers of two Annex I Birds Directive species - Golden Pover (1,900) and Bar-
tailed Godwit (283) - have been recorded. Four other species also reached nationally
important numbers: Shelduck (147), Pintail (26), Grey Plover (148) and Ringed Plover (218) -
all figures are average peaks for four winters 1994/95 to 1997/1998. Breeding wetland birds
at the site include Shelduck, Mallard and Ringed Plover. Small numbers of Little Tern, a
species listed on Annex I of the EU Birds Directive, have bred on a few occasions at
Portmarnock Point but not since 1991.
APPENDIX C                                                                ECOLOGY APPENDICES


Because the area surrounding Baldoyle Bay is densely populated, the main threats to the site
include visitor pressure, disturbance to wildfowl and dumping. In particular, the dumping of
spoil onto the foreshore presents a threat to the value of the site.

Baldoyle Bay is a fine example of an estuarine system. It contains four habitats listed on
Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive and has two legally protected plant species. The site is
also an important bird area and part of it is a Special Protection Area under the EU Birds
Directive, as well as being a Statutory Nature Reserve. It supports internationally important
numbers of Brent Geese and nationally important numbers of six other species including two
Annex I Birds Directive species.

(3) Rogerstown Estuary (000208) (synopsis date - 21.1.2000)

Rogerstown estuary is situated about 2 km north of Donabate. It is a relatively small, narrow
estuary separated from the sea by a sand and shingle bar. The estuary is divided by a
causeway and narrow bridge, built in the 1840s to carry the Dublin-Belfast railway line. The
site contains good examples of a number of habitats listed on Annex I of the EU Habitats
Directive.

The estuary drains almost completely at low tide. The intertidal flats of the outer estuary are
mainly of sands, with soft muds in the northwest sector and along the southern shore.
Associated with these muds are stands of Cordgrass (Spartina anglica). Green algae (mainly
Enteromorpha spp. and Ulva lactuca) are widespread and form dense mats in the more
sheltered areas. The intertidal angiosperm, Beaked Tasselweed (Ruppia maritima), grows
profusely in places beneath the algal mats. The Lugworm (Arenicola marina) is common in
the outer estuary and large Mussel beds (Mytilus edulis) occur at the outlet to the sea.

The area of intertidal flats in the inner estuary is reduced as a result of the local authority
refuse tip on the north shore. The sediments are mostly muds, which are very soft in places.
Cordgrass (Spartina anglica) is widespread in parts, and in summer, dense green algal mats
grow on the muds. In the extreme inner part, the estuary narrows to a tidal river.

Saltmarsh fringes parts of the estuary, especially the southern shores and parts of the outer
sand spit. Common plant species of the saltmarsh include Sea Rush (Juncus maritimus), Sea
Purslane (Halimione portulacoides) and Common Saltmarsh-grass (Puccinellia maritima). Salt
meadows and wet brackish fields occur along the tidal river. Low sand hills occur on the outer
spit, including some small areas of fixed dunes and Ammophila dunes. Fine sandy beaches
and intertidal sandflats occur at the outer part of the estuary.

Two plant species, which are legally protected under the Flora (Protection) Order, 1999, occur
within the site: Hairy Violet (Viola hirta) occurs on the sand spit and Meadow Barley (Hordeum
secalinum) occurs in the saline fields of the inner estuary. This species has declined
apparently due to reclamation and embankment of lands fringing estuaries. Another rare
species, Green-veined Orchid (Orchis morio), occurs in the sandy areas of the outer estuary.

Rogerstown Estuary is an important waterfowl site, with Brent Geese having a population of
international importance (1176). A further 16 species have populations of national importance:
Greylag Goose (186), Shelduck (785), Teal (584), Pintail (30), Shoveler (69), Oystercatcher
(1028), Ringed Plover (152), Golden Plover (1813), Grey Plover (245), Lapwing (4056), Knot
(2076), Dunlin (2625), Sanderling (57), Black-tailed Godwit (272), Curlew (1549), Redshank
(732) and Greenshank (22) (All counts are average peaks over four winters 1994/95 -
1997/98). The presence of a significant population of Golden Plover is of note and this
species is listed on Annex I of the EU Birds Directive. The estuary is a regular staging post for
autumn migrants, especially Green Sandpiper, Ruff, Little Stint, Curlew Sandpiper and
Spotted Redshank.

Little Tern has bred at the outer sand spit, but much of the nesting area has now been
washed away as a result of erosion. The maximum number of pairs recorded was 17 in 1991.
Ringed Plover breed in the same area.
APPENDIX C                                                             ECOLOGY APPENDICES


The outer part of the estuary has been designated a statutory Nature Reserve and a Special
Protection Area under the EU Birds Directive. The inner estuary has been damaged by the
refuse tip which covers 40 hectares of mudflat.

This site is an good example of an estuarine system, with all typical habitats represented,
including several listed on Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive. Rogerstown is an
internationally important waterfowl site and has been a breeding site for Little Terns. The
presence within the site of three rare plant species adds to its importance.

(4) North Dublin Bay (000206) (synopsis date 23.11.1999)

This site covers the inner part of north Dublin Bay, the seaward boundary extending from the
Bull Wall lighthouse across to the Martello Tower at Howth Head.

The North Bull Island is the focal point of this site. The island is a sandy spit which formed
after the building of the South Wall and Bull Wall in the 18th and 19th centuries. It now
extends for about 5 km in length and is up to 1 km wide in places. A well-developed and
dynamic dune system stretches along the seaward side of the island. Various types of dunes
occur, from fixed dune grassland to pioneer communities on foredunes. Marram Grass
(Ammophila arenaria) is dominant on the outer dune ridges, with Lyme Grass (Leymus
arenarius) and Sea Couchgrass (Elymus farctus) on the foredunes. Behind the first dune
ridge, plant diversity increases with the appearance of such species as Wild Pansy (Viola
tricolor), Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria), Bird's-foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Rest
Harrow (Ononis repens), Yellow Rattle (Rhinanthus minor) and Pyramidal Orchid (Anacamptis
pyramidalis). In these grassy areas and slacks, the scarce Bee Orchid (Ophrys apifera)
occurs.

About 1 km from the tip of the island, a large dune slack with a rich flora occurs, usually
referred to as the 'Alder Marsh' because of the presence of Alder trees (Alnus spp). The water
table is very near the surface and is only slightly brackish. Saltmarsh Rush (Juncus
maritimus) is the dominant species, with Meadow Sweet (Filipendula ulmaria) and Devil's-bit
(Succisa pratensis) being frequent. The orchid flora is notable and includes Marsh Helleborine
(Epipactis palustris), Common Twayblade (Listera ovata), Autumn Lady's-tresses (Spiranthes
spiralis) and Marsh orchids (Dactylorhiza spp.)

Saltmarsh extends along the length of the landward side of the island. The edge of the marsh
is marked by an eroding edge which varies from 20 cm to 60 cm high. The marsh can be
zoned into different levels according to the vegetation types present. On the lower marsh,
Glasswort (Salicornia europaea), Saltmarsh Grass (Puccinellia maritima), Annual Sea-blite
(Suaeda maritima) and Greater Sea-spurrey (Spergularia media) are the main species.
Higher up in the middle marsh Sea Plantain (Plantago maritima), Sea Aster (Aster tripolium),
Sea Arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima) and Sea Pink (Armeria maritima) appear. Above the
mark of the normal high tide, species such as Scurvy Grass (Cochlearia officinalis) and Sea
Milkwort (Glaux maritima) are found, while on the extreme upper marsh, Sea Rushes (Juncus
maritimus and J. gerardii) are dominant. Towards the tip of the island, the saltmarsh grades
naturally into fixed dune vegetation.

The island shelters two intertidal lagoons which are divided by a solid causeway. The
sediments of the lagoons are mainly sands with a small and varying mixture of silt and clay.
The north lagoon has an area known as the "Salicornia flat", which is dominated by Salicornia
dolichostachya, a pioneer Glasswort species, and covers about 25 ha. Tassel Weed (Ruppia
maritima) occurs in this area, along with some Eelgrass (Zostera angustifolia). Eelgrass (Z.
noltii) also occurs in Sutton Creek. Cordgrass (Spartina anglica) occurs in places but its
growth is controlled by management. Green algal mats (Enteromorpha spp., Ulva lactuca)
cover large areas of the flats during summer. These sediments have a rich macrofauna, with
high densities of Lugworms (Arenicola marina) in parts of the north lagoon. Mussels (Mytilus
edulis) occur in places, along with bivalves such as Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica
and Scrobicularia plana. The small gastropod Hydrobia ulvae occurs in high densities in
places, while the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Carcinus maenas are common. The
APPENDIX C                                                                ECOLOGY APPENDICES


sediments on the seaward side of North Bull Island are mostly sands. The site extends below
the low spring tide mark to include an area of the sublittoral zone.

Three Rare plant species legally protected under the Flora Protection Order 1987 have been
recorded on the North Bull Island. These are Lesser Centaury (Centaurium pulchellum),
Hemp Nettle (Galeopsis angustifolia) and Meadow Saxifrage (Saxifraga granulata). Two
further species listed as threatened in the Red Data Book, Wild Sage (Salvia verbenaca) and
Spring Vetch (Vicia lathyroides), have also been recorded. A rare liverwort, Petalophyllum
ralfsii, was first recorded from the North Bull Island in 1874 and has recently been confirmed
as being still present there. This species is of high conservation value as it is listed on Annex
II of the E.U. Habitats Directive. The North Bull is the only known extant site for the species in
Ireland away from the western seaboard.

North Dublin Bay is of international importance for waterfowl. During the 1994/95 to 1996/97
period the following species occurred in internationally important numbers (figures are
average maxima): Brent Geese 2,333; Knot 4,423; Bar-tailed Godwit 1,586. A further 14
species occurred in nationally important concentrations - Shelduck 1505; Wigeon 1,166; Teal
1,512; Pintail 334; Shoveler 239; Oystercatcher 2,190; Ringed Plover 346; Grey Plover 816;
Sanderling 357; Dunlin 6,238; Black-tailed Godwit 156; Curlew 1,193; Turnstone 197 and
Redshank 1,175. Some of these species frequent South Dublin Bay and the River Tolka
Estuary for feeding and/or roosting purposes (mostly Brent Goose, Oystercatcher, Ringed
Plover, Sanderling, Dunlin).

The tip of the North Bull Island is a traditional nesting site for Little Tern. A high total of 88
pairs nested in 1987. However, nesting attempts have not been successful since the early
1990s. Ringed Plover, Shelduck, Mallard, Skylark, Meadow Pipit and Stonechat also nest. A
well-known population of Irish Hare is resident on the island

The invertebrates of the North Bull Island have been studied and the island has been shown
to contain at least seven species of regional or national importance in Ireland (Orders Diptera,
Hymenoptera, Hemiptera).

The main landuses of this site are amenity activities and nature conservation. The North Bull
Island is the main recreational beach in Co Dublin and is used throughout the year. Much of
the land surface of the island is taken up by two golf courses. Two separate Statutory Nature
Reserves cover much of the island east of the Bull Wall and the surrrounding intertidal flats.
The site is used regularly for educational purposes. North Bull Island has been designated a
Special Protection Area under the E.U. Birds Directive and it is also a statutory Wildfowl
Sanctuary, a Ramsar Convention site, a Biogenetic Reserve, a Biosphere Reserve and a
Special Area Amenity Order site.

This site is an excellent example of a coastal site with all the main habitats represented. The
holds good examples of ten habitats that are listed on Annex I of the E.U. Habitats Directive;
one of these is listed with priority status. Several of the wintering bird species have
populations of international importance, while some of the invertebrates are of national
importance. The site contains a numbers of rare and scarce plants including some which are
legally protected. Its proximity to the capital city makes North Dublin Bay an excellent site for
educational studies and research.

(5) Ireland’s Eye (002193) (synopsis date - 25.9.2000)

Ireland's Eye is located about 1.5 km north of Howth in Co. Dublin. It is a cambrian island with
quartzite which forms spectacular cliffs on the northeast side. Elsewhere much of the area is
covered by drift. There is a Martello tower at the west end of the island and an ancient ruined
church in the middle.

The drift soils support a plant community of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and various
grasses, especially Red Fescue (Festuca rubra), along with Bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-
scripta), Common Dog-violet (Viola riviniana) and Pennywort (Umbilicus rupestris). The
thinner soils have some interesting species, including Spring Squill (Scilla verna), Knotted
APPENDIX C                                                               ECOLOGY APPENDICES


Clover (Trifolium striatum) and Field Mouse-ear (Cerastium arvense). Bloody Cranesbill
(Geranium sanguineum) has also been recorded from here.

The cliff maritime flora includes Rock Spurrey (Spergularia rupicola), Sea Stork's-bill (Erodium
maritimum), Rock Samphire (Crithmum martimum), Golden Samphire (Inula crithmoides),
Sea Lavender (Limonium binervosum), Meadow Rue (Thalictrum minor), Portland Spurge
(Euphorbia portlandica) and Tree Mallow (Lavatera arborea).

A small area of shingle vegetation occurs above the sandy beach at Carrigeen Bay on the
western side of the island. This habitat is listed on Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive.
Species such as Curled Dock (Rumex crispus), Silverweed (Potentilla anserina) and Spear-
leaved Orache (Atriplex prostrata) occur, while the rare Sea Kale (Crambe maritima), a very
characteristic species of this habitat, has been known from this site since 1894 and was
recorded as recently as 1981. Sea Kale is listed as threatened in the Irish Red Data Book.
Also occurring on the sandy/shingle beach is the Red Data Book species Henbane
(Hyoscyamus niger).

Irelands's Eye is of national importance for breeding seabirds. In 1999 the following were
counted: Fulmar 70 pairs; Cormorant 306 pairs; Shag 32 pairs; Lesser Black-backed Gull 1
pair; Herring Gull c.250 pairs; Great Black-backed Gull c.100 pairs; Kittiwake 941 pairs;
Guillemot 2191 individuals; Razorbill 522 individuals. A Gannet colony was established on the
stack at the east end of the island in the late 1980s, and in 1999 142 pairs bred. Puffin was
formerly common, but nowadays not more than 20 individuals occur. Black Guillemot also
breeds, with 15 individuals recorded in 1998. Several pairs each of Oystercatcher and Ringed
Plover breed, while the island is a traditional site for Peregrine Falcon.

In winter small numbers of Greylag and Pale bellied Brent Geese graze on the island.

This uninhabited marine island has a well developed maritime flora, with two habitats (sea
cliffs and shingle) listed on Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive, and nationally important
seabird colonies. Owing to its easy access and proximity to Dublin it has great educational
and amenity value.

(6) Howth Head (000202) (synopsis date - 4.2.1998)

Howth Head is a rocky headland situated on the northern side of Dublin Bay. The peninsula is
composed of Cambrian slates and quartzites, joined to the mainland by a post glacial raised
beach. Limestone occurs on the northwest side while glacial drift is deposited against the
cliffs in places. Howth Head contains sea cliffs and dry heaths, two habitats listed on Annex I
of the EU Habitats Directive.

A mosaic of heathland vegetation occurs on the slopes above the sea cliffs and in the area of
the summit. This is dominated by Western Gorse (Ulex gallii), Heather (Calluna vulgaris), Bell
Heather (Erica cinerea) and localised patches of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). In more open
areas species such as English Stonecrop (Sedum anglicum), Wood Sage (Teucrium
scorodonia) and Navelwort (Umbilicus rupestris) occur, along with some areas of bare rock.

The heath merges into dry grassland in places, with Bent Grasses (Agrostis spp.), Red
Fescue (Festuca rubra), Cock's-foot (Dactylis glomerata), Yorkshire-fog (Holcus lanatus),
Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), Lady's Bedstraw (Galium verum), Ribwort
Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Yellow-wort (Blackstonia perfoliata). In the summit area
there are a few wet flushes and small bogs, with typical bog species such as Bog Asphodel
(Narthecium ossifragum) and Sundew (Drosera spp.). Patches of scrub, mostly Hawthorn
(Crataegus monogyna), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), Willow (Salix spp.) and Downy Birch
(Betula pubescens), occur in places.

The maritime flora is of particular interest as a number of scarce and local plants have been
recorded, including Golden-samphire (Inula crithmoides), Sea Wormwood (Artemisia
maritima), Grass-leaved Orache (Atriplex littoralis), Frosted Orache (Atriplex laciniata), Sea
Spleenwort (Asplenium marinum), Bloody Cranes-bill (Geranium sanguineum), Spring Squill
APPENDIX C                                                                ECOLOGY APPENDICES


(Scilla verna), Sea Stork's-bill (Erodium maritimum) and three Clover species: Knotted Clover
(Trifolium striatum), Bird’s-foot Clover (T. ornithopodioides) and Western Clover (T.
occidentalis).

Rock outcrops which are important for lichens are distributed widely around Howth Head. The
richest area for lichens appears to be around Balscadden quarries. In addition, the Earlscliffe
area is of national importance for lichens and is the type locality for the black, yellow and grey
lichen zonation.

A number of Red Data Book plant species, which are legally protected under the Flora
Protection Order, have been recorded at this site - Green-winged Orchid (Orchis morio),
Bird's-foot (Ornithopus perpusillus), Hairy Violet (Viola hirta), Rough Poppy (Papaver
hybridum), Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), Heath Cudweed (Omalotheca sylvatica) and
Betony (Stachys officinalis).

Curved Hard-grass (Parapholis incurva), a species which had not previously been recognized
as occurring in Ireland, was found at Red Rock in 1979.

The site is of national importance for breeding seabirds. A census in 1985-87 recorded the
following numbers: Fulmar (105 pairs), Shags (25 pairs), Herring Gulls (70 pairs), Kittiwake
(c.1,700 pairs), Guillemot (585 birds), Razorbill (280 birds). In 1990, 21 pairs of Black
Guillemot were counted.

A number of rare invertebrates have been recorded from the site: the insect Phaonia exoleta
(Order Diptera) occurs in the woods at the back of Deerpark and has not been seen
anywhere else in Ireland, while the ground beetle Trechus rubens (Order Coleoptera) is found
on storm beaches on the eastern cliffs. A hoverfly, known from only a few Irish locations,
Sphaerophoria batava (Order Diptera) is present in the heathland habitat within the site.

The main landuse within the area is recreation, mostly walking and horse-riding, and this has
led to some erosion within the site. Fires also pose a danger to the site. There may also be a
threat in some areas from further housing development.

Howth Head displays a fine range of natural habitats, including two Annex I habitats, within
surprisingly close proximity to Dublin city. The site is also of scientific importance for its
seabird colonies, invertebrates and lichens. It also supports populations of at least two legally
protected plant species and several other scarce plants.

(7) Lambay Island (000204) (synopsis date - 8.11.2001)

Lambay Island is a large (250 ha.) inhabited island lying 4 km off Portrane on the north Co.
Dublin coast. It is privately owned and is accessible by boat from Rogerstown Quay.

The island rises to 127 m and is surrounded by steep cliffs on the north, east and south
slopes. These cliffs contain good diversity in height, slope and aspect. The west shore is low-
lying and the land slopes gently eastwards to the summit in the centre of the island. The
underlying geology is very varied, but is dominated by igneous rocks (of andesitic type) and
ash. Also present are shales and limestones of Silurian origin, limestone conglomerates, and
shales from the Old Red Sandstone era. The bedrock is exposed on the fringing cliffs and in
rocky outcrops; elsewhere it is overlain by varying depths of glacial drift.

Most of the western third of the island is intensively farmed (mostly pasture), and there are
small areas of parkland, deciduous and coniferous woodland, buildings, walled gardens and
the harbour. Much of the rest of the island is a mixture of less intensively grazed land, rocky
outcrops, patches of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus agg.), and
cliff slopes with typical maritime vegetation e.g. Thrift (Armeria maritima), Sea Campion
(Silene maritima), Rock Sea-spurrey (Spergularia rupicola) and Spring Squill (Scilla verna).
Some sheltered gullies have small areas of scrub woodland dominated by Elder (Sambucus
nigra). Vegetated sea cliffs are listed on Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive.
APPENDIX C                                                                   ECOLOGY APPENDICES


Lambay supports the only colony of Grey Seals on the east coast. Although it is a long
established breeding site for this species, it remains relatively small (45-60 individuals)
probably because of the restricted area suitable for breeding. A herd of Fallow Deer (up to c.
80) roams the higher parts of the island, and a small number of wallabies (c. 10) survive in a
feral state. This island may also hold the last Irish population of the Ship Rat, a species listed
in the vertebrate Red Data Book.

Lambay Island is internationally important for its breeding seabirds. The most numerous
species is the Guillemot, with almost 52,000 individuals on the cliffs. Razorbills (3,646
individuals), Kittiwakes (5,102 individuals), Herring Gulls (2,500 pairs), Cormorants (605
pairs), Shags (1,164 pairs), Puffins (235 pairs), and small numbers of Great and Lesser
Black-backed Gulls also breed (all figures from 1995). Between 1991 and 1995 Fulmar
numbers varied between 573-737 pairs. There is a small colony (<100 pairs) of the nocturnal
Manx Shearwater on the island and up to 20 pairs of Common Terns have bred in recent
years. A few Black Guillemots have been recorded on Lambay, but it is not clear if they breed.
A pair of Peregrines are known to breed on the island.

In winter the most notable bird species on Lambay Island is the Greylag Goose with numbers
peaking at 1,000, though in recent winters there has been a decline to 400-700 individuals.
There is also a small wintering flock of Barnacle Geese (up to 50), and recently Brent Geese
(up to 100) have started to occur regularly. Small numbers of Great Northern Diver and Red-
throated Diver are also present in winter.

An intensive survey of the natural history of Lambay Island was carried out in 1906 and
published in the Irish Naturalist. A similar, comparative survey has been carried out in the
early 1990's and it is hoped this will be published soon. With this background, Lambay is an
excellent site for studies of marine biology, terrestrial fauna and flora, geology,
geomorphology and ecology.

The island has been maintained as a wildlife sanctuary by its owners and no threats are
envisaged should the present land use continue. Rodents may be causing some damage to
the populations of burrow-nesting sea-birds.

Lambay Island has good examples of vegetated sea cliffs, a habitat listed on Annex I of the
EU Habitats Directive, and these cliffs hold internationally important populations of sea-birds.
The site is also of conservation for the population of Grey Seal, a species listed on Annex II of
this directive,that it supports.

II. Proposed Natural Heritage Areas

Note: It is understood from consultations with NPWS (October 2004) that the Designations
Unit of NPWS will be conducting a review of those sites proposed as NHAs during the mid-
1990s. It should be noted that the synopses for the following sites largely date from that time
and that the current status of these sites is unclear.

(1) Feltrim Hill (1208) (no site synopsis was available for this site)

This site is shown on the Heritage Service half inch map for County Dublin (dated
03/06/1997). Consultations with NPWS indicate that this site “remains as a pNHA”.

The description relating to the original Area of Scientific Interest (ASI) refers to it as being
                                                                       2
grassland associated with a carboniferous limestone quarry (AFF, 1981 ).

(2) Santry Demesne (000178) (no date)

This site is located immediately north of old Santry village.


2
 An Foras Forbatha 1981 National Heritage Inventory, Areas of Scientific Interest in Ireland. An Foras
Forbatha, Dublin.
APPENDIX C                                                                  ECOLOGY APPENDICES


The site comprises the remnants of a former demesne woodland. The remaining woods are
of generally good quality and include Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra), Ash
(Fraxinus excelsior), Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and
Scot's Pine (Pinus sylvatica).

A wide range of herbaceous species were recorded, including Wood Speedwell (Veronica
montana), Sanicle (Sanicula europaea), Ramsons (Allium ursinum), Early Dog-violet (Viola
reichenbachiana), Goldilocks Buttercup (Ranunculus auricomus), Giant Fescue (Festuca
gigantea) and False Brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum).

A species legally protected under the Flora Protection Order 1987, Hairy St.John's Wort
(Hypericum hirsutum), was recorded here in 1991. This downy-leaved perennial of river
banks and shady places has been recorded from only five counties in eastern Ireland,
concentrated in the River Liffey valley.

The primary importance of this site is that it contains a legally protected plant species. The
woodland, however, is of general ecological interest as it occurs in an area where little has
survived of the original vegetation.

(3) Sluice River Marsh (001763) (no date)

This site is located about 1 km west of Portmarnock village. The Sluice river flows into
Baldoyle estuary, less than 1 km away. The marsh backs onto the east side of the railway
embankment.

The wettest parts of the marsh have Yellow Flag (Iris pseudacorus), Reedmace (Typha
latifolia), Horsetail (Equisitum fluviatile), Common Club-rush (Scirpus lacustris), Starwort
(Callitriche spp.), Water Crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis), Fool's Water Cress (Apium
inundatum) and Duckweed (Lemna spp.).

In the somewhat drier marsh areas the typical plant species are Marsh Bedstraw (Galium
palustre), Creeping Cinquefoil (Potentilla reptans), Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Water
Mint (Mentha aquatica), Angelica (Angelica sylvestris), Water Plantain (Alisma plantago-
aquatica) and the sedges Carex disticha and Carex nigra.

Wet grassland occurs around the marsh, with Silverweed (Potentilla anserina), Lady's Smock
(Cardamine pratensis), Meadow Vetchling (Lathyrus pretensis), Common Rush (Juncus
effusus), Bent Grass (Agrostis stolonifera) and Buttercups (Ranunculus repens, R. acris).

Some wet woodland and scrub occurs on the west side of the site, mostly Willow (Salix spp.),
Alder (Alnus glutinosa), Birch (Betula pubescens) and some Hazel (Corylus avellana).

Mallard, Snipe, Grey Heron Moorhen and Reed Bunting were recorded on the marsh. The
Grey Herons nest nearby. Some waterfowl from Baldoyle Estuary may use the marsh on
occasions. Horses graze the site and there is probably some shooting in winter. The
Murrough Estuary Wildfowler's Association use the site as a game sanctuary. Malahide golf
course is situated on the other side of the Sluice River.

This site is of importance as it is a relatively intact freshwater marsh, a habitat that is now rare
in Co Dublin.

(4) Royal Canal (002103) (13 February 1995)

The Royal Canal is a man-made waterway linking the River Liffey at Dublin to the River
Shannon near Tarmonbarry. There is a branch line from Kilashee to Longford Town. The
canal NHA comprises the central channel and the banks on either side of it. The main water
supply is from Lough Owel (also an NHA) via a feeder channel into the canal at Mullingar.
The Royal Canal was closed to navigation in 1961. The section of canal west of Mullingar
was allowed to dry out, and the eastern section silted up and became overgrown. Restoration
began in 1988, and is still in progress.
APPENDIX C                                                               ECOLOGY APPENDICES


A number of different habitats are found within the canal boundaries - hedgerow, tall herbs,
calcareous grassland, reed fringe, open water, scrub and woodland.

The hedgerow, although diverse, is dominated by Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). On the
limestone soils of the midlands Spindle (Euonymus europaeus) and Guelder-rose (Viburnum
opulus) are present.

The vegetation of the towpath is usually dominated by grass species. Crested Dog's-tail
(Cynosurus cristatus), Quaking Grass (Briza media) and Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum
odoratum) are typical species of the calcareous grasslands of the midlands. Where the canal
was built through a bog, soil (usually calcareous) was brought in to make the banks. The
contrast between the calcicolous species of the towpath and the calcifuge species of the bog
is very striking.

Otter spraints are found along the towpath, particularly where the canal passes over a river or
stream.

The Rare and legally protected Opposite-leaved Pondweed (Groenlandia densa) (Flora
Protection Order 1987) is present at one site in Dublin, between Locks 4 and 5. Tolypella
intricata (a stonewort listed in the Red Data Book as being Vulnerable) is also in the Royal
Canal in Dublin, the only site in Ireland where it is now found.

The ecological value of the canal lies more in the diversity of species it supports along its
linear habitats than in the presence of rare species. It crosses through agricultural land and
therefore provides a refuge for species threatened by modern farming methods.

(5) Portraine Shore (001215) (16 February 1995)

This site is located about 3 km east of Donabate. The site is mostly a stretch of rocky shore,
with some intertidal sands at the south end. A narrow strip of coastal vegetation above the
rocky shore is included.

Geologically the rocky shore is an inlier, i.e. a structure in which older rock is surrounded by
rock of younger age. The northern end is an area of volcanic rocks with limestones, shales
and grits to the south.

The grit series apparently forms the younger part of the exposure and the volcanics the older.

The flora and fauna of the rocky shore is typical of such a habitat, with brown, green and red
algae, and marine invertebrates. Turnstones, Oystercatchers and Curlew feed along the
shore.

Above the rocky shore the following plant species were recorded: Sea Pink (Armeria
maritima), Sea Campion (Silene maritima), Sea Beet (Beta vulgaris), Kidney Vetch (Anthyllis
vulneraria), Sea Mayweed (Matricaria maritima), Spurge (Euphorbia spp.), Scurvy Grass
(Cochlearia spp.), Hoary Cress (Cardaria draba) and Tree-mallow (Lavatera arborea). Spring
Squill (Scilla verna) was recorded along the cliff path. The narrow cliffpath is used regularly
by walkers.

This site is a good example of a rocky bedrock shore with a typical flora and fauna. The
grassy vegetation above the shore adds habitat diversity. The site is also an important
geological site.

(6) Bog Of The Ring (001204) (no date)

Bog of the Ring is situated approximately 5 km southwest of Balbriggan. It is a flat low-lying
area with impeded drainage, showing signs of peat development in its upper horizons. The
site was drained about thirty years ago, but still contains pockets of wet and damp ground
where marsh vegetation occurs.
APPENDIX C                                                               ECOLOGY APPENDICES


The greater part of the surface is covered by Yellow Iris (Iris pseudacorus) and Rough
Meadow-grass (Poa trivialis), with Soft Rush (Juncus effusus) and Meadowsweet (Filipendula
ulmaria) being common. Other species which occur in this dryish habitat are Great
Willowherb (Epilobium hirsutum), Field Horsetail (Equisetum arvense), Angelica (Angelica
sylvestris), Reed Canary-grass (Phalaris arundinacea), Purple-loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)
and Heath Spotted Orchid (Dactylorhiza maculata).

In the wetter areas, such as drainage ditches, species which have been recorded in the past
include Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), Bladderworts (Utricularia vulgaris and U.
neglecta), Lesser Marshwort (Apium inundatum), the scarce starwort (C a l l i t r i c h e
obtusangula), Common Water Crowfoot (Ranunculus aquatilis), Unbranched Bur-reed
(Sparganium emersum) and the stonewort Chara hispida. Other marshy places allow Great
Yellow-cress (Rorippa amphibium) to grow, with Early Marsh-orchid (Dactylorhiza incarnata),
Water-purslane (Lythrum portula), Wild Celery (Apium graveolens), Bur-marigolds (Bidens
cernua and B. tripartita) and Lesser Water-parsnip (Berula erecta).

The site is used in winter by Golden Plover, Whooper Swan (occasionally) and Short-eared
Owl. Breeding species include Snipe, Skylark, Meadow Pipt, Reed Bunting, Stonechat and
Sedge Warbler.

Marshes are few in County Dublin and therefore the site is of interest. Although attempts at
drainage have been made in the past, isolated wet areas still exist and the site could be
considerably improved by raising the water table.

The construction of Balbriggan by-pass is an immediate threat and may alter the hydrology of
the site.

(7) Loughshinny Coast (002000) (no date)

This site is situated midway between Loughshinny and Skerries. The south boundary of the
site extends to the clay cliffs, which are overgrown with brambles and ivy, while the north end
is bounded by a stream. This coastal area is noted for its geological interests, the rocks being
conglomerates, limestones and shales.

The main habitat of the site is coastal grass, which merges into a shingle/rocky shore with
some patches of saltmarsh.

The site is a station for the Green-winged Orchid (Orchis morio), a species legally protected
under the Flora Protection Order 1987.

Species occurring in association with the orchid include Cowslip (Primula veris), Birds foot-
trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Plantain (Plantago lanceolata),
Burnet-saxifrage (Pimpinella saxifraga), Creeping Thistle (Cirsium arvense) and Buttercups
(Ranunculus acris, R. bulbosus). A diverse fungal flora is present in autumn.

Of particular interest is a small seepage area at the northern end of the site, which is
dominated by Black Bog-rush (Schoenus nigricans) and Rushes (Juncus spp.). Bryophytes
are present along with Water Mint (Mentha aquatica). This flush occurs almost directly above
the high tide mark.

The grassy area is a roost for Curlew and Oystercatcher.

The coastal grass shows signs of improvement and grazing. Further improvement and
heavier grazing is a threat to the site.

(8) Skerries Islands (001218) (16 February 1995)

The Skerries Islands are a group of three islands situated between 1 km and 2 km east of
Skerries. Shenick's Island is connected to the mainland by sandflats at low tide. The other
two islands are St. Patricks's and Colt. Shenick's is composed of lower Palaeozic rocks
APPENDIX C                                                             ECOLOGY APPENDICES


consisting of Ordovician volcanic, siltstones and shales. On the southeast of the island there
is a patch of red breccia which rests unconformably on the Ordovician strata. The underlying
strata are not horizontal - which is most frequently the case where an uncomformity exists.

The islands are important bird islands. In 1992 15 pairs of Fulmar bred on Shenick's and
three pairs on St.Patrick's Island. A recently established Cormorant colony on St. Patrick's
Island was discovered in 1992 and had at least 35 pairs. Shags also breed on St. Patrick's,
with 112 pairs in 1986. Large gulls breed on all three islands. Between 1984-86 the following
were recorded: 89 pairs of Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls, mostly the former on
Shenick's; c.250-300 pairs of Herring Gulls, c.200 pairs of Great Black-backed Gulls on
St.Patrick's; 232 pairs of Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls, mostly the former on Colt.

In winter, the islands are frequented by geese and some waders. Brent Geese have been
regular in recent years, usually in numbers less than 50. Barnacle and Greylag Geese also
occur on occasions, seldom more than 50, these birds being from the Lambay populations. In
January 1992, 250 Oystercatchers, 500 Golden Plover, 400 Lapwing and 600 Curlew were
present. Up to three Short-eared Owls are regular each winter, though as many as six have
been seen. The owls occur most often on Shenick's and St. Patrick's Islands.          The
Shenick's Island is now a bird reserve managed by the Irish Wildbird Conservancy.

(9) Rockabill Island (000207) (16 February 1995)

This site is located about 6 km east-northeast of Skerries. It comprises two small granitic
islets separated by a 20 m wide channel. One rock has a lighthouse (manned until 1989) with
walled areas of soil and vegetation, dominated by Tree Mallow (Lavatera arborea). The other
islet has very little vegetation apart from lichens.

Rockabill is an internationally important breeding site for Roseate Tern and is the most
important colony in Europe.

In 1994, 394 pairs bred, an increase from 366 in 1991. Common Terns also breed with 289
pairs in 1994, and 20 pairs of Arctic Tern bred in the same year. Other breeding seabirds are
Black Guillemot (20 pairs in 1994) and Kittiwakes (75 occupied sites in 1994).

Since 1989 the site has been wardened by NPWS and IWC during the breeding season, and
research and habitat management have been carried out. The site is owned by the
Commissioners of Irish Lights and is a Refuge for Fauna and a Special Protection Area under
the EU Birds Directive.
APPENDIX D
ECOLOGY PHOTOGRAPHS
APPENDIX D                                                         ECOLOGY PHOTOGRAPHS




P 1. Panorama of lands west of airfield from the control tower




P2 Managed hedgerows and improved grassland adjacent to Dunbro Lane to the west of the
airfield.




P3 Typical unmanaged hedgerow with tree growth. Note ivy growth.
APPENDIX D                                                              ECOLOGY PHOTOGRAPHS


P4 General view across pasture fields and hedgerows




P5 Large farm to the north of Dunbro Lane in the centre of the western section of the study area,
showing mature tree lines and a small stand of mature conifers




P6. Winter cereal crop at the western end of the study area
APPENDIX D                                                             ECOLOGY PHOTOGRAPHS


P7. Facing east towards the airfield - ditch with managed hedge adjacent to the R108 at the
south western section of the study area.




P8. Summer 2004 – looking north east towards Barberstown Lane - improved grassland and well-
developed tree lines




P9. Summer 2004 – to show roadside hedgerows and trees with summer foliage near the
junction of Dunbro Lane and Barberstown Lane
APPENDIX D                                                           ECOLOGY PHOTOGRAPHS


P10. Summer 2004 – well-developed hedgerows at the western end of the site for the proposed
northern parallel runway
APPENDIX E
HABITAT EVALUATION
APPENDIX E                                                                       HABITAT EVALUATION


HABITAT EVALUATION

Legislation and Designations

The Wildlife and Amendment Acts, 1976 and 2000, their associated statutory instruments and
Natural Habitat Regulations (for SACs) are implemented and controlled by the National Parks and
Wildlife Service (NPWS) of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government
(DoEHLG). NPWS is also responsible for the designation of sites.

Special Areas of Conservation (SACs)

The Natural Habitat Regulations, 197 enabled the designation of candidate Special Areas of
Conservation (cSACs) under Article 3 of the Directive 92/43/EEC of 21st May 1992 on the
conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (the Habitats Directive), as part of the
Natura 2000 network. This network comprises Annex I habitats - “natural habitat types of
community interest whose conservation requires the designation of Special Areas of
Conservation” and the habitats of Annex II species - “animal and plant species of community
interest whose conservation requires the designation of Special Areas of Conservation”. In
addition, the Directive states that: “The Natura 2000 network shall include the special protection
areas classified by the Member States pursuant to Directive 79/409/EEC.”.


Table AE 1 Designated conservation sites in the wider locality of Dublin Airport

Designation     Site Code           Site name                        Approximate distance in km.
                                                                     from the approximate centre of
                                                                     the SEA study area
SAC             000205*             Malahide Estuary                               5.14
                000199*§            Baldoyle Bay                                   7.72
                000208*§            Rogerstown Estuary                             8.68
                000206*§            North Dublin Bay                               7.72
                002193              Ireland’s Eye                                 12.55
                000202              Howth Head                                    12.10
                000204*             Lambay Island                                 16.09

SPA             000205*             Malahide Estuary                                5.14
                000199*§            Baldoyle Bay                                    7.72
                000208*§            Rogerstown Estuary                              8.68
                000206*§            North Dublin Bay                                7.72
                002193              Ireland’s Eye                                   12.55
                000202              Howth Head                                      12.10
                000204*             Lambay Island                                   16.09

pNHA             1208                Feltrim Hill                                     4.0
                 178                 Santry Demesne                                   2.6
                 1763                Sluice River Marsh                              7.07
                 2103                Royal Canal                                     6.82
                 1215                Portraine Shore                                10.94
                 1204                Bog of the Ring                                16.41
                 2000                Loughshinny Coast                              18.34
                 1218                Skerries Islands                               19.31
                 00207*              Rockabill Island                               24.78
* sites which are whole or part Special Protection Areas (SPA) under the EU Birds Directive
§ sites which are whole or part Nature Reserves
APPENDIX E                                                                       HABITAT EVALUATION



Special Protection Areas (SPAs)

Special Protection Areas (SPAs) are designated under Directive 79/409/EEC of 2nd April 1979 on
the conservation of wild birds (the Birds Directive). Under the Directive, Ireland is obliged to
protect the habitats of birds, which are vulnerable to habitat change or to low population numbers.
Aspects of habitat protection are in the context of pollution, deterioration of habitat and
disturbance. This Directive is implemented in Ireland under Statutory Instrument (1985) and is
encompassed by the Wildlife and Amendment Acts, 1976 and 2000.

Proposed Natural Heritage Areas (pNHAs)

There is provision for legal protection for Natural Heritage Areas (NHAs) under the legislation
enacted in the Wildlife (Amendment) Act 2000.

The SEA study area does not comprise whole or part of any area of scientific importance such as
a proposed designated conservation area ie. a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) or a
proposed Natural Heritage Area (pNHA). There are no semi-natural habitats of international,
national, county or local interest within the area. However a number of designated conservation
areas are located at varying distances from the airport. These are listed in Table AE1.

Flora Protection Order Species

Of the plant species recorded during the botanical surveys from 2001 to 2004 none is listed in the
current Flora (Protection) Order 1999 (FPO - SI No. 94 of 1999) under the Wildlife and
Amendment Acts, 1976 and 2000. Neither are there any protected species records for the study
area in the rare plant database currently held by NPWS (2006, N. Kingston, NPWS - personal
communication) nor on the Irish scarce plants list (Neff, 2000).

Habitats and vegetation

In the first instance it is necessary to address the basic criteria for evaluation. These are (after
Ratcliffe, 1977) and are summarised in Table AE2 (after Treweeek, 1999).

Table AE2 Evaluation criteria (summarised by Treweek, 1999; after Ratcliffe (1977)
 Primary criteria        Criterion
                         Size                    Including both area of vegetation types and population
                                                 sizes for individual species
                         Diversity               Applied either as simple species richness or by giving
                                                 different weightings according to ‘interest’
                         Rarity                  Applied either to habitats or to species. The latter most
                                                 commonly tested by comparison with national or county
                                                 population size or distribution by 10 km. squares.
                         Naturalness             Habitats that are least intensively modified by humans
                                                 are generally more highly regarded.
                         Typicalness             A measure of how well the study area represents
                                                 habitats or vegetation types on a wider scale.
                         Fragility               Some habitats or species are especially vulnerable or
                                                 sensitive to anthropogenic change. Those with restricted
                                                 area or range are generally held to be more vulnerable.
 Secondary criteria      Recorded history        Can be useful in confirming that a site has been
                                                 ‘important’ for some time. Sites with a long history of
                                                 study may contribute significantly to our understanding of
                                                 ecological process.
                         Potential value         Relates to the likelihood that appropriate management
                                                 could restore or enhance an area’s ecological interest.
                         Intrinsic appeal        Habitats or species with public appeal promote the
                                                 cause of nature conservation. This criterion can also be
                                                 interprted to include estimates of public use, access,
                                                 amenity value, etc.
APPENDIX E                                                                      HABITAT EVALUATION


As stated above, the site is not subject to any conservation designations, thus taking the above
criteria into consideration, and applying the methodology as set out by Regini (2000) and
Colebourn (2005) the habitats present on site may be evaluated as follows:


Table AE3 Evaluation of habitats (after Regini, 2000)
 Level of Value      Indication of importance
 International       Designated or proposed as SAC, SPA under EU Habitats or Birds Directives;
                     Sites designated under international conventions eg. Ramsar etc.
 National            Proposed NHAs or sites containing habitats or populations of nationally important
                     species such as Red Data Book species.
 High Local          Sites containing semi-natural habitat types with high degrees of biodiversity and/or
                     naturalness (eg. old semi-natural woodland); or significant populations of locally rare
                     species; or supplying critical elements of their habitat requirements.
 Moderate Local      Undesignated site or feature considered appreciably to enrich the habit resource
                     within the context of the district; containing some semi-natural habitat or supporting
                     viable breeding populations of locally important for wildlife.
 Low Local           Site or feature considered appreciably to enrich the habitat resource within the
                     context of a townland, eg. species – rich hedgerow.
 Negligible          Low grade and widespread habitats.



Hedgerows and treelines

It has been shown in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS hedgerow study that the quality of
hedgerows is variable, this can also be said of the whole SEA study area. They are however the
most diverse habitat present within the study area, the better developed hedgerows providing a
variety of micro-habitats for both plant and animal species. The number of woody species
recorded (56) was quite high – though it must also be remembered that this included a significant
proportion of introduced - i.e. non-native, species. They are variable in structure, as may be seen
from the photographs in this report.

The land covered by hedgerows and tree lines is quite substantial. For example, in the proposed
development site for the northern parallel runway alone there are in the order of approximately 29
kilometres of hedgerow. That area probably represents the highest hedgerow cover of the study
area.

The western section of the SEA study area is far more hedgerow - rich than the remainder of the
site. However, there are mature hedgerows in the south east corner of the study area, and to the
north east. Many of the hedgerows have been planted, and some are managed to the extent that
their naturalness has been ‘lost’.

To place the hedgerows in the study area in historical and landscape context, it is possible -
based upon woody species content - to estimate the percentages of ancient (probably remnant
woodland), old field enclosures and recently planted hedgerows (Doogue et al, 1988). This was
done for the Northern Parallel Runway proposed development site (Further Information, 2005)
with the following results:

    •   Ancient (remnant) woodland: 8.69%
    •   Old field enclosures: 21.12%
    •   Recently planted boundaries: 70.14%

Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) are dominant, and other woody
species include: Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), Field maple (Acer campestre),
Whitebeam (Sorbus aria), Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and English Elm (Ulmus procera).
These species are also found elsewhere throughout the locality. Mature specimens of
Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and Alder (Alnus glutinosa) also occur.
APPENDIX E                                                                HABITAT EVALUATION



The hedgerows described in the Northern Parallel Runway EIS are considered to be typical of
those throughout the SEA study area and the wider locality of north County Dublin. It is
considered reasonable therefore to assume that the percentages could be applied to the
hedgerows throughout the study area. It would be necessary to carry out a study of hedgerows
prior to any further proposed development within the study area, as has already been done for
the northern parallel runway.

On the basis of the assessment criteria, then: the less diverse hedgerows may be assessed as
being of Low Local value. The more diverse hedgerows are considered to be of Moderate
Local value – taking into consideration their potential to support a greater number of species,
including plants and animals. The hedgerows also fulfil a valuable function as wildlife corridors
for movement, refuge and feeding

Grasslands

These are, for the most part highly modified and are relatively species poor. They occur
throughout the locality and indeed the country as a whole. Perennial rye-grass/White clover
(Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens) is present in the improved grassland, while species such as.
Common bent (Agrostis capillaris), Crested dog’s-tail (Cynosurus cristatus) and Yorkshire-fog
(Holcus lanatus) are expected in the less imporved agricultural grasslands. Species such as
Broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius), Creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense), common nettle
(Urtica dioica) and common ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) are present throughout the less
improved grasslands.

On the basis of the assessment criteria, then: the grasslands may be assessed as being of Low
Local value

Managed airfield grasslands have the potential for low species diversity owing to the strict
management regime. They are considered to be of Neglible value in vegetation terms.

Areas of waste ground, roadsides, tillage and cultivated land (arable)

These habitats are often characterised by ruderal, ephemeral plant species. Arable and tillage
areas are, of their nature, transient habitats. Any value is in the wildlife they may support. They
are considered Negligible in value.

Wet ditches, slow streams and small ponds

These support a typical flora, including: Fool’s watercress (Apium nodiflorum), Meadowsweet
(Filipendula ulmaria), Common water-starwort (Callitriche stagnalis), Marsh-marigold (Caltha
palustris), Bottle sedge (Carex rostrata), Floating sweet-grass (Glyceria fluitans), Iris (I r i s
pseudacorus), Water-cress (N. officinale).

These habitats are frequently occurring throughout the wider locality and in Ireland in general.
They are of value in terms of fauna such as the Common Frog. They are considered Low Local in
value.

Buildings and artificial surfaces

These hold no ecological value in vegetation terms.
APPENDIX E                                                                        HABITAT EVALUATION


Non-avian fauna

Conservation value

Some of the mammals known to, or likely to, occur within the SA study area are protected under
the Wildlife and Amendment Acts, 1976 and 2000. These include all bat species, pygmy shrew,
badger, hedgehog, and Irish stoat. Otter are also protected but are unlikely to occur on site.
Under the legislation, it is an offence to intentionally interfere with, or destroy, the breeding or
resting places of these species. However, there are certain exemptions under the legislation for
certain types of developments and works. The badger, hedgehog, Irish hare and otter are Red
List species (Whilde, 1993).

All Irish bat are further protected under the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife
and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention 1982), which, in relation to bats, exists to conserve all
species and their habitats. The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild
Animals (Bonn Convention 1979, enacted 1983) was instigated to protect migrant species across
all European boundaries. The Irish government has ratified both these conventions. Also, the
Habitats Directive (1992) seeks to protect rare species, including bats, and their habitats and
requires that appropriate monitoring of populations be undertaken.

All amphibians and reptiles are protected under current Wildlife legislation.

Any proposed development of the SEA area must take the above into consideration and put
appropriate mitigation measures in place.

Birds

Conservation issues

The EU Birds Directive (Directive 79/409/CEE) protects all wild birds. Special conservation
measures are required for listed Annex 1 species, of which some 33 occur in Ireland. Under the
Directive, special protection areas are designated. These are now protected under current wildlife
legislation .

Currently most bird species are protected under the Wildlife and Amendment Acts, 1976 and
2000, with the exception of pest species and some classified as game species, the hunting of
which is subject to various regulations. Under Section 46 of the Wildlife Acts the removal and
disturbance of vegetation is illegal during the period March 1st to August 31st. Some
developments are excluded under this clause.

The following is from BirdWatch Ireland and the RSPB NI:

BirdWatch Ireland and the RSPB (Northern Ireland) have agreed a list of priority bird species for
conservation action on the island of Ireland. These Birds of Conservation Concern in Ireland are published in
a list known as the BoCCI List. In this BoCCI List, birds are classified into three seperate lists (Red, Amber
and Green), based on the conservation status of the bird and hence conservation priority.

The Red List birds are of high conservation concern, the Amber List birds are of medium conservation
concern and the Green List birds are not considered threatened. Specific criteria are used to classify a bird
into one of these three categories. 18 species are currently Red-listed, while a further 77 are considered
Amber-listed (Newton, et al., 1999).

Red-listed species are classified according to the following criteria:

    •    Their breeding population or range has declined by more that 50% in the last 25 years. The
         species is considered to be declining in breeding population.
APPENDIX E                                                                       HABITAT EVALUATION


    •    Their breeding population has undergone significant decline since 1900. The species is considered
         to be historically declining.
    •    They are of global conservation concern

Amber-listed species are classified according to the following criteria:

    •    Their breeding population or range has declined by 25-50% in the last 25 years. The species is
         considered to have moderate declining breeders.
    •    They are rare or sporadically breeding species.
    •    Their breeding or wintering population is internationally important and/or localised.
    •    They have an unfavourable conservation status in Europe and are hence are of European
         conservation concern

Green listed species are all other regularly occurring species in Ireland whose conservation status is
presently considered favourable.

Evaluation of the study area in terms of birds

It is noted that three ‘Red-Listed’ species were recorded in the area during the winter survey for
the Northern Parallel Runway EIS; these were:

    •    Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus)
    •    Curlew (Nurmenius arquata)
    •    Yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella)

Of which “only Lapwing were present in significant numbers”. The Yellowhammer is “typically
associated with mixed and arable farming”; this habitat occurs commonly through the wider
locality, however it is known from the EIS study that small numbers breed within the SEA study
area. The Northern Parallel Runway EIS (2004), paragraph 6.4.2 states:

“Most of the birds recorded in each breeding survey month in 2002 were relatively abundant resident bird
species. However, a few species recorded on each breeding season month were actually quite
(numerically) uncommon e.g. Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (Ranked 35th out of 59) and Black-headed Gull,
Larus canus (Ranked 36th out of 59).
Overall, 59 species were recorded during the breeding season survey. The assemblage comprises mainly
of common resident species, typical of farmland habitats. Species that are considered of special
conservation concern are also highlighted in Table 2D.5 (Newton et al., 1999).

Two ‘Red-Listed’ species were encountered during the breeding season survey: Curlew and Yellowhammer.
A further 10 species recorded during the breeding season are birds of medium conservation concern or
‘Amber-Listed’ species (Table 2D.5; Newton et al., 1999). For instance, Peregrine, Snipe, Gallinago
gallinago, Common Gull, Larus ridibundus, Skylark, Swallow, Stonechat, Saxicola torquata and Spotted
Flycatcher are all thought to have an unfavourable conservation status in Europe.

The most notable changes atop the ranked abundance lists between the survey periods were:

    •    The absence of Lapwing and Redwing from the breeding season period
    •    The relative abundance of Swallows in the breeding season

One of the largest and least nationally common species encountered in this study was the raptor Buzzard,
Buteo buteo. This bird has increased nationally over the past few decades and is already one of the most
widespread and abundant raptors in Europe (Jonsson, 1996).

The airfield provides ideal nesting habitat for species such as Skylark. Airfield buildings are used as nest
sites by House Sparrows and hirundines. “

In addition, tilled fields and playing fields in the wider area around the airport occasionally hold
flocks of Lapwing and Golden Plover (an Annex 1 species); the latter comes inland in winter to
feed.
APPENDIX E                                                                       HABITAT EVALUATION


The Northern Parallel Runway proposed development site Further Information (2005) states:

“The Amber-listed species recorded were Shelduck, Peregrine Falcon, Snipe, Black-headed Gull, Common
Gull, Stock Dove, Skylark, Swallow, Stonechat, and Spotted Flycatcher. Several are migratory species that
are believed to have an unfavourable conservation status elsewhere in Europe, or in their wintering grounds.
The majority are highly mobile species that are irregularly present in the area around the airfield and
potentially affected habitats e.g. Peregrine, Shelduck and Gulls (Laridae).”
APPENDIX F
LANDSCAPE
APPENDIX F   LANDSCAPE
APPENDIX F   LANDSCAPE
APPENDIX F   LANDSCAPE
APPENDIX F   LANDSCAPE
Fingal County Council
County Hall
Main St. Swords
Co. Dublin

								
To top