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					Instructional Design Portfolio

 EDIT 6170 – Summer 2009



        Submitted by:

The Instructors Causing Mayhem

       Thomasina Brown

           Yuri Han

        Denise Wilson
                                        Executive Summary



       Roadside breakdown stories are frequently the topic of water cooler chat. With the

possible exception of those recently having received their license, most drivers have experienced

the trauma of having their car malfunction unexpectedly. While many of these experiences turn

out to be mostly a matter of cost and inconvenience, there are also documented cases of

incidences that have turned tragic. The Instructors Causing Mayhem became curious as to

whether there was a link between the frequency of breakdowns and the average driver’s

knowledge of basic automotive preventative and emergency maintenance. The ICM design

team saw this as an opportunity to use the principles of instructional design to determine whether

there is a need for instruction on basic car care.

       To determine the need for a course on basic car care, the design team did research and

conducted a survey. The results of the data that was collected and analyzed indicated that many

drivers do not have a clear understanding of the preventative maintenance requirements of their

car or appropriate corrective actions to take in the event of a roadside breakdown. The ICMs

decided that the data they collected demonstrated a need for instruction. The design team

established the following instructional goal for the course that would be developed: The students

will be able to execute preventative and emergency maintenance on their automobile using the

appropriate tools and other supplies, as needed. Team ICM selected the Emergency Car

Maintenance unit for further development. The team used the Instructional Strategy Planning

Sheet format to design The Mechanics of Changing a Tire lesson from the Emergency Car

Maintenance unit.




                                                                                                  2
       A field test was conducted on July 6th in the North Campus Parking Garage on the

University of Georgia campus. There were three participants in the field test. All three were

women and had at least a bachelor’s degree. Two of the participants were in PH.D programs.

One participant had previously changed a tire. During the pre-instruction participants took a pre-

test on their knowledge of changing a tire and shared personal breakdown “horror stories”. The

instructors advised the participants of the physical requirements of changing a tire and then

explained the lesson objective and gave an overview of the skills that would be taught during the

lesson. During the lesson instruction a video on changing a tire was viewed by the participants.

The students then participated in a scavenger hunt. A prize was awarded to the student that

could collect the tools necessary for changing a tire from their car the fastest. One brave student

then demonstrated the skills she had learned during the lesson by changing a tire using the tools

from her car, the owner’s manual, and the handout from the lesson. To wrap the lesson up, the

students took a post-test to assess their knowledge of the skills taught during the instruction and

the instructors provided additional safety tips to the participants.




                                                                                                      3
                                       Needs Assessment



Problem Statement

       Many drivers do not have a thorough knowledge of their automobiles to do the

appropriate preventative maintenance or to take corrective actions in the event of a roadside

breakdown.



Background of the Problem

       Many drivers do not have knowledge of basic car care.      There is an attitude among

many drives that putting gasoline into an automobile is the bulk of the work necessary to keep it

running.   There also seems to be a pervasive attitude that the solution to any breakdown that

does occur is simply a cell phone call away. Roadside breakdowns are never convenient, can be

extremely expensive, and can also be dangerous. Cell phone coverage cannot be counted on to

be consistent from location to location. Even an apparently well intentioned stranger could turn

out to be a source of danger. Being stranded on a deserted stretch of road could also subject the

driver to dangers from the elements. Stranded motorists can potentially cause hazardous

situations that could not only impact themselves and their passengers, but also other drivers,

police (county/city), emergency response vehicles, tow truck companies, and state

police/highway patrol officials.




                                                                                                    4
                                             Needs Analysis

       To gather information and determine specific needs, the ICMs carried out the research

and conducted a survey on basic car care. First, results from the research showed that the current

economy has drivers keeping their vehicles longer than they originally intended. An online

market study conducted by R. L. Polk & Co., with more than 700 respondents from around the

U.S. between January 30th and February 22, 2009 showed that:

      Average length of ownership has increased to 56.3 months, up from 49 months six years

       ago

      One third of consumers plan to purchase another vehicle in the next 12 months; 26

       percent predict a vehicle purchase within two years; pent up demand for vehicle sales is

       prevalent

      70 percent of consumers are likely to consider used vs. new for their next vehicle

       purchase

      72 percent of consumers would consider a domestic brand as their next vehicle purchase

       (R. L. Polk & Co., 2009, para. 1).

       Additionally, there were concerns about drivers’ lack of abilities and habits of performing

basic car care. According to William Pearse, Vice President of Product Strategy and Design, for

Travelers, a provider of car insurance, “…older cars can be a hazard on the road if maintenance

on critical parts like tires, brakes and suspension is deferred,…Routine maintenance should never

be deferred” (Business Wire, 2009, para. 8). Therefore, performing simple and inexpensive

vehicle maintenance will not only save money but will also improve a vehicle’s safety and

dependability.




                                                                                                  5
       Next, the ICMs did a survey (Appendix A), and obtained responses from nineteen people.

It was distributed and collected in person and by e-mail. The survey was designed to gather

information about their knowledge of basic car care as well as their past experiences with

emergency situations. Results (Appendix B) from 13 female (68.4%) and 6 male (31.6%),

mostly between mid 20s to mid 30s (78.8 %), showed that their knowledge about basic car care

is insufficient in spite of high rate (68.4% answered “Yes”) of experiencing an emergency

situation in the last five years. When asked if they know how to check oil, 84.2% said “Yes”.

Less than half of the participants (47.4%) also check their tire pressure regularly. A significant

number of participants (36.8%) reported that they have never changed a tire, but when asked if

they are interested in learning how to change a tire, only 21.1% answered positively.

       These responses raise concerns given the fact that almost 68.4% of people answered that

they had experienced some emergency situation in the lasts five years, but only 46.2% took care

of the emergency situation by them selves. The reasons respondents could not handle the

emergency situation by themselves are due to a variety of emergency situations, such as eruption

of a gas pan, no power steering, dead battery, over heating engine due to leaking radiator, and a

broken timing belt. However a few respondents who experienced a relatively minor emergency

like flat tire said they would call somebody or AAA to get help. After reviewing responses from

the survey, the ICMs confirmed the importance and imperativeness of basic car care and an

opportunity of conducting instruction on basic car care.




                                                                                                     6
Rationale for the Need for Instruction

       The Instructors Causing Mayhem identified a gap between the surveyed drivers'

knowledge of basic automobile preventative and emergency repair and the desired knowledge of

these valuable skills. This gap represents a problem that can be addressed through instruction.

Instruction that teaches participants a basic understanding of the mechanics of an automobile,

along with the maintenance required to operate it safely and reliably could reduce the number of

roadside emergencies. Additionally, instruction on the proper procedures for addressing a

roadside emergency could arm the driver with knowledge of ways to increase their personal

safety and to reduce the probability of being at the mercy of an unscrupulous mechanic.



Goal Statement

       The students will be able to execute preventative and emergency maintenance on their

automobile using the appropriate tools and other supplies, as needed.




                                                                                                  7
                                         Learner Analysis



         An analysis of the learners’ entry behaviors, prior knowledge of basic car care,

motivation, education and ability levels, and general learning preferences were addressed as

follows.



Entry Behaviors

         While conducting the learner analysis, the design team determined the prerequisites that

the learners must have to participate in the course. Learners will have the ability to read and use

their owner’s manual, to identify the parts of their car that require maintenance, be able to lift 30

pounds, not have shoulder or back restrictions and to have a rudimentary knowledge of using

tools.



Prior Knowledge of Basic Car Care

         Through surveys the design team gathered information pertaining to the respondents’

prior knowledge of basic car care. Our inquiries included question about whether the

participants had knowledge and experience in checking the oil, checking the tire pressure, and

changing a tire. From our survey, 15.8% of the survey participants do not check their oil, 52.6%

do not check their tire pressure, and 36.8% have not changed a tire.




                                                                                                    8
Motivation

       Motivation plays a major role with learner progress, so the design team wanted to

determine whether potential participants in the course considered instruction in basic car care

valuable. When only 21.1% answered positively when asked if they would be interested in

learning to change a tire, a concern arose due to the fact that almost 68.4% of people answered

that they had experienced some emergency situation in the lasts five years.



Education and ability levels

        The instruction will be designed for drivers who do not have previous experience of

changing a tire. Most learners who participated in the survey are adults between the ages of 25-

35 (78.8%), and they vary slightly in their formal education, with some completing college and

some earning graduate degrees. Learners are heterogeneous with their mechanical skills for a

basic car care: about 46.2% of the participants took care of the emergency situation them selves,

while about the half of the participants (52.6%) do not check their tires or have never changed a

tire (36.8%).



General learning preferences

        Based on the survey, the respondents are experienced with a variety of learning formats;

however, they prefer hands-on instruction (66.7%) and instruction with hand-outs (33.3%).

These results match well with the ICMs’ intention to design a course which will incorporate both

hands-on instruction and hand outs.




                                                                                                    9
                                          Context Analysis



       This course is designed to impart a practical knowledge of preventative and emergency

maintenance procedures. The students will learn via a variety of media, in a classroom setting

during the content presentation portion of the instruction, and in a setting appropriate to the

hands-on portion of the instruction. Feedback will be provided from the instructors and the SME

during the content presentation and the learner participation sections. Learners are expected to

be able to read and understand English. Prior experience with performing automobile

maintenance is not necessary for learners to participate in the instruction. The overall time frame

for the course will be approximately 10 hours, with each lesson lasting approximately one hour.

The social aspect of the instruction will be in the form of a group learning environment in both

the classroom and hands-on maintenance portions of the instruction. A casual atmosphere and a

sense of comradery will be encouraged in all of the learning venues. There are physical

restrictions involved in the hands-on portion of the instruction, so students will be apprised of

those restrictions prior to the instruction. The hands-on portion of the course will be in an

environment compatible to the preventative maintenance portion of the instruction. Since the

setting of an actual emergency situation can not be predicted, the environment for that portion of

the instruction will take place in a site that is suitable for the comfort and ease of learning for the

student.




                                                                                                     10
                        Course and Unit Design (Macro-Instructional Design)



       The data collected from the needs assessments shows that instruction in basic car care

could help save consumers money and that there is a need for instruction on basic car care. The

instructional goal defined by the data is The students will be able to execute preventative and

emergency maintenance on their automobile using the appropriate tools and other supplies, as

needed. With this goal in mind, the ICMs designed a course on Basic Car Care (Appendix D).

There will be four units in the course: “Your Car Manual, Your Friend!”, “Preventative Car

Care”, “Emergency Car Maintenance”, and “Follow-up Car Care”. Each unit will have one

problem-solving goal. After outlining the course units (Appendix C), the ICMs chose to design a

lesson from the Emergency Car Maintenance unit. Three lessons had been identified for the

Emergency Car Maintenance unit: “Radiator Leak”, “The Mechanics of Changing a Tire”, and

“Low Oil Engine Light”. Each lesson will include an objective for what the student will be able

to do after the lesson has been completed. The ICMs decided to design a lesson on “The

Mechanics of Changing a Tire”.




                                                                                                  11
                          Lesson Design (Micro-Instructional Design)



       The ICMs designed and developed a lesson on “The Mechanics of Changing a Tire”.

The complete design of the lesson can be seen in the Instructional Strategy Planning Sheet in

Appendix E. The objective of the lesson was The students will be able to demonstrate the

process of changing a flat tire using the spare “doughnut”, jack, and tire iron equipped in their

car. The ICMs also included an attitudinal objective; The students will value the ability to

change a tire. Pre-instructional activities included ice breaking conversations by sharing road

side emergency horror stories and an instructional pre-test (Appendix F). The instructors also

checked that all students were physically able to participate in the lesson. The ICMs then

showed a video that went through the steps in changing a tire, pausing after each step for

clarification and questions. The learners were given an opportunity to demonstrate what they

learned during the lesson by participating in a scavenger hunt to locate the tools needed to

change a tire. They were then given the opportunity to change a tire using the hand-out that went

with the instructional video (Appendix G) and their owner’s manual. The students were then

given a post-test (Appendix F) to assess their knowledge. The students were encouraged to be

confident in their abilities and to stay calm in an emergency situation.




                                                                                                  12
                                   Formative Evaluation Plan



        The formative evaluation plan included all four levels of review: expert (Russ Marlowe,

an experienced expert on changing a tire for the last 30 years), one-to-one, small group

evaluation, and field trial evaluations. The formative evaluation plan (Appendix H) contained

details of who would be evaluated, what would be evaluated, when the evaluation would take

place, and how the evaluation would be conducted. The expert’s evaluation form (Appendix I)

consisted of 6 questions with an open-ended comment section, and the participants’ evaluation

form consisted of pre and post tests (Appendix F) with an open-ended comment section included

only in the post test.



                                      Formative Evaluation



         The subject matter expert review was implemented before the instruction. After

thoroughly reviewing the materials and lesson plans for changing a tire, the SME finished the

expert review form (Appendix I). Out of 6 items, the SME marked 4 items “Strongly agree,” and

“Agree” for two remaining items. Lesson design, pace and length of the content, and difficulty

level of the lesson received the most positive reviews from the SME, however, he felt that the

content’s clarity and overall organization needed to be improved.

         The small-group field test was conducted on Monday, July 6, 2009. Three participants

gathered and parked their cars side-by-side at the North Campus Parking Deck on the UGA

campus. After instructors went over the prior knowledge and skills needed to participate, the

instructors and participants shared experiences related to the topic. This activity was included to




                                                                                                 13
foster a friendly atmosphere and to alleviate some tensions before the instruction. Prior to the

content presentation the participants were given a pre-test, which was developed to determine if

the lesson was effective. At this stage, participants did not seem confident of the knowledge

needed for the instruction. As the next step, the instructors played the pre-recorded tire changing

instructional video for the students. There were pauses at the end of each section to request

feedback and questions from the learners. They concentrated on the video with occasional nods,

as a sign of their understanding. After watching the video, an activity called “Owner’s

manual/Tools Scavenger Hunt” was conducted to engage and motivate the learners. Participants

finished their search within 5 minutes, and then one student demonstrated changing her tire with

the manual, hand-out and the tools she found during the previous activity. She successfully

changed her tire with occasional assistance from the instructors and SME, such as suggestions

for loosening tightened lug nuts.

         The average score of the pre-test was 6.3 out of 10 (63%), and the average score of post-

test, which was done after the instruction, went up to 10 (100%) (Appendix F). Participants

showed confidence in their knowledge and skills, not only in their post-test, but also during the

demonstration of changing a tire. These results indicate that the field test and overall

instructional goal was achieved.




                                                                                                   14
       The Instructors Causing Mayhem learned a lot during the development of this project. It

was interesting to see the instructional design model that we have studied during the semester

come alive in an actual scenario. Along the way we discovered ways that we could go back and

improve the design, development, and implementation of the project. Given the timeframe, it

was difficult to acquire as much supporting statistical data for the instructional goal as was

desired by the design team. Team ICM might also have used differently worded questions and

additional questions of the Needs Assessment Survey – not to lead the conclusion toward

instruction but rather to eliminate any possible ambiguity. During the field test the design team

realized that pregnancy should be added to the list of restrictions for changing a tire. The

instructional video that was used for the lesson would need to be edited for content and clarity.

During the development of the project the instructional goal was reworded as were some of the

unit and lesson titles. Additionally, new entry skills were identified. The Instructional

Curriculum Maps would need to be modified to reflect these changes.




                                                                                                    15
Appendix A

Survey for Needs Assessment

1. Are you male or female?

2. In which age group do you fit?
(Please circle or write it here _______ )
20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 40-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71+

3. Do you have your own car?

4. Is your owner's manual in your car and could you locate it?

5. Do you know how to check your oil?

6. Do you regularly check your tire pressure?

7. Have you ever changed a tire?

8. Are you interested in learning how to change a tire?

9. Have you had an emergency situation happen with your car in the last 5 years?

10. Did you take care of the emergency situation yourself? Please briefly tell what you did.
(change the tire, fill with water, retrieved gas, etc)

11. Have you had to call a tow truck or someone to change your tire for you? (this would include
a nice person stopping to help you)

12. If I have questions about some of your answers, may I email you for clarification?

Email address: _____________________________________




                                                                                               16
Appendix B

                             Survey results for Needs Assessment

1. Are you male or female?



                                                     Male: 6 Female: 13

                                                     (31.6 %) (68.4 %)




2. In which age group do you fit?

                                                     20-25: 5 (26.3 %)

                                                     26-30: 6 (31.5 %)

                                                     31-35: 4 (21.0 %)

                                                     36-40: 1 ( 5.3 %)

                                                     41-45: 1 ( 5.3 %)

                                                     46-50:1 ( 5.3 %)

                                                     51-55:1 ( 5.3 %)


3. Do you have your own car? Yes: 19 (100 %)



4. Is your owner's manual in your car and could you locate it? Yes: 19 (100 %)




                                                                                 17
5. Do you know how to check your oil?



                                                Yes: 16   No: 3

                                                (84.2 %) (15.8 %)




6. Do you regularly check your tire pressure?



                                                Yes: 6 (31.6 %)



                                                Yes, but not personally: 3 (15.8 %)



                                                No: 10 (52.6 %)




7. Have you ever changed a tire?



                                                Yes: 12   No: 7

                                                (63.2 %) (36.8 %)




                                                                                      18
8. Are you interested in learning how to change a tire?



                                                     Yes: 4 (21.1 %)



                                                     I know it: 2 (10.5 %)



                                                     I have seen it: 1 (5.2 %)



                                                     No: 12 (63.2 %)


9. Have you had an emergency situation happen with your car in the last five years?



                                                     Yes: 13    No: 6

                                                     (68.4 %) (31.6 %)




10. Did you take care of the emergency situation yourself?



                                                     Yes: 6    No: 7

                                                     (46.2 %) (53.8 %)




                                                                                      19
Please briefly tell what you did. (change the tire, fill with water, retrieved gas, etc)

         A gas pan erupted

         No power steering

         Fan broke

         Dead battery

         Change tire

         Engine over heat due to leaking radiator

         Broken timing belt

         I dug the car out of snow myself..



11. Have you had to call a tow truck or someone in emergency situation?



                                                         Yes: 10    No: 9

                                                         (52.6 %) (47.4 %)




12. If I have questions about some of your answers, may I email you for clarification?



                                                         Yes: 12    No: 7

                                                         (63.2 %) (36.8 %)




                                                                                           20
Appendix C


                                         Basic Car Care
       The students will be able to perform preventative, emergency, and follow-up
maintenance with the help of their user manuals.

Your Car Manual, Your Friend!
      The student will be able to demonstrate how to use the car manual as a resource for car
      maintenance.

Preventative Car Care
      The student will be able to execute preventative maintenance measures.

Emergency Car Maintenance
     The student will be able to execute emergency maintenance procedures.

              Radiator Leak
                      Students will be able to utilize tools to temporarily correct a leaking
                      radiator.
              Flat Tire
                      Students will be able to demonstrate the process of changing a flat tire
                      using the spare “doughnut”, jack, and tire iron equipped in their car.
              Low Oil Engine Light
                      Students will be able to demonstrate the procedures for locating oil stick,
                      reading the oil stick, and correcting the problem of too little oil.

Follow-up Car Care
      The student will be able to demonstrate basic follow-up car care procedures.

Supporting Objectives
      Attitudinal Objective 1: Students will choose to become more knowledgeable of basic car
      maintenance.
      Verbal Objective 2: Students will be able to list the basic problems that could occur in a
      car.

Entry Behaviors
      Students must be able to drive a car legally.
      Students must be able to perform the psychomotor skills necessary for performing the
      tasks.




                                                                                                21
Appendix D




             22
23
Appendix E

Instructional Strategy Planning Sheet

Lesson Title- The Mechanics of Changing a Tire

Lesson Objective-The students will be able to demonstrate the process of changing a flat tire

using the spare “doughnut”, jack, and tire iron equipped in their car.

Ancillary Attitudinal Objective- The students will value the ability to change a tire.

Pre-instructional Activities- The instructor will discuss the benefits of being able to change a tire

and will share anecdotal stories and statistics to demonstrate the value of being able to change a

tire. The instructor will explain to the students that they will learn the procedures and skills

needed to change a tire through informative video and hands-on tasks. The instructor will then

go over the prior knowledge and skills needed to participate in the lesson by asking the students

the following:

       Are you able to lift 30 pounds?

       Do you have back or shoulder restrictions?

       Can you locate your owner’s manual?

       Is your owner’s manual written in a language you can read?

       Can you identify the necessary tools for road side repairs?

       Can you identify and locate the parts of your car?

The instructor will provide students with the opportunity to briefly share a personal story about

themselves, or someone they know who has had a flat tire, for the purpose of relating the lesson

to the learners’ personal experiences. The learner will bring their owner’s manual to the lesson.

They will locate the tire changing information in the manual to use as a resource for changing a

tire.



                                                                                                   24
Content Presentation- We will present Tire Changing Instructional video to the students. Since

the class is small, have learners gather around the computer screen as the video is presented.

Pause at the end of each section to request feedback and questions from the learners. Make sure

to emphasize that each step presented in the instructions can be learned and mastered if taken in

small steps to foster an attitudinal goal: a positive perception of their ability to change a tire.

Distribute the hand out. Explain that the handout follows the steps in the video and can be kept

as a reference for instruction.



Learner Participation- The learners will participate in a scavenger hunt to retrieve the tools

needed to change a tire from their car. The learners will be given the opportunity to change a tire

using the instructional hand out and will have guided assistance by the SME in attendance.



Media Choices- The main part of instruction will be the video that was created by Denise

Wilson. We chose to use a video because the concepts could be shown as they were explained as

well as paused and discussed. The instructional hand out is based on the segment descriptions

and gives a step by step guide that the students can take with them. The video will be presented

on a laptop computer for ease of transporting the video to the practice site. The laptop will allow

us to share the video as well as stopping for questions and feedback. The automobile will be

necessary for the actual practice of the skills learned in the video. The students will use the tools

that are required to change a tire on the automobile to demonstrate that they can efficiently

change a tire.




                                                                                                      25
Assessment- The students will be observed by the SME and instructors as they practice changing

the tire. Their proficiency will be demonstrated by how often they need guidance. The students

will continue until they successfully change a tire. The students will be assessed on their

knowledge and understanding by a multiple choice test on which they can use the handout

provided while they complete the test.



Follow Through- The instructors will discuss road hazards, go over pre-tests, and encourage

students to keep the confidence that they had during the lesson. The students will be asked

questions to review what was learned.




                                                                                              26
Appendix F


                               Tire Safety Quiz
Test your knowledge.

1. How often should you measure your tires' air pressure?


   a. Once a year.
   b. Every 10,000 miles.
   c. At least once a month.

2. How often should you rotate your tires?


   a. Every 5,000 to 10,000 miles.
   b. Twice a year.
   c. Approximately every 20,000 miles.

3. Does temperature change affect tire pressure?


   a. No
   b. Yes

4. When are worn tires most likely to hydroplane?


   a. Dry conditions
   b. Wet conditions.
   c. When roads are under construction.

5. You can check to see if your tires are bald by using what common item?

   a. A quarter.
   b. A tire pressure gauge.
   c. A credit card.




                                                                            27
6. A sensor in the Tire Pressure Monitoring System check tire pressure, and the
warning light goes on when a tire is ( _____) percent or more below the
appropriate tire pressure.

   a. 75 percent.
   b. 35 percent.
   c. 25 percent.



7. Please check () the things you will need to change your tire.

   Car manual           Spare tire            Jack            Booster cable




                                             Electronic
    Tire tool          Hand pump                                   Gloves
                                            digital caliper




                                                                                  28
8. The followings are randomly ordered parts of the process of change a tire. Please
express the process using A to H.

(____ - ____ -____ -____ -____ -____ -____ -____ )

       A. Get out your equipment from your trunk.

        B. Drive to where the ground is level and firm and you can safely pull several
feet off the side of the road.

       C. Raise the car enough to get the flat off and accommodate the spare tire.

        D. Completely remove the lug nuts and store in a safe place, and then remove
the flat.

       E. Lower the car and re-tighten the lug nuts.

       F. Put the spare tire on with the air valve facing out and screw on the lug nuts,
         again alternating until you’ve finished the wheel.

       G. Take off the hubcap and loosen lug nuts before jacking up the car.

       H. Put your tools, hubcap and the flat in your trunk.




                                                                                           29
Answers to test your knowledge: Tire Safety Quiz

1. C. - At least once a month
You should measure your tire pressure at least once a month all year round using a
good quality tire gauge. When you check the air pressure, make sure the tires are cool
  meaning they are not hot from driving.

2. A.

Your tires wear at different rates - rotation can extend their useful life. A general
guideline for tire rotation is approximately every 5,000 to 10,000 miles, but check
your owner’s manual for the recommended interval.

3. B.
Changes in air temperature cause changes in tire pressure. It is very important to
measure your tire pressure at least once a month, year-round.

4. B.
Wet Conditions. Tread grooves are designed to push water out from under the tread.
If tires are worn, they are more likely to hydroplane.

5. A.
You can see that tire tread can be checked by using a quarter. If you can see the top
of Washington’s head, then you don’t have enough tread.




6. C.
Twenty-five per cent.

7. Car manual, Spare tire, Jack, Tire tool, Gloves

8. B-A-G-C-D-F-E-H




                                                                                        30
                        Test scores

Participants       Pre-test (10)                    Post-test (10)

     1               4.0 (40%)                       10 (100%)

     2               6.5 (65%)                       10 (100%)

     3               8.5 (85%)                       10 (100%)

   Total             6.3 (63%)                       10 (100%)

Comments       -   Watching a video before performing was really great.
                   It helped my understanding and I could expect actual
                   situation.
               -   It was very encouraging.
               -   Changing a tire by myself was a great experience. I
                   gained a confidence.
               -   Next time, please bring a tire pressure gauge, so we
                   can see how to check pressure.




                                                                          31
Appendix G


Your Guide to Changing a Flat Tire




1. Read your owner's manual




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________




                                                                            32
2. Locate your spare tire and tools




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



3. Secure your vehicle




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________




                                                                            33
4. Loosen the lug nuts




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________




5. Jack the car up




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



                                                                            34
6. Remove the lug nuts and tire




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



7. Install the new tire




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________




                                                                            35
8. Replace the lug nuts and tighten by hand




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



9. Lower the jack




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________




                                                                            36
10. Tighten the lug nuts with the wrench




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________


11. Load tools and flat tire into vehicle




Notes

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________




                                                                            37
Appendix H

Formative Evaluation Plan

        Who                    What                      When                        How
    Expert Review      Russ participated in     Russ was involved in                After the
We spoke with Russ the development of                 the content             presentation, Russ
     Marlowe, an          the content and         development and             will be interviewed
 experienced expert     learning materials      presentation from the       and asked to fill out a
 on changing a tire.       that were used           beginning of the          checklist about the
   He was willing to    during the lesson.      project to ensure the           instruction and
   demonstrate and                                    accuracy of             content. Additional
  help facilitate the                           instruction. After the          contact may be
  instruction for our                            presentation, he will       needed between the
   project. He has                              be interviewed about        instructional designer
  been an expert at                              the effectiveness of       and the expert based
changing tires for the                             the presentation.          on the inclusion of
    last 30 years.                                                             the suggestions
                                                                                     posed.
     One-to-one          Three participants           After we have         After the lesson, the
      Evaluation           will be asked to       received feedback         participants selected
     The survey        evaluate the learning    from our SME, Russ,           will meet with the
 participants will be    activities based on          and made any          designers to discuss
invited to participate           clarity,              changes he                  the clarity,
in the lesson. They thoroughness, and               suggests, we will        thoroughness, and
  vary in ages and        practicality. The       present the lesson          practicality of the
 level of confidence     participants will be   for the learners. The          instruction. The
 with basic car care. given a pre and post-      learners will fill out a    participants will be
                        instructional form to   pre-assessment prior              urged to be
                            evaluate their         to the instruction.      completely honest in
                          knowledge of the       The participants will          their feedback.
                        content presented.         also practice their
                          They will also be     learning by changing
                       given the opportunity         a tire during the
                       to change a tire. The     learner participation
                          post-instructional          portion of the
                            form will have        lesson. Then they
                           additional open        will be asked to fill
                         ended questions to             out a post-
                           allow for lesson       assessment before
                               feedback.         meeting face to face
                                                  with the designers.




                                                                                                38
        Who                      What                  When                     How
      Small-group           The small group of      After changes       The small group will
       Evaluation           three to five of the  suggested by the      complete the lesson
 A small group of the       participants will be      one-to-one           as designed and
 survey participants       brought together to     evaluations, the          complete the
  will go through the        participate in the     small group of           assessments
   lesson with the        lesson. Materials will   participants will     involved related to
instructors and SME,       be presented by the complete the lesson        the Tire Changing
         Russ.            instructors as well as using the updated        lesson objective.
                              the SME. The           design. The          The assessments
                           purpose of this step    outcome of this            will provide
                           will be to determine experience will allow      quantitative and
                                 the clarity,    for more data to be    qualitative data. The
                            thoroughness, and     compiled giving a     instructors and SME
                             practicality of the     more reliable      will primarily observe
                                instruction.       lesson. Lesson          as well as giving
                                                    revision will be       assistance when
                                                      conducted                 needed.
                                                      afterwards.
       Field Trial        Participants will meet The field test will         The field test
      The survey              at an accessible     occur after all       evaluation will take
  participants will be     location where they     revisions and        place in an authentic
 invited to participate   can work on their car changes previously           environment.
 in the lesson. They       in the shade. They discussed and found           Participants will
   vary in ages and           will complete the  have been made.               complete
  level of confidence       lesson and provide                          assessments that will
  with basic car care.    information regarding                          be incorporated into
 They will go through        any changes and                              the lessons. After
  the lesson with the      provisions that need                              the lesson is
instructors and SME,      to be made. This will                             completed, the
         Russ.                 occur after the                              participants will
                             revisions from the                          complete and post-
                          small group and prior                          assessment to gain
                              evaluations are                           valuable information
                                    made.                                 for evaluation and
                                                                        future modifications.




                                                                                           39
Appendix I

                                      Expert Review Form




Reviewer: __Russ Marlowe___

Please circle your rating and write comments on each aspect of the instructional manual
and the lesson design of “How to changing a tire.”

1 represents the lowest and most negative impression on the scale. 3 represents and
adequate impression, and 5 represents the highest and most positive impression. Choose
N/A if the item is not appropriate or not applicable for this instructional manual.

                                                      Not        Strongly       Strongly
                                                    Applicable   Disagree         Agree
 1. The content provides learners with a clear        N/A        1     2    3       5
  knowledge of the program objectives.

 2. The instructional interactions in the lesson      N/A        1     2    3   4   
  design are appropriate for the objectives.

 3. The pace of content is appropriate for the        N/A        1     2    3   4   
  objectives.

 4. The tutorial length is appropriate for the        N/A        1     2    3   4   
  objectives.

 5. The difficulty level of this content is           N/A        1     2    3   4   
  appropriate for the objectives.

 6. The content is well organized.                    N/A        1     2    3       5

Comments:




                                                                                           40

				
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